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History and Reminiscences 

by Edward Arpee 

Published by the Rotary Club of 

Lake Forest 


Copyright © 1964, Edward Arpee, Lake Forest, Illinois 

Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 64-16507 

Designed, printed and bound at The Lakeside Press 

R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company 

Chicago, Illinois, and Crawfordsville, Indiana 


My lines have fallen in pleasant places; 
Yea, I have a goodly heritage. 

Psalm 1 6:6 


Author's Preface xi 

Chronology xiii 


I The Natural Setting —1850 3 

Geology — Indians — Missionaries —The Illinois - Michigan 

II The Pioneers 1 832-1 857 15 

Irish Immigrants— New England Emigrants— The Railroad 

III The Lake Forest Association 1 856-1 861 29 

Second Presbyterian Church, Chicago— Land is purchased— 
The Original design— The plat— Lind University chartered 
—City of Lake Forest chartered 

IV Lake Forest Academy 1 858-1 863 41 

The Lake Forest Hotel-Prof. S. F. Miller-The first Acad- 
emy building— Early classes— Passenger pigeons— Picnic— 
The Young Ladies' Seminary— Col. Elmer Ellsworth- 

V Early Homes and Presbyterian 

Church 1 859-1 862 52 

Homes of Dr. Quinlan, Harvey L. House, Hugh Samuels, 
F. N. Pratt, Gilbert Rossiter, Rev. Baxter Dickinson, D. J. 
Lake, Sylvester Lind, D. R. Holt, Harvey Thompson, Capt. 
James Stokes— Presbyterian Church is organized— Members 
—The Church building— Business houses— Cemetery— Pub- 
lic School— First election— Improvements 



Chapter Page 

VI Civil War and Reconstruction 1 860-1 870 66 

Underground Railroad— The Republican Convention— City 
problems during the war— Service records— Lind University 
changed to Lake Forest University— New houses after the 
war— City Council problems— New public school on Noble 
Avenue— First newspaper— Business houses— Ferry Hall is 
established— City Charter amended 

VII Ordeals by Fire 1870-1880 85 

The New Hotel— Chicago fire— Mrs. David Fales account, 
William Bross account, George Manierre account— Lake 
Forest glorified— New residents— New homes— St. Mary's 
Church erected— Sports— Lake Forest College begins— The 
first College building burns— College Hall erected— Over- 
seas student at L.F.A.— President Rutherford B. Hayes 
visits Lake Forest— The original Academy building burns 

VIII College Town 1880-1890 105 

Rural atmosphere— The Northwestern Railroad— Youth 
activities— College Commencement— The Farwells— Argu- 
ments over the Cemetery— Blue laws— City Seal— Private 
Water supplies— Fire in business district— Wedding at 
"Fairlawn"— Art Institute Club— Homes on the bluff- 
Rev. J. G. K. McClure— The new Presbyterian Church 
building— Samuel Dent is Mr. Lake Forest— Haymarket riot 
—Fort Sheridan— Football and baseball— Famous graduates 
—West Side School— Grand Army of the Republic 

IX Budding Culture 1890-1900 127 

Local businesses— Northwestern double tracks— Hard sur- 
face roads— New College buildings— New Academy build- 
ings—The Columbian Exposition— A. B. Dick— Pullman 
Car strike— The Temperance march 

X Utilities 1 895-1900 140 

North Shore Electric— Telephones— Business men— Sand 
and gravel problem— Deerpath Inn— Onwentsia Club is 
organized —Polo— Unusual homes — Electricity — Church 
life— Debuts— Melancholy evening— Alice Home Hospital 
—City Hall is built— Public Library 



Chapter Page 

XI The Summer Residents 1900-1910 155 

Horse Show— Polo— Onwentsia Hunt Club— Near tragedy 
on Lake Michigan— Scarlet fever— New railroad station— 
The automobile— Winter Club is organized— Town char- 
acters—Episcopal Church is organized— The Old Hotel is 
moved— Barat College— The Gorton School— Water Com- 
pany is formed— The Young Men's Club— The Horticul- 
tural Society— New College buildings— The First National 
Bank— Storm 

XII Cosmopolitanism 1908-1916 171 

Lake Forest day— Clifford Barnes— Wilfred T. Grenf ell- 
Beach controversy-Great Lakes N.T.C.-Y.W.C.A.-Billy 
Sunday— Old Elm is organized— Market Square— Automo- 
biles— Streets renamed— Conservation— Birds— The golden 
era of Home building 

XIII War and Normalcy 1917-1919 191 

Fort Sheridan— Great Lakes— Parties and rallies— Market 
Square is dedicated— The American Legion is organized- 
Mayor Henry A. Rumsey— Prof. John J. Halsey— James 

XIV Prohibition 1919-1929 199 

Water controversy— J. O. Armour— Police problems— Booze 
robberies— Bix Beiderbeck— Zoning ordinance— Shoreacres 
Club— Knollwood Club— The Four Horsemen— Deerpath 
Golf Club— The Prince of Wales visit— The Prince Gus- 
tavus Adolphus visit— Lake Forest University dissolved— 
Largest annexation to City— Attempts to unify Lake Forest 
—Aviation Golf Club 

XV The New Deal 1930-1941 216 

Depression and Capone— Mitchell robbery— First National 
Bank— New Library— Post Office building— The Akron 
crash— Century of Progress— Dr. George Roberts and John 
E. Baggett— The Lake Forest High School— The new Lake 
Forest Hospital 

XVI World War II 1941-1945 230 

A few war records: General W. H. Arnold, Capt. T. G. 
Cassady, U.S.N., Admiral R. L. Conolly, Maj. General 



Chapter Page 

XVI World War II— continued 

Charles C. Haffner, Jr., Corp. R. T. Isham, Vice Admiral 
F. P. Old, Col. J. F. R. Seitz, Lt. Colonel M. C. Strenger, 
Comdr. R. G. Owsley-O. C. D.-Navy Waffle Parties- 
Major Cyrus E. Manierre, Lieut. W. R. Manierre 

XVII Youth Programs 1946-1961 244 

Community Center— Academy fire— Deerpath School- 
Sheridan School— Everett School 

XVIII From Castle to Ranch House 1 946-1 961 254 

Education the central theme of the century— Famous men 
—Peculiar stories— Broadened democracy— Zoning ordi- 
nance—Architects Cerny, Coburn, Hill, Lackner— McCor- 
mick Park— Centennials: Academy, the Presbyterian 
Church and the City of Lake Forest 

Miscellany 267 

1 . Mayors of Lake Forest, 269 

2. Lake Forest Population, 270 

3. Lake Forest Annexations, 271 

4. Principals and Headmasters of Lake Forest 

Academy, 271 

5. Principals of Ferry Hall, 272 

6. Presidents of Lake Forest College, 272 

7. Pastors of St. Patrick's Church, 273 

8. Clergy Stationed at St. Mary's Church, 273 

9. Pastors of the First Presbyterian Church, 274 

10. Rectors of the Church of the Holy Spirit, 274 

1 1 . Lake Forest Architects, 274 

Bibliography 275 

Index 279 


The present becomes the past before we know it. The past be- 
comes history. It is important to write down the facts in some read- 
able form before people pass on, and before many documents and 
newspapers, yellow with age and ready to fall apart, are gone for- 
ever and forgotten. The written records of a period are far more 
trustworthy than the memory of people years after the event. In 
view of these circumstances, it is important to preserve all that is 
available about our fair city, in answer to the simple question— 
what happened? 

But the answers are not always simple. One is often faced with 
conflicting reports, and a choice has to be made. Many of the 
records are not readable; some are undated and often interesting 
but unusable. It is fortunate that there are a few persons still 
living who remember the pioneers of Lake Forest, what they were 
like, what their ideas were, and how they lived. I have told every- 
one everywhere what I was doing and received much information, 
some of which could not be used. Being a community of varying 
ideas, the balance or the omissions of this book are natural subjects 
of disagreements. Also with so many capable writers in our midst 
many types of treatment are possible. For the readers who disagree 
with the materials in this book or wish to add to them, blank sheets 
are provided at the end of the volume for private corrections or 

Books, newspapers, magazines, legal documents and certificates 
have been consulted. But two basic principles have guided the 
writing of this book. The advice of Dr. F. B. Meyer of London 
has been followed— to go among all kinds of people and listen, then 
write what they said, for them to read. The effort has been made 
to tell the truth without subterfuge and with no axe to grind. Lake 
Forest from beginning to end has been a community effort, de- 
manding a balanced coverage. 


author's preface 

The book is written for those who love Lake Forest and are 
proud of its past. It is hoped that an increased affection will result 
from an increase of information. 

Many have helped in the writing of this book. Mrs. William 
Borland furnished historic materials about several Country Clubs 
of the Lake Forest area, and several stories; former Mayor Kent 
Chandler read the manuscript and made corrections and additions 
from the storehouse of information at his command going back 
even beyond the one hundred years; William B. Douglas read the 
manuscript and made several suggestions for improvement. Miss 
Ellen Holt wrote extended reminiscences of the i88o's onward, at 
my request, which I have used freely; likewise Johnathan Jackson, 
who wrote an account of his Lake Forest experiences during the 
1890^ from the school boy's point of view which were interesting 
and useful; L. Ellsworth Laflin, Jr., read the manuscript twice, and 
furnished several interesting sidelights; my colleague Richard W. 
Montgomery made several suggestions for improvements; Jean 
Rumsey loaned me her collection of interesting materials involving 
the period of her father and grandfather; Miss Nell Steele directed 
me to excellent materials about the pioneers in this entire area. 

Among the most valuable interviews have been those with. Miss 
Mary Birmingham, Mrs. Harriet Matthews Caldwell, Mrs. Carter 
Fitz-Hugh, Mrs. Henry Rhode, Mrs. H. T. Strenger, and Mrs. 
Cornelius M. Trowbridge. These have helped to round out de- 
scriptions of people and events. 

Most of all I am indebted to the Rotary Club of Lake Forest for 
publishing this volume as a public service. 

Edward Arpee 
Lake Forest, Illinois 

February 21, 1961 



1650 Father Allouez establishes a Jesuit mission in the area of 

Lake County. 
1669 Father Jacques Marquette, S.J., succeeds Father Allouez. 
1673 Marquette and Joliet explore the Mississippi. 
1680 Chicaougou is first mentioned by Hennepin. 
1769 Pottawatamies conquer the Illinois at Starved Rock and 

dominate Northern Illinois. 

1 8 18 Illinois is admitted to the union. 

1833 Green Bay Military Road appears as a blazed trail. 

1836 Pottawatamie Indians leave for Kansas. 

1 844 St. Michael's, first Catholic Church is erected in the Lake 

Forest area. 
1848 The Illinois-Michigan Canal is finished. 
1853 St. Patrick's, Catholic Church, is erected in the Lake 

Forest area. 

1855 The first railroad in Lake County, the present 

Northwestern Railroad, is finished. 

1856 The Lake Forest Association is organized. 

1857 Lake Forest is platted. 

1857 Lind University is chartered. 

1858 Lake Forest Academy is opened. 

1859 The First Presbyterian Church is organized. 

1859 The Medical Department of Lind University begins. 

1859 The first business house in Lake Forest is erected. 

i860 A. Lincoln speaks in Waukegan. He is elected President 

in November. 
1 86 1 The City of Lake Forest is chartered on February 2 1 . 
1 86 1 Civil War begins on April 12. 



1865 The title Lind University is changed to Lake Forest 

1869 Ferry Hall is opened. 

1 87 1 Chicago fire consumes the heart of the city. 

1872 Chicago-Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad is built through 

the Lake Forest area. 

1875 St. Mary's Catholic church, a frame building, is erected. 

1876 Lake Forest College is begun. 

1877 Original College building is burned. 

1 878 College Hall on the present College campus is finished. 

1879 Original Academy building is burned. 

1880 The first College commencement is held. 

1880 North Hall is built for the Academy on the College 

1887 Rush Medical College is affiliated with Lake Forest 


1887 Present building of the Presbyterian Church is dedicated. 

1888 Alcott School is founded. 

1890 A private water company is organized. 
1 893 Chicago World's Fair. 

1 893 New Academy Campus is dedicated just south of the 

college campus. 

1894 The Gorton School is erected. 

1895 Telephone service is installed. 

1896 The Lake Forester is first published. 
1896 Electricity is introduced. 

1896 Onwentsia Club is organized. 

1897 North Shore Electric line is built through Lake Forest. 

1898 The Church of the Holy Spirit (Episcopal) is organized. 
1898 Alice Home Hospital is opened. 

1898 The City Hall is finished. 

1900 The first automobile in Lake Forest creates a furor. 

1902 Present Church of the Holy Spirit is erected. 

1902 The Winter Club is organized. 

1904 Barat College is moved from Chicago to Lake Forest. 

1904 Great Lakes Naval Training Center is authorized. 

1905 Young Men's Club is organized. 

1907 First National Bank of Lake Forest is opened. 

1908 The first Lake Forest Day is held on the college campus. 



J. Odgen Armour builds Mellody Farms. 
191 3 The first professional fire department is organized in Lake 

1 92 1 The City of Lake Forest buys the water company. 

1 92 1 The Lake Forest American Legion Post 264 is chartered. 

1 922 Shoreacres Golf Club is opened. 

1 923 First zoning ordinance is passed. 

1924 Knollwood Golf Club is opened. 

1924 The Prince of Wales (Edward VIII) visits Lake Forest. 

1925 The Academy and Ferry Hall are legally separated from 

Lake Forest University. 

1926 Crown Prince Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden visits Lake 

1926 The Skokie (Electric) Line is finished in Lake Forest. 
1 93 1 Skokie Highway (Route 41) is completed through Lake 

1 93 1 Lake Forest Public Library is erected on Deer Path. 
1 933 The first government owned Post Office building is erected 

in Lake Forest. 
1933 Chicago Century of Progress opens. 
1935 Lake Forest High School is built. 
1942 The present Lake Forest Hospital is dedicated. 

1 947 Lake Forest Academy moves to Mellody Farms. 

1 948 The Community Center idea is defeated at the polls. 
1955 The Deer Path School is dedicated. 

1957 The Academy, College, and Ferry Hall celebrate the 1857 

Lind University charter. 
1959 The First Presbyterian Church celebrates its centennial. 
i960 The Zoning Ordinance of 1923 is amended. 
1 96 1 The City of Lake Forest celebrates its centennial. 


History and Reminiscences 



The five outstanding features of early Lake Forest were Lake 
Michigan, its bluff, the big ravines, the ponds, and the stands of 
oak and pine. These provided a picturesque and romantic setting 
for the city that would develop along the shore. 

Geologists agree that Lake Michigan was essentially caused by 
glaciers during one or more of the glacial periods. It is called an 
ice-eroded basin, and derived from the earlier "Lake Chicago." 
Other factors, however, had been at work over a long period of 
geologic time. Volcanic action had caused warping and tilting, 
creating ridges and valleys, especially in the area of Lake Forest. 

Lake Michigan, 365 miles long, has two basins, an upper and 
a lower. The deepest bottom of the Lake is in the northern basin, 
southeast of Sturgeon Bay, the depth being 870 feet, or 290 feet 
below sea level, unusual for an inland lake. The southern basin 
reaches its maximum depth opposite Racine, Wisconsin, at 582 
feet. The greatest depth east of Lake Forest is in the center of the 
Lake, 252 feet. The lake bottom is said to be smooth and rounded 
and gradual, with few irregularities. The Racine reef is one of the 
few in the lake, a mile from shore and ten feet below the surface. 

The shore line, too, is a smooth curve, free from bays and prom- 
ontories. The strongest winds come from the north-east developing 
great velocity and forming waves as high as 20 feet; these bounce 


back from the western shores of the lake and move back in a west 
to east direction. The water currents generally head toward the 
main outlet north and eastward. An exception, however, is noted 
in the beginning of a current in the Waukegan area. This current 
follows the shore line southward around the southern bend of the 
lake before it continues in the general pattern northward. At Lake 
Forest there is a definite undertow, in which a strong current at 
the bottom of the lake is away from the shore eastward. This has 
caused several tragedies. 

The Lake Forest shore line has been termed a "cobble beach," 
poorly suited for bathing. In recent years human endeavor has 
made several suitable beaches along the lake front. Periodically, 
about every ten years the lake rises, then falls. It takes a heavy toll 
of the banks when the lake is high. During the first forty years 
of the City of Lake Forest it is estimated that i oo feet of the bluff 
were undermined and absorbed in the lake bottom. Trees and 
breakwaters have provided a deterrent in recent years. 

One of the most severe erosions involved the village of St. Johns, 
just south of Fort Sheridan. It was laid out in June 1847 and was 
an active port in the 1850^ with a good pier, which was length- 
ened and improved in 1854. The village contained a two-story 
building 40 by 50 feet, in which hubs, whiffletrees, various kinds 
of turning, and all kinds of scales were manufactured. In 1876 it 
was abandoned. Erosion was so drastic that even the westernmost 
house in the area of the village is now under Lake Michigan. 

Rock bottom in Lake Forest, composed of limestone, is said to 
be 160 feet from the surface. The next strata upward consists of 
glacial drift, then blue clay, then yellow clay, then one to three 
feet of surface soil. Many boulders are found on and near the sur- 
face. The area of Green Bay Road is about 650 feet above sea level. 
Few citizens are aware that they are living on the edge of a conti- 
nental divide. The area of the Des Plaines River carries the waters 
just west of Lake Forest into the Mississippi basin and on to the 
Gulf of Mexico, while water in the area east of Green Bay Road 
is eventually drained into Lake Michigan, and down the St. Law- 
rence into the Atlantic Ocean. Another significant feature is that 
Lake Forest is the junction point of the forest and the great prairie. 
Lake Forest is also on one of the main routes of birds which mi- 
grate between Canada and South America. 

The Natural Setting, Until 1 850 

There are several theories concerning the formation of the ra- 
vines. If the simplest explanation is accepted, they are seen to be 
the result of slope of the surface from the area of Green Bay Road 
to the lake and the unusual amount of water originating in rain- 
fall, artesian wells, and ponds seeking their way to the lake. The 
periodic intensity and duration of the rainfall has carried away the 
surface soil and created even deeper ravines. The meandering of 
these ravines indicates a very ancient geologic phenomenon. 

Several minerals are found in Lake Forest. There is a small 
amount of iron ore which is found in every state in the union. 
Sulphur is found south of 59A and natural gas to the north of it. 

The last Indian inhabitants of Lake County, in which Lake 
Forest is located, were the Forest Pottawatamie. They were of 
Algonquin stock and may not have occupied this area more than 
a hundred years. Pottawatamie means: "We are building a fire." 
Their nearest village was Mettawa, along Indian Creek at the 
present location of Half Day. Essentially hunters, these aborigines 
lived in portable wigwams made of flags or rushes, woven and 
lapped ingeniously. This material was wound around a frame- 
work of poles tied together at the top, permitting a hole at the 
apex so that the smoke could escape. The small fire burned during 
inclement weather as the Indian family gathered close around it, 
sitting on mats made of the same material as the wigwam. When 
no fire was burning, the hole at the top was covered. The beds 
were of buffalo robes and deer skins thrown over the rush mats. 
The door consisted of a simple opening covered with a mat or robe. 

Early settlers continually described the tribe as very warlike. 
They were enemies of the Iroquois and often made successful at- 
tacks on them. Prof. J. J. Halsey of Lake Forest College, the pio- 
neer Lake County historian, quotes an earlier writer who wrote 
that they were "tall, fierce, and haughty. Despising the cultivation 
of the soil as too mean even for their women and children, they 
deemed the captures of the chase the only fit food for a valorous 
people. If they understood something of the principles of the 
Christian religion which were told them, they listened to it as a 
sort of theory which might be well adapted to the white man's 
condition, but was not fitted for them, as they were not fitted for 
it. They enjoyed the wild, roving life of the prairie, and, in com- 
mon with most other native Americans, were vain of their prowess 


and manhood, both in war and in the chase. They did not settle 
down for a great length of time in a given place, but roamed across 
the broad prairies, from one grove or belt of timber to another, 
either in single families or in small bands, packing their few ef- 
fects, their children, and infirm on their little Indian ponies. They 
always travelled in Indian file upon well-beaten trails, connecting, 
by the most direct routes, prominent trading posts. These native 
highways served as guides to our early settlers, who followed them 
with as much confidence as we now do the roads laid out and 
worked by civilized man/' 

When the first white men, traders, and missionaries came to the 
southwestern section of Lake Michigan, they found the Green Bay 
area the focal point of Pottawatamie activity. 

The area of Lake Forest that the Indians frequented is marked 
by a great many of their artifacts: spearpoints and stone knives. 
A number of these have been found recently in the area just south 
of the present Lake Forest Academy. These artifacts are often dis- 
cards, containing a blemish or having been broken by use, but as 
often they are in perfect condition. Another productive area was 
along the lake shore, which has been badly disturbed recently by 
the hauling away of sand and gravel and the periodic erosion 
caused by ice and wave. Some relics were found during" the ex- 
cavations for the home of the Walter Kirks, in 19 13, at Mayflower 
and Illinois Roads, where two ravines meet. Another productive 
source is along the present Green Bay Road where property 
owners have reported occasional finds. A cannonball thought to be 
related to the French and Indian war was also found in this area. 
Seven perfect arrowheads were discovered and preserved at 1230 
North Green Bay Road, when excavations were made for the cel- 
lar of Ragdale, the home of Howard Van Doren Shaw. Other 
families in Lake Forest have preserved collections, but no con- 
clusive study has been made of the total collection because Indian 
tribes occupied the area in such rapid succession and often for 
such short periods that the subject has been an anthropologic 
headache. Besides, confusion has resulted from the similarity of 
relics of different periods. The common factor seems to be that all 
Indian relics fall in the Stone Age without noticeable progress. 
The Pottawatamies did not emerge in Lake County until the end 
of the French and Indian War, in 1763. 

The Natural Setting, Until 1850 

The Mound Builders, a much older race, built on Laurel Ave- 
nue in Highland Park, in Lake Bluff, in North Chicago, and in 
Waukegan, but none have yet been reported in Lake Forest 
proper. These were taller and larger men than the more recent 
Indian tribes in the area. 

The Pottawatamies left many trail-marking trees in Lake 
Forest. These were found in the area of Green Bay Road, but 
several have been preserved east of the tracks along the ravines. 
One of these was a graceful oak in the front yard of the former 
Franklin P. Smith residence at 815 E. Deer Path, which was 
nurtured and cherished even after the tree had died about 1930. 
These trail marking trees were used by the Pottawatamies to indi- 
cate the direction and location of game. Young saplings were bent, 
about four feet from the ground, and pointed in the direction of 
the lake front. The bent part was fastened to the ground and after 
a while became permanently bent. In time the top of the branch 
grew vertically again, making the marker permanent. 

Father Allouez, a Jesuit missionary, is said to have been the 
first white man to cast his eyes on the area of Lake County. He 
is reported to have died, in what became Little Fort (Waukegan), 
in 1652. At this time there seems to have been no knowledge of 
Lake Michigan in Europe. Cornelli's map, published in 1693, * s 
the first to show a full delineation of the Great Lakes. 

In 1673, Jacques Marquette, S.J., the French missionary and 
explorer, with his companion, the adventurer, explorer and fur 
trader, Louis Joliet, discovered the Mississippi. That spring they 
went down the back country from their starting point, Green Bay. 
They returned by the Illinois River and Lake Michigan. It was on 
this return trip that Joliet appreciated the area of present Chicago 
as a junction point for travel from the Great Lakes to the Missis- 
sippi basin. He even spoke of a canal connecting Lake Michigan 
and the Illinois River. Pere Marquette recorded Joliet's opinion 
that: "It would only be necessary to make a canal, by cutting 
through but half a league of prairie to pass from the foot of the 
lake of Illinois to the river St. Louis." One hundred and seventy- 
five years after this observation, the canal became a reality. 

In 1674, Marquette came south again from Green Bay, past 
the area of Lake Forest until he reached the area of Chicago. He 
spent the winter in these parts, establishing the first white habita- 


tion in this place. In May of the following year he started north 
on the eastern shore of the Lake. He died near the mouth of the 
Manistee River. He is considered the founder of the Roman 
Catholic Church in Illinois. 

Hennepin, the Belgian explorer, visited the southwestern shores 
of Lake Michigan in 1679 and must have been impressed by the 
bluffs along the north shore. 

La Salle became acquainted with Lake Michigan, soon after he 
discovered the Ohio River. Before 1 670 he was active in the pres- 
ent Chicago area, and wrote Journals describing his experiences. 
Unfortunately these have been lost, but a later anonymous His- 
toire de M. de La Salle survives. In this book La Salle's expedition 
south on Lake Michigan, down the Illinois River, and down the 
Mississippi, is described. The party set out in December, 1681. 
In February, 1682, it began the last stretch of the journey, reach- 
ing the mouth of the "Father of Waters" on April 9, 1682. There 
a monument and a cross were erected, and La Salle took possession 
of the area, in the name of King Louis XIV of France, calling the 
area Louisiana. Returning northward to Michilimackinac, he 
portaged from the Illinois River to the site of present Chicago and 
continued north to his base. Twice, during this trip, he must have 
skirted the area of Lake Forest. 

On the basis of these and other explorations the French laid 
claim to the area of the Great Lakes and the Ohio-Mississippi 
basin until 1763, the end of the French and Indian war. With 
the fall of Quebec that year, the area passed into the hands of the 
English. In 1783, a London map of the United States area in- 
cluded Little Fort (Waukegan) on the western shores of Lake 
Michigan. In 1795, a map printed in Philadelphia marked the 
same location. Perhaps both of these maps were based on the 
explorations of Marquette and Joliet. Because at Little Fort the 
portage to the Aux Plaine was only four miles, less than anywhere 
else on the Lake, Waukegan had been used by the Indians first 
as a connecting point for the Mississippi, then eventually as a 
trading post. 

The Pottawatamie Indians fought against the British under 
Chief Pontiac in 1763. They fought with the British against the 
United States in 1 8 1 2; then in the Black Hawk War of 1 832 they 
remained true to the United States. 


The Natural Setting, Until 1850 

Illinois was admitted to statehood in 181 8 when a new and 
more formidable tide of emigrants poured into the new state from 
Kentucky, Pennsylvania, New England, and New York. A book 
published in 18 18 containing a map of the new state of Illinois 
shows the population of the state concentrated in the southern 
tip. It does not show that the state touches Lake Michigan. 

In 1824 a vigorous effort was made to amend the new state 
constitution to permit slavery in Illinois. The effort failed. 

In the i83o , s there was an increasing tide of immigration into 
northern Illinois resulting in an Indian treaty negotiated and 
signed in Chicago on September 26, 1833. By this treaty the 
Pottawatamies ceded to the United States all their lands in Il- 
linois and Wisconsin, including Lake County, a total of five mil- 
lion acres, for almost one million dollars. 

Numbering five thousand, the tribe crowded in camp on the 
prairie beyond the village of Chicago along the banks of the 
river. They divided themselves into prairie and forest Potta- 
watamies. This took place in the middle of September, 1833. 

Commissioners from Washington called for a meeting at which 
the purpose of the conference was outlined— the purchase of all 
the Pottawatamie lands by the Federal Government and their 
planned migration to Kansas. The Indians stated that their great 
father in Washington must have seen a bad bird which told him 
a lie, because they did not wish to sell their lands. The Indians 
were then issued rations; then they became noisy. They wept and 
sang and milled around. The area teemed with squaws, children, 
dogs, mounted braves, and warriors on foot. Chiefs sat in grave 
consultation. Casks of whiskey were sold in abundance as the 
commissioners watched. There were repeated delays. The chiefs 
did not want to negotiate. 

Suddenly on September 21, considering their situation hope- 
less, they changed their minds. Twenty or thirty chiefs met the 
commissioners at the present site of the north end of the Rush 
Street bridge. It was late in the afternoon. They had become con- 
vinced that there was no alternative except to cede their lands and 
to move to their new hunting grounds across the Great River. The 
treaty was signed by chiefs and commissioners alike. Four days 
later, September 26, the treaty was concluded. The Senate of the 
United States ratified the treaty in its final form on May 22, 1834. 


It was not proclaimed, however, until February 21, 1835, when 
the Indian title was "extinguished" and most of the Indians de- 
parted for Kansas, in government wagons, in August, 1836, after 
they settled the claims of some 500 white settlers, several in excess 
of $10,000 each. 

The departure of the Pottawatamies in 1836 made it possible 
to begin the construction of the Illinois-Michigan Canal; a ninety 
mile long project, which would connect Lake Michigan and the 
navigable part of the Illinois river, which in turn empties into the 
Mississippi. The Canal would give direct access to midwestern 
farm produce to the population centers of the great East and the 
deep South. Actually the Canal became all important to Northern 
Illinois and to Lake Forest because it attracted people from over- 
seas, as well as from the Eastern seaboard, creating a great me- 
tropolis out of the wilderness. The earliest white inhabitants of 
the Lake Forest area were directly or indirectly connected with 
the construction of the Illinois-Michigan Canal. 

When Illinois was admitted to the Union in 181 8, the nation- 
wide interest in building roads and canals had become a nationally 
accepted program as an antidote to sectionalism. Increasing con- 
cern over the problem of slavery and its extension into the newer 
sections beyond the Northwest Territory, of which Illinois was 
a part, added to the interest of Congress to push internal improve- 
ments. Whigs and Democrats were in accord as were their leaders, 
Clay and Calhoun, so that the ensuing quarter of a century is 
referred to as the "Era of Good Feeling. ,, 

A veritable craze for canal digging had swept the country. The 
cost of carrying grain to the East or utensils and implements to the 
West by lumbering Conestoga wagons was almost prohibitive. 
And so a vast network of canals had been constructed, north and 
south, east and west, across the country, adding to the water 
routes already offered by the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. The 
steam-boat had replaced the slow barges and keel boats. The cost 
of transporting merchandise had fallen to a tenth of the former 
prices. New York City sprang into its role of chief metropolis of 
the East due in large part to the Erie Canal, which extended 363 
miles from Albany to Buffalo. The Pennsylvanians had labored 
to connect Philadelphia and Pittsburgh by an artificial waterway, 
stepping canal boats up steep inclines with cables and sleds and 


The Natural Setting, Until 1850 

carrying them across high levels by rail. The great Ohio Canal, 
connecting Lake Erie with the Ohio River, from Cleveland to 
Portsmouth, had begun in 1825. Many others were started but 
never completed because the building of railways suddenly inter- 

Though the people of Illinois were told a canal would cost four 
million dollars, while a railroad would require only one million, 
they insisted on the construction of a canal. So the Illinois-Mich- 
igan Steamboat Canal became a part of the national movement. 
In Illinois, the canal would be a symbol of unity and peace since 
it would give access between the two sections in economic conflict 
and in conflict over the slavery issue. 

The legislature of the State of Illinois, beginning with the very 
first General Assembly, worked toward the construction of a canal. 
It appropriated $10,000, in 1 821, to conduct a survey for a route 
connecting the Illinois River with Lake Michigan. A Canal Com- 
pany was formed in 1825 and stock was issued and sold. In 1827 
Daniel Pope Cook, who helped organize the State of Illinois, 
secured a federal grant of land on which to build the canal. The 
grant consisted of sections of land, alternating in five mile strips 
along either side of the canal for purposes of construction and re- 
pair. Altogether Congress donated 300,000 acres of land. For this 
success of D. P. Cook, the county at the eastern end of the pro- 
posed canal was named Cook County. 

In 1829, a Canal Commission of three members laid out the 
towns of Chicago and Ottawa, the two extremities of the proposed 
ninety-six mile canal. In 1830, lots were laid out in Chicago and 
offered for sale. The plat of Chicago was filed on August 4, 1830, 
marking the birth of the city. In 1834 the State of Illinois loaned 
$500,000 to the Illinois-Michigan Steamboat Canal Company so 
that construction might begin. A Canal Commission composed of 
William F. Thornton, Gurdon S. Hubbard and Colonel William 
B. Archer was appointed. Engineer William Goodring planned a 
ditch 65 feet wide at the water level and 36 feet at the bottom, 
with at least 6 feet in depth. 

With the departure of the Indians, on July 4, 1836, the dirt 
began to fly, as Gurdon Hubbard tossed the first spadeful. This 
was especially appropriate since he had introduced the first Canal 
bill into the General Assembly and his life and activities had 



spanned a long period of trade with the Indians and the forma- 
tion of the new order under the domination of the pioneers. At 
this time Shadrach Bond was the Governor of Illinois, and the 
population of Chicago was 3,800 inhabitants. Canal workers were 
promised $40 per month in wages and prairie schooners were busy 
bringing several hundred settlers from northern Illinois to the 
spot in Chicago which had been used by Marquette, La Salle 
and a number of other explorers as a land bridge which led to the 
extremities and to the heart of the great continent. There were 
fireworks and great noise, excitement and celebration, speeches 
and a carnival spirit. The Canal had begun, a promise to make 
Chicago a great metropolis, at the same time ensuring the im- 
portation of manufactured supplies from the east and an outlet for 
the local farm products through New Orleans. 

A great many immigrants poured into Chicago from the East, 
hoping for steady employment and the opportunity to buy good 
land at reasonable prices. Matthew Laflin drove a wagon of blast- 
ing powder for the Canal from Canton, Connecticut, in 1837. 
Upon arrival, he decided to settle in Chicago and sent for his wife 
and two sons. They lived in old Fort Dearborn in the winter of 
1838. Many others with experience or skills in canal building 
came to Chicago, but the State of Illinois, which bore the brunt of 
the financial responsibility was not always able to pay the workers. 
In 1843 wages were cut to $16 per month. This was followed by 
riots in the towns of Romeo and Juliet. There was shooting and 
the escape of workers into the countryside. Some settlers were 
dragged from their homes and forced to work on the canal. 

When Thomas Ford became Governor of Illinois, in 1 842, mat- 
ters were already at a low ebb. The State Bank had failed, and 
there were whispers about repudiating the public debt. Ford op- 
posed this idea and with the help of Stephen A. Douglas defeated 
it in the state legislature. As a result, taxes were increased and the 
canal workers were paid. This tax increase caused a minor rebel- 
lion in northern Illinois. At a mass meeting in the town of Oregon, 
the fourteen counties above the old Ordinance Line threatened to 
secede from Illinois, either to form a new territory or to join Wis- 
consin, which was about to become a state. Governor Ford is given 
credit for holding the state together and resuming work on the 
canal, bringing the project to a successful completion. 


The Natural Setting, Until 1 850 

In spite of delays caused by floods and an unusual amount of 
sickness among the labor force, the work was finished and the 
Canal was opened for navigation on April 16, 1 848. Boats crowded 
with notables started simultaneously from La Salle and Chicago 
to be cheered by excited crowds in every town along the way. 
Bands played, a cannon was fired in the town of Juliet, now called 

The Chicago Daily Journal referred to this event as: "the meet- 
ing of the waters, an eventful period in the history of our city, of 
the state and of the West— the wedding of the Father of Rivers to 
our inland seas. A magnificent canal/' The writer boarded the 
packet New Orleans at La Salle reaching the Chicago River in 
only twenty-two hours. He commented on the thriving towns, 
the beauty of the countryside, and the fine construction of locks 
and the aqueduct which carried the canal over the Fox River. The 
canal construction cost $6,557,68 1 . The prairie farmers could now 
ship their grain not only south through St. Louis, but through 
the Great Lakes to the populous East. 

For twenty years the Canal carried a heavy load of traffic. In 
1866 over $300,000 of toll were collected. The long, low canal 
barges were pulled by mules or horses, driven by a man who 
watched the towpath for gopher holes which might trip the ani- 
mals. Grain was carried in the hold below deck and lumber above. 
D. R. Holt of Chicago made the first shipment of freight— a load 
of lumber. He was soon to take part in the building of Lake 
Forest. Prosperity came to the whole canal territory. The prices 
of imported articles fell; the value of exports increased. 

The townsfolk along the way would gather at the bridges or 
landing when they heard a trumpet announcing the boat's arrival. 
Small boys prepared to "hitch" rides. As the barge approached, 
the captain's wife and children stood in view. Often the family 
wash flapped on the line hung on deck. At some points, near 
Ottawa, for example, where the canal banks were higher than 
the street, a man could sit on his porch and watch the boats go 
by overhead. 

So the people of Illinois at last realized their dream— an un- 
broken waterway connecting them with the East and the South. 
During sixty years of operation the canal received $6,6 1 0,067 m 
tolls and spent $4,995,316 for operation and maintenance. It was 



not a financial success, but it played an important part in develop- 
ing northern Illinois. As Governor Ford wrote: "It transformed the 
raw region of northern Illinois into a settled and prosperous com- 
munity. Its influence on the economic development of the ad- 
jacent region surpassed the local influence of any other American 
canal except the Erie." In addition, it held the state of Illinois 

The canal had taken twelve years to build. It was of primary 
importance for another twelve years. Then alas for the canal, the 
Railroads claimed Chicago, making it the railroad capital of the 
United States by 1850. At that time trains were operating from 
Chicago to Elgin on what has become the Galena division of the 
Northwestern Railway. The Rock Island trains were operating 
from Chicago to Rock Island in 1854. The Illinois Central began 
service to Centralia by 1856. 

In 1882 the canal moved over a million tons of freight, but col- 
lected only $86,000 in tolls. The triumph of the railroad was 
complete. The canal, however, did continue to operate until 1 907 
when it was abandoned. 





"We the surface broad surveying, 
We primeval forests felling, 
We the virgin soil upheaving, 
We the route for travel clearing, 
O resistless, restless race! 
Pioneers! O Pioneers!" 

—Walt Whitman 

The magnet which drew overseas immigrants to the Chicago 
area and thence to the open spaces west of Lake Forest was the 
Illinois-Michigan Canal. Even before the Canal was finished, set- 
tlers began to come. Some of these had worked on the Erie Canal. 
Many more had worked on the canal in Chicago and received 
farmlands as part payment for their labors, since the Canal Com- 
pany was unable to pay them in cash. These early families were 
attracted by the beauty of the forest and the small streams backed 
by the Des Plaines River. Besides, the area was accessible because 
of the famous Green Bay Road, or Military Road, which con- 
nected the settlements of Chicago, Milwaukee and Green Bay, 
and passed through what was to become a part of Lake Forest. 
When the region of Northern Illinois had been brought to the 



attention of the country at large during the Black Hawk War in 
1832, General Winfield Scott visited the area and recommended 
the building of a thoroughfare which became known as Green 
Bay Road. Although the road was rerouted many times, the gen- 
eral direction remained. 

The survey began in October 1832 with a congressional appro- 
priation of $2,000, and construction began by detachments of 
soldiers in 1833. At first it was "a narrow track through the forest." 
Andreas, the Chicago historian, says that the road was "somewhat 
improved by cutting out trees to the width of 2 rods and laying 
puncheon and log bridges over the impassable streams." Gen- 
erally it followed the route of the Indian trail and crossed 24 
streams between Chicago and Green Bay. No grading was done 
for several years, and as late as 1836 it was only a "blazed trail" 
through the forest between the three settlements of Chicago, Mil- 
waukee and Green Bay. In addition to being a military road, 
it also provided transportation, especially in the winter-time, when 
sailing vessels could not be used. As time went on, its military 
purpose was diminished and its use for local travel and for mail 
routes became dominant. The first real support came in 1838 when 
Congress appropriated $15,000 for improvements on the Road. 
The following year, Bishop Jackson Kemper (Episcopal), a pio- 
neer missionary in the mid-west, left Chicago, arriving in Kenosha 
24 hours later, though the scheduled time was about ten hours. 

In 1865 Green Bay Road was relocated and brought within the 
limits of Lake Forest. The question is, where was the original 
Green Bay Road in the vicinity of Lake Forest? Lieutenant Cen- 
ter's plat is no doubt buried somewhere in the archives of the state 
of Illinois and without it we hazard a guess that the road was on 
or near the present Waukegan Road. To support this theory we 
present the following facts and inferences: First, the road ran 
parallel to Lake Michigan, and at Waukegan it was three miles 
west of the Lake. Since this was so, it is reasonable to assume that 
the road was also three miles west of the Lake in the Lake Forest 
area. Secondly, the road is repeatedly described as passing through 
"open prairie in Illinois." This, too, points to the same area, much 
more suitable for a road of this description since this area alone 
is treeless, and grading and tree cutting would be reduced to a 
minimum. Besides, the "impassable streams" and "getting mired" 


The Pioneers, 1 832-1 857 

is more likely here than on the ridge which is the present location 
of the road. Thirdly, the 1830 pioneers are said to have come out 
on Green Bay Road from Chicago. It is reasonable to suppose that 
they carved out farmsteads on or near the thoroughfare to main- 
tain communication with Chicago, Waukegan and Milwaukee. 
Finally, the two Post Offices, the earliest within the boundaries 
of present Lake Forest, were in the Waukegan Road district. 

There was an alternate Green Bay Road through Wheeling, 
Half Day and Libertyville. A mile north of Libertyville it "veered 
to the northeast, recrossed the Des Plaines and joined the main 
Green Bay Road three miles beyond that point." 

Stage coaches began operations in the spring of 1836. By 1850 
the Waukegan Gazette reported "five to six coaches pass daily 
through Waukegan, full, inside and out." 

By 1836, the land along Green Bay Road, in the general area 
of the present Waukegan Road, was easily accessible from Chi- 
cago, and so people came in the best tradition of the pioneer to 
carve out homesteads, unhampered by possible contention with 
Indians, most of whom had departed two years earlier. The first 
families arrived as squatters, with the hope of later buying the 
land at low prices. Many of these left their families on the farms 
as they worked on the Canal in Chicago. 

On March 1, 1839, Lake County was detached from McHenry 
County by an act of the Illinois State Legislature. Independence 
Grove, now Libertyville, became the first County Seat. Two years 
later, Waukegan became and has remained the county seat of 
Lake County. This county derived its name from the fifty fair 
sized lakes within its boundaries. The County consists of 460 
square miles with 24 miles of Lake Michigan shoreline. 

In 1844 there was a large enough population in the area of 
west Lake Forest to organize a Catholic church— St. Michael's, 
one of the earliest Catholic churches in the state. It was a log 
church erected on the west side of Waukegan Road in the south- 
east quarter of section 7 in west Deerfield Township. The land 
was donated by Michael Yore, and the logs were hewn by men 
of the parish. The church was forty feet long and thirty wide, and 
was a meeting place for four adjacent townships. Father O'Mara 
was the first priest. When the population moved northward, the 
log church was sold to Michael Vaughn, in 1855, who moved it 

l 7 


south a half a mile on the same road and made it his family home. 

Soon after this first log church, another was erected at 
Median's settlement. This was named after Michael Meehan, 
who had arrived in this area in 1835 from Ireland. He is said to 
have brought the first cattle, pigs and cats to the area of Lake 
Forest. Like many others of this period he went to California dur- 
ing the gold rush, to seek his fortune. This second log church is 
said to have stood at the northwest corner of the present St. 
Patrick's Cemetery. In the forties it was a mission of Little Fort 
(Waukegan), and its first priest was a French missionary, Father 
John Guegnin. In quick succession came Fathers McGorish, 
Kean, Hampston, Coyle, and Magee. 

Father Coyle undertook the building of a more permanent 
structure— St. Patrick's. On March 24, 1853, two and a half acres 
of land were conveyed by Peter and Margaret Bichel to the Very 
Reverend James Van de Velde, Bishop of Chicago, for $86.00. 
This property is described as occupying the S.E. quarter of the 
S.E. quarter of section 31 in Shields Township, on the east side of 
Waukegan Road, near the intersection of Mellody Road. The 
clay for the bricks was secured on Patrick Melody's farm. James 
Durkin moulded the bricks and the parishioners furnished the 
wood necessary to fire the kiln. A great misfortune was averted 
one night when the watchman fell asleep, and had it not been for 
the timely arrival of Patrick Carolan with a load of wood, the 
whole kiln of bricks would have been lost, for the fire had almost 
gone out. 

When the bricklayers arrived from Chicago, they stayed at the 
Melody home until their task was finished. The corner stone was 
laid on October 22, 1853. The church and parish house together 
cost $14,000. Father Magee was the first resident pastor. The log 
church now became the community school with as many as 137 
pupils crowding into its cramped quarters. They sat in the loft, 
on the stairs, or on benches. This school continued until 1905. St. 
Patrick's was variously called the "Brick Church," or "Corduroy 
Church." After Father Magee, it was served also by Fathers M. 
Edwards, Michael Ford, James Coyle, William Herbert, William 
Phew, Patrick O'Dwyer, and J. W. Kennedy. The last-named 
bought the present property on which St. Mary's church was 
erected in 1875. St. Patrick's served the parish until one night in 


The Pioneers, 1832-1857 

July 1895 it was struck by lightning and burned to the ground. 

A new church building was erected to replace the original brick 
building. It, too, suffered a fire on August 20, 1908, and the site 
was abandoned. The present building of St. Patrick's was built on 
the corner of Everett and Waukegan Roads in 19 10. 

Titles to all properties in Lake County and the State were some- 
what uncertain and subject to change, except for those held by 
deeds from the Federal Government. Between 1835 and 1855 
there were squatters who occupied the lands, hoping to purchase 
them eventually at the minimum price, and settlers who paid cash 
for their property. After 1835 Senator Thomas Hart Benton's land 
theory of "graduation" was in vogue. It called for the reduction of 
the price of unsold lands until the price reached 25^ per acre. 
Then the unsold lands would become the property of the State. 
In 1 84 1 "Preemption" was the principle everybody favored. This 
theory would give settlers the right to buy the lands on which they 
had settled, at the minimum price. When Congress passed the 
Homestead Act in 1862, all settlers and squatters received greater 
surety in their titles and ownership. This act permitted the owner- 
ship of 160 acres of public land after five years residence and use, 
for a nominal fee. 

Otis and Sarah Hinkley were the first to settle in the original 
area of the first Lake Forest plat. They built their cabin on the 
present south-west corner of Deer Path and Green Bay Road in 
1835, but they moved to Waukegan before Lake Forest was in- 
corporated. One of the first settlers who came and stayed in the 
Lake Forest area was Matthew Steele. Born in Scotland, he came 
to Shields Township in 1839, after several years of labor on the 
Illinois-Michigan Canal. He was on the West coast during the 
gold rush period where he made a fortune. Returning to Shields 
Township in the 1850's, he purchased a large farm on Waukegan 
Road and married Helen Atteridge. His three sons married into 
the Swanton and Connell families of the area. His extensive farm 
became a part of the J. Ogden Armour acres and of the R. O. 
Boehms' property. 

Michael Yore arrived from Ireland by way of the Erie Canal 
and the Great Lakes, in 1838. His ship was supposed to land in 
Milwaukee but a storm blew them off course to Little Fort. At first 
he thought of purchasing property along the shore of Lake Mich- 



igan, where the Stanley Field property now stands, but decided 
against it, thinking the bluff might be washed away. He settled, 
instead, in the area of the Everett School which was then called 

Michael sent for his wife and children who made three at- 
tempts to set sail from Ireland, but were forced back each time. 
They finally arrived after a trip of three weeks across the ocean, 
having lost all their belongings except a small red trunk. This 
trunk remained a prized possession of the family until recently. 

The first town meeting was held in the Yore house, also Sunday 
services. Neighboring farmers came to Mass and stayed for Sun- 
day dinner. In the 1840^ Mrs. Yore is said to have walked to 
Waukegan to sell eggs. Michael Yore secured sufficient property 
so that he provided a farm for each of his five sons. 

John Birmingham came from Dublin, Ireland, through Hart- 
ford, Connecticut, in 1852. At one time he had squatters rights 
south of Woodland Road and east of Sheridan. He cut trees and 
sold them to the railroad company for railroad ties and for fuel. 
In 1859 he bought a farm including the present Owen Jones 
property from the Lake Forest Association and built a homestead. 
The hill on Deer Path just west of Green Bay Road was for long 
called Birmingham Hill. 

Some of the earliest names on the pioneer role in the Waukegan 
Road area were: Atkinson, Barker, Bolger, Burns, Carolan, Car- 
roll, Cole, Conway, Dawson, Doyle, Duffy, Dulanty, Dwelley, 
Dwyer, Fagan, Gibbons, Hickox, Hinckley, Kennedy, Lancaster, 
Ludlow, Masterson, McGuire, Meehan, Melody, Murphy, Nul- 
lery, O'Boyle, O'Connor, Redmond, Swain, and Yore. The 
descendants of many of these original settlers still live in Lake 

The first Post Office in the present area of Lake Forest was 
established on May 28, 1846, at the northwest intersection of 
Kennedy and Waukegan Roads. Andrew Steele was the first Post- 
master. This was also called the Emmet Post Office. This office 
was discontinued in 1859, then reestablished in 1870, then dis- 
continued again in 1 875. The first telegraph line between Chicago 
and Milwaukee was laid in 1847, following the old Green Bay 
Road, the present Waukegan Road. This is the origin of the name 
Telegraph Road which has been retained north of Route 176. 


The Pioneers, 1832-18 $y 

In 1852 Elijah M. Haines of Waukegan, a school-teacher, pub- 
lished his Historical and Statistical Sketches of Lake County, the 
first history of any Illinois County to be published in book form. 

In the meantime, new names began to appear near the lake 
shore area, from the present Green Bay Road eastward and north 
and south of present Deer Path. These were the families which 
owned clearings in the area included in the first plat of Lake 
Forest in 1857. The area west of the present Green Bay Road 
was not joined to Lake Forest until May 12, 1926. 

Those living within the first plat include Thomas Atteridge, 
Thomas R. Clark, Patrick Conlon, Jacob Felter, Edward Lee, 
Francis McCandry, Michael Mooney, Peter Mooney, Joseph 
Sammons, and William Swanton. Thomas Atteridge is said to 
have come to this area in 1837. He built a log cabin on the N.W. 
corner of Sec. 19, and dug a well. A few years later, he married 
Mary Cole Swanton, widow of Robert Swanton who had arrived 
the same year as Atteridge. Thomas Atteridge later moved south 
to the Cole farm where he raised six children and six step-children. 
One of these, William Atteridge was the first white child born in 
Lake Forest proper. 

The first reported Protestant services were held in the log house 
of William Atteridge which stood near the present corner of Deer 
Path and Green Bay Road. Three families gathered for religious 
services in 1850, and the Rev. Mr. Tate, a Methodist minister, 
preached several Sundays. A Rev. Mr. Howe conducted services 
to another group at the present intersection of Waukegan and 
Deer Path at about the same time. In 1856 a Sunday School was 
held at Shields' Corners, four miles north of Deer Path and Green 
Bay Road. When the railroad was finished, Sunday School and 
regular services began in a log house on Green Bay Road just south 
of Lake Bluff. These services were supplied by Methodists from 
Evanston and gradually were assimilated by the Lake Bluff Camp 
Meeting Association. 

In the eighteen fifties, stage coaches ran on Green Bay Road 
from Chicago to Milwaukee until the completion of the Chicago 
Milwaukee Railroad which ultimately became a part of the North- 
western system. These stage coaches were regular Concord 
coaches, with a baggage rack behind and four horses. At one time 
Parmalee was the promoter of this line. Ed. Gunn, McGovern 



and James McVay, all later Lake Forest residents, were among 
drivers of these coaches. 

The assessed valuation of real and personal property in all of 
Shields Township, in 1850, was $44,300. 

The early settlers in the Lake Forest area were pioneers in the 
real sense, suffering all the hardships involved in making clearings, 
locating drinking water, cutting wood for fuel, cutting paths or 
roads, making their own clothes often, and supplying their fam- 
ilies with home-made candles, and generally eking out a mere 
existence. They contended with wild animals and were sometimes 
startled by stray Indians who peeked through windows at families 
gathered around the dinner table in the kitchen. These families 
made a real contribution in preparing the area and making it espe- 
cially suitable as the site for a village to the east, soon to be char- 
tered as the City of Lake Forest. 

Another group of pioneers originating in New England, New 
York, and Pennsylvania, settled in the Chicago area, then moved 
to Lake Forest after the formation of the Lake Forest Association. 
All who came from the Eastern seaboard could have made the trip 
to the Illinois country by covered wagon as early as 1836 and more 
certainly by 1 840, over the National Road which was authorized 
by Congress in 1806, reaching the Ohio River by 1830, the In- 
diana border by 1 840 and Illinois the same year. They came in 
various ways. John Tillson and his wife Christiana went from 
Massachusetts to Baltimore by sail boat, then crossed the moun- 
tains by wagon to Pittsburgh and then took a flat-boat to Shawnee- 
town. A Vermont family of Elkanah Brush journeyed by covered 
wagon along Lake Erie and down the old Vincennes Trail to St. 
Louis, up the Mississippi and the Illinois rivers to a spot known as 
Yankee Settlement and later named Bluffdale. 

These young pioneers often left home to seek elbow room, in- 
dependence or new opportunities. The depression of 1837 had 
caused many to turn to the West with the hope of better luck in 
the new country. One Lake Forest grandmother, Elizabeth 
Downs, left an account of her trip to Illinois, made in 1837, end- 
ing in Chicago. 

The trip began in Hanover, Connecticut. Fellow townsmen by 
the name of Rockwell had gone ahead, formed the Rockwell Land 


The Pioneers, 1 832-1 857 

Company and wrote back to their Eastern friends of the fine land 
and opportunities in Illinois. Times were hard in Connecticut. 
There seemed to be no openings for a young man, and certainly 
every bit of land had long been in the possession of families from 
early colonial times. 

Barzilli Bishop persuaded his 18 year old bride-to-be, Lydia 
Elizabeth Allen, to set their wedding date for the earliest possible 
moment and be ready to start with others from their town for the 
land so alluringly described by the Rockwell brothers. According 
to strict New England custom it was announced on two successive 
Sundays in Church the intention of the young people to marry. 
Then came the Sunday in April when the wedding should take 
place, the day before the departure to the West. Mr. Bishop was 
taken suddenly ill. The distraught bride was not allowed by her 
father, Deacon Ebenezer Allen, to go to see him. Monday morn- 
ing, the 1 7th of April, Bishop was sufficiently recovered to drive 
over to the home of his bride. They were married at ten o'clock 
and caught the stage for Norwich. There they joined the party 
bound for Illinois, boarded a steamer and went down the Thames 
River on their way to New York. When Deacon Allen bade fare- 
well to his daughter, he said : "I will come to visit you when I can 
make the trip in 36 hours." "That means you will never come," she 
said. "Yes, my daughter, I expect to live to see the day when I 
can come by railroad in that length of time." Had he not died 
soon afterwards, it would have been possible for him to see her 

There was no mention of the Bishops' sea voyage to New 
York. Two days were spent in New York City, then the "steam 
cars" were taken on the next lap of the journey. Arriving in Phila- 
delphia, the couple changed cars and went to the end of the line at 
Hollidaysburg. Now travel by water was resumed, for here the 
party took a boat on the Pennsylvania Canal. When they reached 
the Allegheny Mountains it was Saturday, six days since the de- 
parture from Connecticut. A discussion ensued among the pas- 
sengers: should they continue over the mountains or rest where 
they were over Sunday? The party was divided. It was not surpris- 
ing that Elizabeth and Barzilli Bishop were among those who 
decided to wait. Their stopping-off-place was not too desolate, for 
there was a church which they attended. 



Crossing the mountains was achieved by means of a stationary 
engine on the summit. The cars would be drawn up one mountain 
side and let down the other. When the Bishops were safely over 
and on their way, Monday morning April 24th, they learned that 
when the cars went over the mountains the day before, the safety 
car had got loose going down and had nearly smashed. The mem- 
bers of that party were thereby delayed and reached Pittsburgh 
only one hour earlier than the second party, after travelling since 
Saturday night. Some nodded wisely, not surprised that Sabbath- 
breaking resulted in misfortune. When the Bishops reached Pitts- 
burgh, the first important objective of the trip, they were amazed 
to see everyone with dirty hands and faces, caused by the use of 
soft coal. 

After spending 24 hours in Pittsburgh they took a river boat 
to Cincinnati, arriving on April 29, almost two weeks after leav- 
ing Norwich, Connecticut. They took another ship after spending 
three days in Cincinnati. This vessel, termed "a fine steamboat," 
carried freight and passengers down the Ohio River with the 
danger of snags the only threat to progress. In order to avoid them 
the captain would "tie up to a tree" at night, waiting until day- 
light to proceed. The Bishops must have been impressed by the 
beautiful series of hills which lined the banks of the Ohio all the 
way to the even more impressive confluence of the Ohio and the 
Mississippi at Cairo, Illinois. The "fine steamer" plodded up the 
"Father of Waters" to St. Louis, the Queen city of the West, ar- 
riving on May 8 after three weeks of tedious travel. They did not 
linger in the city, but took a small steamboat up the Illinois River 
as far as it was navigable at that time. 

They landed at a settlement called Peru on a dark rainy night. 
Standing ankle deep in mud, they watched the boat chug out of 
sight on its way back to St. Louis. They made their way to the two 
buildings which comprised Peru, one of which was a log tavern 
already crowded to capacity. The other building was the Post Of- 
fice, a frame building with no plastering. It did not take much to 
make our travellers happy. 

Tuesday morning dawned bright and clear. The previous mis- 
eries were forgotten, and everyone wanted to start out for Rock- 
well immediately. They were told the goal of their travels was 
only two miles distant. A blast from a horn announced the arrival 


The Pioneers, 1832-1857 

of the stage. Everyone clamored to get on, and soon every available 
space inside and out was quickly taken. The rest of the company 
started out on foot, stopping every few paces to scrape the clay 
from their shoes so that they could walk more easily. The young 
Bishops must have been among the latter group, as the record says : 
"After walking a mile and a half, they came to a river, Little Ver- 
milion. On the way they passed a few shanties occupied by men 
digging the Illinois-Michigan Canal. At a shanty close by the 
river, they inquired of a woman how they could cross the stream. 
'You see the little boat there? Get into it, row over, and tie it up 
on the other side/ she said. They asked how far it was to Rock- 
well. She replied: 'Two miles.' After crossing the river they walked 
up a long, steep bluff; then through the prairie grass which was a 
beautiful green and full of flowers." The young girl-bride, tired as 
she was, must have felt her spirits lifted by the sight. Years later, 
she told her Lake Forest grandchildren: "Never saw anything 
more beautiful/' 

Looking ahead they saw a little village and soon detected a man 
sawing boards. When they reached him they inquired how far it 
was to Rockwell. He replied with a pleasant smile: "You are in 
Rockwell." Soon the young couple purchased land from the Rock- 
well brothers, put up a house and made a good start with their 
farm. At the time of their arrival Elizabeth Bishop and the keeper 
of the boarding house were the only women in Rockwell. 

One night Elizabeth had a bad dream in which all had died and 
she alone was left. A dark-haired man appeared and consoled her 
saying that he would take care of her. A few days later the Bishops 
drove to the nearby village and there in the store Elizabeth saw 
the clerk and said to her husband: "That is the man I saw in my 
dream." This was the store, constructed for the Rockwell Land 
Company, for which the man was sawing boards the day the 
Bishops arrived. Mr. Charles L. Palmer of Norwich, Connecticut, 
was the carpenter to whom they had spoken. He remained a friend 
of the family and died in Chicago in 1892. 

Elizabeth bore a son the following year after their arrival in 
Rockwell. Though the child seemed strong and healthy, he died 
suddenly at the age of three months. Two months later her hus- 
band died of typhus fever, leaving her with the payments for the 
farm still incomplete, the crops unharvested and a scamp of a 

2 5 


land owner to deal with. Her father sent word for her to come 
home to Connecticut, but she married the man in her dream, 
Myron Day Downs. 

The Downs moved to La Salle in the fall of 1839, and three 
years later, in 1 842, they drove to Chicago in a buggy, their house- 
hold goods following them by team, over Frink and Walker's 
stage road. The journey took two days for the hundred miles. In 
Chicago the family prospered selling lumber from the Downs' 
Lumber Yard which stood on the land which is now the corner 
of Michigan Avenue and Wacker Drive. Soon after the Civil War, 
one of her daughters moved to Lake Forest. Thus this town be- 
came the home of six of Elizabeth Downs' grandchildren. 

In addition to the Illinois-Michigan canal, another factor which 
led to the founding of Lake Forest was the Iron Horse. It all 
started when the State of Illinois granted a charter to the Illinois 
Parallel Railroad Company with the right to construct a railway 
from Chicago, contiguous to the shore of Lake Michigan, via 
Waukegan, to the Wisconsin State line. The charter to this first 
railroad in Lake County was issued February 17, 1851. Work 
began immediately, and the name was soon changed to the Chi- 
cago and Milwaukee Railway, which extended to the Wisconsin 
line, where it disembarked its passengers, who then boarded the 
Milwaukee and Chicago Railway and continued their journey to 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin. These two railroads were subsequently 
united into the Chicago and North-Westem system in 1854. 

The tracks were built through this section of the present North 
Shore, partly because there was so much timber in the area, espe- 
cially pine. The ties were secured, on the spot, in the section be- 
tween the boundaries of Chicago and Waukegan. Local labor was 
employed. James Swanton and John Birmingham cut many of the 
ties which were originally laid in this area. It was supposed that 
there was enough timber in this district to furnish ties and fuel 
for the engines for the next fifty years. The tracks cost the com- 
pany $10,000 per mile. 

The road was completed to Waukegan, and the first train left 
Chicago on January 11, 1855. The passengers included officials 
of the Company and the Chicago City Council. The train left 
at 9:30 a.m. and travelled the thirty-five miles in three hours, 


The Pioneers, 1832-18 57 

reaching Waukegan at 12:30 p.m. Upon arrival Colonel Swift's 
Artillery, from Chicago, shot a brass field piece. It was thought 
that this trip had achieved a new world's speed record— nearly 
twelve miles per hour. This can be appreciated if the 1855 model 
of a train can be visualized, together with the primitive wooden 
rails covered with iron sheathing. The arrival was also greeted 
with the ringing of the church bells and the playing of the local 
band. The Mayor of Waukegan made a speech of welcome. 

A large banquet was prepared for the first passengers, officials 
and celebrities. Among those present were William Bross of the 
Democratic Press, who was to become the President of the Board 
of Trustees of Lake Forest University (1 865-1 890), and Dr. 
C. Volney Dyer, the "Prince of Wits" and director of the Under- 
ground Railroad, a staunch friend of Lake Forest in the years to 
come. Samuel F. Miller who had previously built the first Chi- 
cago bridge, over the north branch of the Chicago River, as well 
as the tracks from Chicago to Waukegan, made a speech on "Our 
Railroad." Three years later he was elected the first Principal of 
Lake Forest Academy, and six years later he was to become the 
first Postmaster of the newly chartered City of Lake Forest, and 
its first Superintendent of Schools. 

The railroad track, now dividing the future Lake Forest, em- 
phasized certain features. Next to the lake was the highest bluff 
along the north shore, varying from 50 to 90 feet above Lake 
Michigan, and commanding a view of the shore line and the lake 
unsurpassed in beauty and serenity. Ravines penetrated from the 
area of the railroad eastward, achieving an increasing depth and 
beauty as they descended into the waters of the great lake. 

Three large ravines traversed the area from west to east. Many 
more small ones followed the same pattern. The northernmost 
and most precipitous one, called Clark's Ravine in the early days 
of Lake Forest, contained a spring. The families living north and 
south of this ravine have done much to maintain its original 
beauty. In 1 96 1 , Mrs. Donald R. McLennan lives just north of the 
intersection of the ravine and the lake while the Stanley Keith 
home is to the south. The largest ravine, which ends near Ferry 
Hall, combines two branches, one beginning at Deer Path and the 
railroad tracks, the other beginning at Illinois Road, a quarter of 
a mile south. These two branches go around the College south 



campus uniting east of the Campus circle. The third largest ravine 
was near the south end of town, and came to be called The Mc- 
Cormick Ravine. 

Until the 1880*5 these ravines were deep in water and were a 
favorite resort of youthful fishermen and gatherers of wild flowers. 
When the wind was from the northeast, the backwash from the 
lake increased, making the ravine waters deeper. Some recall that 
trout were caught in these ravines. J. V. Farwell, Jr., remembered 
counting one hundred lady-slippers in his father's ravine in the 
1 870*5. 

The area of the railroad contained many ponds which were the 
source of continually running water in the ravines. Many of these 
ponds consisted of standing rainwater and gradually disappeared 
as soon as real estate became valuable and scarce, and sewers were 
installed and roads built. Other ponds were fed by springs. 

Ponds large enough to deserve a name included the Atteridge 
Pond, the Brewster Pond, the Farwell Pond, the Holt Pond, the 
Kelley Pond, and the Quinlan Pond. The Holt Pond was between 
Deer Path, Green Bay Road and Oakwood, and was always a 
gathering place of skaters in the early days of Lake Forest. In the 
summer time it might have been used for swimming except that 
it contained snakes. This pond was filled with dirt from the excava- 
tions for Market Square around 1 9 1 5 and is now part of the area 
of West Park. The Farwell Pond, just south of present Deer Path 
and east of Mayflower, provided early Lake Forest youngsters 
additional skating space, College, Academy, and Ferry Hall stu- 
dents using this pond freely through the generosity of Senator 
C. B. Farwell. 

The crowning glory of the area, east of the tracks, were the 
beautiful stands of trees. Jack Pines four feet or more in diameter 
towered over hickories, elms, maples and even over giant Swamp 

Ravines, abundant waters, ponds and forest attracted the wild 
life recorded by early residents, namely, "herds of deer, moose, 
raccoons, weasels, woodchucks, wolves, bear, fox, squirrels, par- 
tridges, prairie chickens, wild pigeons, quail, ducks, geese, swans, 
meadowlarks, bobolinks, blue jays, red-headed woodpeckers, owls 
and snakes." Was this the state of nature described by Rousseau, 
or was it Longfellow's forest primeval? 





Chicago, which had been incorporated as a city in 1837, was in a 
turmoil during the i85o's. The eyes of the nation were focussed 
upon this sprawling pioneer city which had nearly tripled its 
population between 1850 and 1855, from 28,000 to over 80,000 
inhabitants. The newly finished Illinois-Michigan Canal had 
in large part caused this bulge in the population, but now that it 
was the projected railroad hub of the North American continent, 
even greater commercial activity and an accelerated growth of 
population were indicated. 

There was need for cultural and educational continuity, prog- 
ress, stability and growth to maintain an enduring city. Chicago 
had established a public school system of a dozen grade schools 
and two high schools. But the promise of a phenomenal expansion 
of the city suggested the need not only for more units of secondary 
education but for copying the models of eastern and European 
colleges and universities and establishing independent institutions 
capable of producing trained professional men. 

Colleges begun in the older parts of the state gave impetus to a 
movement in Chicago. Illinois College had been started by Pres- 
byterians in Jacksonville as early as 1829, graduating the first 
college class in the state. In 1841 Knox College, another Presby- 
terian institution, opened its doors and became established in 



Galesburg as a pioneer college. Monmouth was begun by the 
United Presbyterians in 1856. These beginnings in the state in- 
fluenced the Chicago Presbyterians directly, because they were a 
part of the Synod of Peoria at the time, and the feeling became 
general that higher education should also be promoted in the 
newly developed section of the state which now promised to be- 
come the center of Illinois population. 

An added impetus came from the religious revivals which were 
sweeping the country. The leadership in these Chicago educa- 
tional projects was therefore furnished by the various religious 
groups of the city, since they had the vision and the will to begin. 
The first group to become effectively organized was that of the 
Methodists. It made elaborate plans, founding a school that began 
in 1 85 1 with a faculty of four and a student body of two. This 
was chartered in 1855 and grew to become Northwestern Univer- 
sity, in Evanston. The Baptists founded the University of Chicago 
in 1857. 

Inspired by all these beginnings, and following many and long 
discussions, the congregations of the First and Second Presbyterian 
churches of Chicago were at last ready for definite action-. Their 
respective pastors, the Rev. Harvey Curtis and the Rev. Robert W. 
Patterson, organized several committee trips in all directions from 
Chicago, in order to locate a home for their dream university. 
These together with the Rev. Ira M. Weed, agent for the Home 
Missionary Society, residing in Waukegan, agreed that the insti- 
tution should be located somewhere between Evanston and Wau- 
kegan. During another exploratory trip these three ministers 
decided on the location in the area which was later named Lake 

On a trip soon after this, another committee also arrived by 
means of the newly finished railroad. They were let off at a point 
later called Farwell Crossing, since there was no station of any 
kind in the entire area. They made their way from the train to 
the lake shore, all the while searching for a suitable name for the 
new educational community. This committee, besides the three 
ministers named above, included the Rev. J. J. Slocum of Cincin- 
nati, who had had experience in starting several educational insti- 
tutions, and a layman, D. R. Holt. The Rev. Slocum, who was a 
visitor in Chicago at the time, looked about and asked the members 


The Lake Forest Association, 18 56-1861 

of the committee what lay before them. They replied: "A lake." 
He then asked what stood behind them. They said: "A forest." 
He then rejoined : "Why not call it Lake Forest?" To this they all 
replied: "Amen." And so it has remained. 

Rev. J. J. Slocum continued to be instrumental in "getting the 
ball rolling," as he informed the congregations that he knew a 
Mr. Gibson in Cincinnati who would give $100,000 for this proj- 
ect, if it were called Gibson University. When it became known 
that Mr. Gibson had gained his wealth by distilling whiskey, peo- 
ple were reluctant to pursue the matter, and he, taking the hint, 
withdrew the offer. This incident was not without profit however, 
since another benefactor, Sylvester Lind, a Chicago Presbyterian 
layman, soon made the same offer of $100,000, on condition that 
a like sum be raised by the Presbyterian community of Chicago. 

The first step presented the problem of purchasing the land in 
the area. Mr. Thomas R. Clark was one of the first to offer land: 
forty acres, at reasonable prices. Other properties were held in 
small areas by earlier settlers and a few railroad construction 
workers. A subscription book was made, and the Rev. J.J. Slocum 
became the collecting agent for purchasing the properties which 
might be for sale. In a short while $59,000 was collected from 
ninety-four subscribers, and a meeting of all subscribers was called 
to organize a permanent body. The largest donations came from 
T. R. Clark, D. R. Holt, D. J. Lake, and Peter Page. Each of these 
gave $750. C. B. Farwell and Amzi Benedict each gave $375.00. 

The Second Presbyterian Church of Chicago had been built 
in 185 1. It was called the Spotted Church, because its gray stones 
were covered with black spots. These bituminous limestones had 
been quarried near the intersection of Chicago and Western Av- 
enues. This church stood on the corner of Wabash Avenue and 
Washington Street, and became the headquarters for meetings 
and all details of organization. On February 26, 1856, a meeting 
was held with a clear purpose: "To establish an institution of 
learning of a high order in which Christian teaching would hold 
a central place." Hiram F. Mather presided, Horatio G. Shumway 
was secretary. Thomas Butler Carter, the city's most popular mer- 
chant, wealthiest citizen, and founder of the Chicago Bible So- 
ciety, stood up and made a motion that a Lake Forest Association 
be formed to purchase land and sponsor the contemplated educa- 



tional institutions. The motion carried. T. R. Clark, David Lake, 
and H. F. Mather were elected Trustees, and empowered to pur- 
chase land to consummate the purposes of the Association. 

On February 29, 1856, the first meeting of the Trustees was 
held in the office of Mather and Taft. All members were present. 
H. F. Mather was elected chairman, Peter Page, Treasurer, and 
David J. Lake, Secretary. 'The Treasurer was required to give 
bonds in the sum of $60,000 for the faithful performance of his 
duties. The Secretary was authorized to procure the necessary 
books for the Association." On March 3, 1856, the Trustees met 
again and "authorized Mr. Page to proceed to purchase the lands 
in such way as he might deem proper." 

The subscribers were presented with the articles of the Associa- 
tion, to be known as the Lake Forest Association, which were 
accepted. The capital stock was to be not less than $50,000, nor 
more than $60,000, the shares being $500.00 each, and the articles 
of the Association were not binding until $50,000 had been sub- 
scribed in good faith. The purchase of twelve hundred acres was 
contemplated, the quantity not to exceed the purchasing power 
of the capital stock. Fifty acres were to be set apart by theTrustees 
for three institutions of learning: thirty acres for College grounds, 
ten for an Academy, and ten for a Female Seminary. In case there 
were only twelve hundred acres purchased, the residue of lands 
remaining after the appropriation of this fifty acres was to be 
divided equally among the Association and the institutions of 
learning; but if more should be purchased, the institutions were to 
have one half of the lands, not exceeding eight hundred acres 
(including streets) besides the fifty, and the residue should belong 
to the Association. 

Article 9 stated that these educational institutions shall "at all 
times be subject to the ratification and approval of the Synod of 
Peoria or its legal successor." The board was told that within five 
years from July 1, 1856, buildings must be erected and other 
improvements of the lands of their institution made to the esti- 
mated amount of $30,000; otherwise all their appropriated land 
that then remained unused, should revert to the Association. 

The land was described as containing about thirteen hundred 
acres, twenty-five miles north of Chicago, two and a half miles 
along the shore of Lake Michigan, and one mile wide from the 


The Lake Forest Association, 1 8 56-1861 

lake to the railroad track which was to be the western boundary. 
It was said to rise boldly from fifty to ninety feet above the lake, 
covered with a rich forest, intersected with beautiful ravines, and 
most suitable for the objects intended, and unsurpassed by a plat 
of equal size anywhere to be found. 

The Lake Forest Association now sold shares to those who 
wished to purchase it. Enough money was collected so that the 
required lands could be bought. The first purchaser was Franklin 
Ripley, Jr., who bought two shares. The shares were worded: 

This certifies that Franklin Ripley, Jr., is the owner of 2 shares of 
the capital stock in the Lake Forest Association, created in furtherance 
of the Articles of Association bearing date February 28, a.d. 1856. 
Said shares being $500 each and that he has this date paid the sum of 
$250 on account of his subscription to such stock. Said share is liable 
to further payment evidenced by three notes payable to the Trustees 
of said Association dated February 28, 1856, for the sum of $250 each 
and severally payable in 6, 12 and 1 8 months after date with interest 
at 6% per annum in pursuance of said articles and subject to all the 
provisions and covenants contained in said articles to which reference 
is made. 

This certificate is transferable by assignment below to the extent 
of the payment made and by the surrender of this certificate to the 
Trustees when a new certificate will be issued by them to the person 
or persons named in the assignment, such person or persons first af- 
fixing his or their name and seal to the said articles as provided 



H. F. Mather David J. Lake 
Chicago, Illinois Sylvester Lind E. H. Aiken 

April 5, 1856 Peter Page 

In a few weeks sufficient money was available so that the lands 
in the area could be purchased. Mr. Page owned a farm at nearby 
Wadsworth. He was a former Presbyterian minister of Devon, 
England. He had raised fine trotting horses, and had twice gone 
to California during the period of the gold rush. In Chicago he 
was the director of the Chicago Mutual Life Insurance Company 
and the Internal Revenue Assessor. He was a capable executive 
as well as a man of character and determination. He employed 
Samuel Dowst of Waukegan to act as purchasing agent. The latter 



examined the purchases and Judges Henry W. Blodgett and Clark 
W. Upton examined the titles, in Waukegan. In the summer of 
1856 purchases were made from the following property owners: 
Edward Lee was paid $2,000, William Swanton $1,794, Patrick 
Farrel $1,500, Patrick Conlin $1,000, Peter Mooney $840, and 
James Swanton $470. 

The Charter of Lind University was received on February 13, 
1857. It was titled: "An Act to Incorporate the Lind University. ,, 
Issued by the State of Illinois, it was written in longhand. This 
charter became the foundation of what was to become first of all a 
university in the classic sense, having four faculties, and secondly 
a supporting community which the Charter named Lake Forest. 

The Charter described the projected institutions as "schools of 
every description and grade, together with a college and seminaries 
or departments devoted to instruction in Theology, Law, Medi- 
cine, General or particular Sciences and Literature or the (Lib- 
eral) Arts." It specified "equal privileges of admission into all 
departments for students of every denomination of Christians." 

The Charter named a board of Trustees, limited to twenty 
names. Sylvester Lind was designated the first trustee, "the donor 
of one hundred thousand dollars to found a Theological Depart- 
ment in honor and recognition whereof the University (shall) 
bear his name." The complete roll of the trustees included: 

1. Amzi Benedict 1 1. Lewis H. Loss 

2. Asabel L. Brooks 12. Hiram F. Mather 

3. William H. Brown 13. Peter Page 

4. Thomas B. Carter 14. Robert W. Patterson 

5. Franklin W. Chamberlain 1 5. Charles H. Quinlan 

6. Harvey Curtis 16. Benjamin W. Raymond 

7. Ansel D. Eddy 17. Shubert G. Speer 

8. Devillo R. Holt 18. Charles R. Starkweather 

9. SYLVESTER LIND 19. Harvey M. Thompson 
10. Samuel D. Lockwood 20. Ira M. Weed 

Sylvester Lind's life-long ambition had been to found a Theologi- 
cal Seminary for the training of Presbyterian ministers. It was 
natural that much was said at this time about the location of the 
proposed Seminary. There was a diversity of opinion in the minds 
of the shareholders and of the Board of Trustees on the subject. 
Section 7 of the Charter provided that: "The Theological depart- 


The Lake Forest Association, iS 56-1861 

ment of the University may by a vote of 34 of the entire Board of 
Trustees of said University be located in or near the City of Chi- 
cago." This decision was affirmed by passing a resolution during 
the Association meeting of March 1857 which stated: "This Asso- 
ciation will and does hereby approve of the location of the The- 
ological Department of Lind University on the Lake Forest 
grounds or at or near Chicago." 

Another problem was dealt with at this time when the Associa- 
tion passed a resolution stating that: "The trustees be and are 
hereby instructed to lay out the cemetery grounds in the north 
portion of the lands belonging to the Lake Forest Association in 
the best manner for the interest of the Association." 

In the meantime, when the Association had collected in excess 
of $100,000 and the Lake Forest dream seemed to be progressing, 
Olmstead, Vaux and Company of New York City, who had just 
planned South Park in Chicago and Central Park in New York, 
was asked to design Lake Forest. This company recommended a 
young engineer, Jed Hotchkiss, from St. Louis, a landscape archi- 
tect, who went to work immediately and designed the future city 
of Lake Forest. 

Hotchkiss laid out the city in park style, as South Park in Chi- 
cago and Central Park in New York had been designed. He made 
the Lake Forest streets follow the natural curves of the ravines, as 
did the Deer Path which went from the second slough along the 
Milwaukee Railroad tracks, through the first slough, later known 
as the Skokie, winding its way eastward to the shores of Lake 
Michigan. He planned beautiful winding streets and spacious 
residential lots, affording privacy, and insuring sites for the con- 
struction of homes which would have natural drainage down to 
the streets on which they were located. The resulting maze of 
winding streets with irregular intersections has been a fertile 
source of humorous remarks and the cause of an unusual number 
of lost souls looking for particular addresses. Deer Path was de- 
signed eastward to present Sheridan Road; then it turned north- 
east to what is now Westminster, all the way through Lake Road 
to the edge of Lake Michigan. Nearly all of this original area was 
located in Shields township. 

In the Hotchkiss map every alternate lot was set apart for Lind 
University so that the proceeds from the sale of these lots would 



help finance the future institution. This left a surplus of 1,000 
acres which when sold for residential purposes, or for farming, 
would furnish the Lake Forest Association with sufficient funds 
for improvements. 

Four years later, Hotchkiss became the famous advisor, topog- 
rapher, confidant and important source of military success of the 
Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. In the first 
year of the Civil War, General Jackson and Jed Hotchkiss met a 
Union General in the Shenandoah valley, a man already distin- 
guished and decorated for gallantry in the Mexican war. He had 
fought at Vera Cruz and Cerro Gordo. This latter General was 
James Shields, Senator from Illinois in the 1850^ and the man 
after whom the township was named in which Hotchkiss had 
designed Lake Forest. 

It must be said that the Hotchkiss map was a work of art. Even 
today it impresses one with the beauty of his general plan, the 
rhythm of curves and the irregular contours created by the ravines, 
even suggesting the waves of the adjoining lake, and combining 
into an artistic whole. 

The Trustees of the Association now employed Samuel S. 
Greeley, the surveyor of the City of Chicago, to survey the lands 
purchased, and to plat the entire area designed by Hotchkiss. This 
was necessary before lots could be sold and recorded. The plat was 
recorded on July 23, 1857. It is possible that a large crew of sur- 
veyors took part in such a large project which was finished so 
quickly. The name Greeley does not appear on the plat. The name 
of Edmund Bixby is there as deputy County surveyor of Lake 
County. The plat was accepted by Judge George Manierre of the 
7th Judicial Circuit Court of Illinois. 

Judge Manierre literally rode the circuit, either on or behind a 
horse. He was to become a delegate to the Republican Convention 
which nominated Lincoln in 1 860, and the chairman of the Res- 
olutions Committee of that convention. He was the grandfather 
of Lake Forest Mayor Francis E. Manierre. 

Additional lands were purchased almost continually, even after 
the plat. In September 1858 William Swan ton was paid 
$1,794.32, Thomas Cole $1,224.33, and Pat Farrell $1,000. 
When it became generally known that the entire area was in the 
process of being purchased, several property owners required prices 
in excess of the original estimates. Others refused to sell properties 


The Lake Forest Association, 1 8 56-1861 

east of the railroad tracks, unless their properties west of the tracks 
were also purchased. The result was that twenty- three hundred 
acres were purchased instead of the contemplated twelve hundred 
acres. Most of the land was secured at $25.00 per acre, but some 
as high as $ 1 00 per acre. 

Lot 342 was bought by Joseph Sammons in 1844 for an undis- 
closed sum. In 1 849 William Swanton bought it for $400. Thomas 
Swanton purchased it for $450 in 1851. James Swanton bought 
it for $150 in 1854 and sold it to the Lake Forest Association in 
1856 for $1,340. 

The Association having purchased most of the area now an- 
nounced the terms for their sale to the general public. One fourth 
was to be paid in cash, the balance in one, two or three years, with 
6% per annum. Discounts, at the rate of 10% per annum were 
offered for pre-payment. On July 23, 1857, when the plat was 
recorded in Waukegan, the following sales were also recorded: 

W. A. Baldwin 

1.6 acres 

for $ 300 

Amzi Benedict 



T. B. Carter 



J. P. Chapin 



T. R. Clark 



Charles R. Day 



C. B. Farwell 



W. R. Gould 



D. R. Holt 



D. J. Lake 



S. J. Learned 



Sylvester Lind 



Joseph Meeker 



M. A. Neefe 



George W. Newcomt 

> 2.8 


Nathaniel Norton 



R. W. Patterson 



B. W. Raymond 



A. J. Sawyer 



H. G. Shumway 



Mark Skinner 



H. M. Thompson 



W. B. Topliff 



Chauncey Tuttle 



S. D. Ward 



P. L. Yoe 





In addition Edmund Bixby bought 7 acres at $5 1 per acre; and 
a man named Hight bought 14 acres at $57 per acre. Also on 
July 23, 1857, a deed was recorded, transferring Lot no. 99 in 
Lake Forest, to John V. Farwell and Charles B. Farwell by the 
Trustees of the Lake Forest Association for $1,320. The trustees 
witnessing the deed were Sylvester Lind, Peter Page, David J. 
Lake, Hiram F. Mather, Edward H. Aiken and Thomas R. Clark, 
all residents of the City of Chicago. W. F. Merriam, Notary Pub- 
lic, of Chicago, notarized it. 

A number of deeds issued between 1857 and 1861 contained 
a clause providing that: "No spiritous liquor shall at any time or 
under any pretense be ever made an article of traffic or sale except 
for strictly medicinal purposes in or upon said premises or at or 
in any house, store, or other building to be erected thereon." This 
clause persisted in many deeds even after 1900. 

The Trustees held several meetings at which bills against the 
Association were considered and paid. The Rev. J. J. Slocum pre- 
sented a claim for $1 ,250 for his services. The trustees decided that 
the claim was not just and that they would not pay it. Two weeks 
later they offered him $400 which he accepted. S. M. Dowst pre- 
sented a bill for services in purchasing land and for other services 
rendered the Association. It was voted to pay him $500 for said 
services, and Mr. Dowst agreed to receive that sum in full pay- 
ment. E. H. Aiken and D. J. Lake were appointed a committee to 
build and superintend the Hotel construction for which purpose 
$5,000 had been donated. They were to dig a well on the hotel lot. 
When the Lake Forest Hotel construction was completed, it was 
put in charge of Peter Page who operated it as a hotel and was paid 
$2,700 for three years of service as hotel manager and general 
superintendent of the Lake Forest Association 1859 to 1861. 
E. Mather was employed to superintend the contemplated im- 
provements in Lake Forest. He accepted. Jed Hotchkiss was paid 
a total of $1 ,500 for his design of the City of Lake Forest. D. J. Lake 
was paid $700 for his service as Secretary-Treasurer. Peter Page, 
Mark Skinner and Rev. R. W. Patterson were appointed a com- 
mittee to confer with the railroad company with reference to a 
depot and to make arrangements for the same. This resulted in 
the erection of the first station which was a modest structure. 

The major problem facing the Association in the spring of 1858 


The Lake Forest Association, 18 56-1861 

involved the clearing of sick and dead trees, grubbing out stumps, 
levelling, filling, and general cleaning operations. On May 15 a 
committee composed of Aiken, Page and Lake was chosen to con- 
tract for the cleaning of the streets and tending to the other prob- 
lems. If possible, they were to operate with no expenditures of 
additional moneys, hoping that the timber when sold would pro- 
vide the necessary finances. In one year Deer Path and West- 
minster were put in perfect order. The following year, 1859, the 
committee concentrated on the rest of the town plat, commencing 
with the most central part of Lake Forest, especially on those 
streets which would more readily show the results of labor. 

A road "back in the country to half day" (sic) was proposed 
and $100 was voted for the construction of the same. This was 
very likely due to Half Day's being the junction point from Lake 
County communities to Chicago by all horse-drawn transportation. 
It was also well known for its great number of saloons. The village 
itself may have been named after the local Indian, Chief Half- 
Day. However, in the 1880's and 1890's the fact that the village 
was considered a half day's carriage ride from Chicago gave rise 
to the popular belief that it was named for that reason. 

Peter Page was instructed to build a bridge on Winona Avenue 
across the "Raveine" between lots 18 and 19, the present Elm 
Tree Road north of Woodland Road, across the Clark's ravine, 
the northernmost and largest. He was also instructed to build a 
bridge on Mayflower Avenue between lots 180 and 191. This is 
the same spot by Ferry Hall where there is now a steel bridge. Also 
on Mayflower near lot 268 where there is another steel bridge 
about a half mile south. These bridges were to be completed within 
30 days, as were the grading of Westminster and several other 
streets near the center of the village. 

By 1 86 1 it became necessary to raise or reconstruct the bridge 
on "Deerpath Avenue," now filled in, north of the present Durand 
Art Institute. Reconstruction and repairs of roads and bridges be- 
came a continual activity as these were poorly built by modern 
standards and heavy rainfalls often damaged or completely washed 
away parts of roads or whole bridges. 

Hotchkiss had made Deer Path the most important street in 
Lake Forest. The earliest maps and documents variously refer to 
it as Deerpath or Deerpath Avenue or Deer Path. The original 



road had followed the natural deer path which led from the 
Skokie to the edge of Lake Michigan. In 191 5 the route of Deer 
Path east of Sheridan Road was altered to make it less confusing 
to people; but the original natural path to the lake was thus con- 
cealed. Before the coming of the white settlers, herds of fifty deer 
were said to have moved back and forth between the Skokie and 
the lake. In the early sixties there were still occasional deer wan- 
dering toward the lake but never in large herds. A few have been 
reported in the Lake Forest area even during the City of Lake 
Forest Centennial. 





When the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church met in 
Chicago in May 1858, a considerable portion of those convened 
made an excursion to Lake Forest, to see the situation of the new 
Academy and the proposed University. This visit introduced the 
project to the country at large. The Assembly saw the location of 
the Academy building, which was being built approximately 
where the Durand Art Institute now stands. Meals were eaten 
from the tree stumps in Triangle Park, at the present intersection 
of Deer Path and Washington and Walnut Roads. 

This visit produced Lake Forest's earliest recorded joke. When 
the passengers were discharged, somewhere near Deer Path, they 
made their way eastward, through clearings which were not ex- 
actly suitable for a comfortable walk. One of the party stumbled 
and fell into a deep hole. The next person in the party looked 
down and remarked: "Huh! A lay man!" The layman was the 
distinguished theologian Dr. Henry B. Smith, and the punster 
was a famous preacher of the day, Dr. Roswell D. Hitchcock. 

The first public building in Lake Forest had been completed in 
1857, the Lake Forest Hotel, later called the Old Hotel, and some- 
times the Clark Hotel. This hotel provided food and lodging for 
those who came from Chicago intending to examine and purchase 
lots. It was a white frame building and stood in the middle of 



present Triangle Park, just east of the railroad station. It cost 
$6,400, raised by $100 subscriptions. E. H. Aiken superintended 
the erection of the building. This hotel entertained many pioneer 
Lake Foresters, among them D. R. Holt, the Farwell brothers, the 
Durand brothers, Lockwood Brown and others. It was the meet- 
ing place for many picnic parties which came out from Chicago 
for a day in the country. In the i86o's the City Council met here 
part of the time. 

The Lake Forest Hotel was the first building used by the Lake 
Forest Academy. Just before the opening of school, a hotel em- 
ployee named Long was asked, for some reason, to leave his job 
in the Hotel immediately. He was paid $150 for doing so. Here 
classes were held in 1858 until January 3, 1859, when the Acad- 
emy building was formally occupied. A Chicago newspaper ad- 
vertisement advised prospective students to make application for 
the Academy at the Lind Block, in Chicago. This appeared on 
March 21, 1859. The Boys' Classical School which boasted of 
fifty pupils and held classes in the basement of the First Presby- 
terian Church of Chicago was disbanded in i860 as the enroll- 
ment of Lake Forest Academy increased by the same number of 

The first students in 1858 were John C. Patterson, John John- 
son, Ellery S. Miller, and William Atteridge. The station attend- 
ant, named Daniel A. Jones, was a part-time student. "Prof" 
Samuel F. Miller was the first teacher, and his first professorial 
chair consisted of a board across a nail keg. This was at least a 
variation of Mark Hopkins' proverbial log with himself on one 
end and a student on the other. 

Prof. Miller was an Amherst graduate, a member of the class of 
1 848. After finishing his work of building the railroad tracks from 
Chicago to Waukegan, he lived in the latter city, until the Acad- 
emy building was completed. He then lived in an apartment in 
the Academy building, where his son, Spencer, once crawled 
across the hall into the study hall and paid an unofficial visit, to the 
pride of the father and the delight of the students. Prof. Miller 
paid rent at $150 per annum for his apartment in the Academy 
building, until i860, when his house east of the old Academy, 
and north of present Deer Path was completed. 

At first Prof. Miller taught all subjects, but his favorite was 


Lake Forest Academy, iS 58-1863 

mathematics. He was a very religious man and had an important 
role in the organization of the first Presbyterian Sunday School, 
and then the Church. He was in the prime of life, strong and 
dignified. He believed the millennium was at hand. He helped 
organize the City of Lake Forest. His Academy salary was $1,400 
per annum. Among his duties he was bursar for the school, send- 
ing out bills to parents at the middle of each term, made payable to 
him until the close of the year when he rendered account to the 
executive committee. In the fall of 1862 he devoted himself to 
surveying projects in Lake Forest. At this time Prof. Milford C. 
Butler became the Principal of the Academy. In 1 868 Prof. Miller 
returned to Amherst, Massachusetts, becoming a professor of 
mathematics and engineering. 

During the first year of the Academy, the Lake Forest Hotel 
served as the school's dining room. Here student John C. Patterson 
established a local record by consuming 1 7 pancakes at one sitting. 
Until the turn of the century this Hotel continued to serve citizens 
and institutions. Families waiting for the completion of their 
homes resided here for a while. Parents visiting their student chil- 
dren found the Old Hotel convenient. 

The first Academy building stood on the approximate site of 
the present Durand Art Institute of Lake Forest College, and at 
the same angle. The contractor was William Loughlin; the archi- 
tects were Carter & Drake. It was surrounded by a twelve acre 
forest of oaks, elms, hickory, and majestic pines. The latter dotted 
the edge of the ravines surrounding the area. The white frame 
structure with green shutters underscored the idea that Lake For- 
est was the New England town of the West. At night, when the 
student candles or kerosene lamps gleamed from the windows, the 
sight was especially impressive. 

The cost of this building, $4,000, was raised by special subscrip- 
tion. Besides quarters for the head of the school, the first floor 
contained a chapel and a study hall. Second and third stories were 
dormitories. In May 1859 it became evident that the contractor 
would be unable to complete the erection of the building, and the 
roof was in a defective condition, demanding immediate repairs. 
The agreed price was too low for the specifications. Peter Page 
accepted the responsibility and supervised the needed construction 
and repairs. Sylvester Lind and Dr. Charles H. Quinlan as a com- 



mittee took the responsibility for removing certain red oaks and 
other trees partly or wholly decayed, and also "such smaller trees 
or trunks as were not desirable for shade or primeval beauty of the 
Academy grounds." These were replaced with saplings. 

Meals were served away from the Academy— first at the Hotel, 
later at the home of the Rev. and Mrs. Brainerd Kent, across the 
street on Deer Path. This house had been built by Sylvester Lind 
for the Kents. Mrs. Kent cooked, while her son Fred carved. When 
a friend of his asked for another small slice of meat, it was under- 
stood that a large one was wanted and he got it. Mrs. Kent was 
a motherly soul who would keep a plate on the back of the 
wood stove for a boy returning from Chicago too late for the reg- 
ular meal. The earliest graduates remembered her with affection. 
The boarding department was moved to the Academy building 
after March i860. Mr. and Mrs. I. M. Snodgrass were the care- 
takers of the school building during the early years. The students 
were granted half holidays on condition that they would work on 
the streets, grubbing out stumps, or shingling the Church roof. 

Most of the Academy classes were held in the one classroom 
with each boy occupying a separate desk. Prof. Miller sat on a plat- 
form. On the two top floors, where the boys roomed, there was 
no faculty supervision whatever. Discipline was enforced by the 
boys themselves. An early catalogue says: "It is expected that the 
students will govern themselves in this school as they would in a 
well regulated and refined home, and never forget that it is upon 
earnest work in the study room, and faithful teaching, that the 
reputation of any school should rest." 

The earliest debating society was formed in April, 1863, and 
called the Philologian Society. The constitution of the Society 
stated: "We the undersigned do declare ourselves an association 
for natural improvement in elocution, composition and debate; 
in the pursuit of which we desire to exhibit a due consideration 
for the feelings of others, and to seek truth in all our exercises." 

The first president was F. H. Kent; vice-president George 
Manierre; secretary-treasurer, C. R. Wilkinson. During the May 
first meeting it was jocularly moved that President Abraham 
Lincoln be elected an honorary member. The motion was lost 
when Mr. Gage objected. A week later, "William R. Stokes moved 
to consider the vote of the last meeting on the election of Abraham 


Lake Forest Academy, 1 8 58-1863 

Lincoln as an honorary member." This motion carried. 

The first catalogue, published during the school year 1861- 
1862, showed S. F. Miller, A.M., as Principal and teacher of 
Mathematics; Rev. William C. Dickinson, A.M., teacher of Lan- 
guages; C. E. Dickinson, A.B., a tutor. It said: "Applicants for 
admission must not be less than twelve years of age, and must pass 
examinations in the primary studies, including written arithmetic 
as far as common fractions." Forty-nine students were listed. The 
studies offered included Greek, Latin, Mathematics, English, 
Grammar and Geography. The estimated expenses listed were: 

Tuition— Collegiate Department $30.00 per year 

Higher branches of the Academic course 24.00 per year 

Common English branches 20.00 per year 

Room rent in the Academy building 6.00 per year 
Incidentals 2.25 to 2.50 per week 

Washing .50 per dozen 

Wood 2.50 per cord 

There was a friendly feeling between the village and the school. 
Thomas R. Clark, President of the yet unchartered Lake Forest; 
Dr. Charles H. Quinlan, the only medical man in town; and 
"Pappy" Lind, the number one citizen, were frequent visitors at 
the school. 

At first there was no gymnasium, and with the amount of phys- 
ical exertion required to maintain life, none was needed. As the 
Academy enrollment increased to fifty in three years, there was a 
round of required daily industry. Each boy fetched water from 
the well, cut wood for his own box stove, cleaned and supplied his 
lamps with oil, swept his room and made his bed. A full bath was 
a luxury, taken only in warm weather, and in the lake. The lake 
could be reached by the ravines which contained splendid springs 
where boys could always get a cold drink in hot weather. Hickory 
nutting was a favorite pastime, and many jagged holes were torn 
in clothing of boys who climbed the trees to shake the nuts to the 
collectors below. A favorite pastime, after supper, was to walk to 
the depot to see the trains come in. These were a source of interest 
and amusement for a good many decades, as records were kept 
of the names of the engines, which were those of the towns 
through which they passed. 



The boys' rooms were decorated with birds, butterflies, bugs and 
skins of animals. There were live creatures too. One boy kept 
garter snakes in his room, another entertained on his window 
ledges two beautiful flying squirrels, which were sleepy in the 
day-time but lively at night. Near Christmas time, a number of 
boys took a wagon, with Ellery Miller as driver, and drove into the 
woods near Lake Bluff to gather pine branches and trailing vines 
with which to decorate the Academy. 

While there were no organized sports, fishing tackle and a six- 
teen pound rifle were standard equipment in every boy's room. 
Rabbits, quail, duck and pickerel provided all the sport needed, as 
well as delicacies for Mrs. Kent's table. Hunting, fishing, and trap- 
ping were the most loved sports. There was an infinite variety of 
wild songbirds in the area, also game of every kind. Around the 
school area were black and fox squirrels and partridge, while west 
of the track were quail and prairie chicken in abundance. On the 
Skokie and in nearby ponds it required little shooting skill to get 
good bags of mallard, teal, wood duck, swans and other waterfowl. 
John Patterson and Vilasco Chandler got forty mallards in a little 
pond in the woods west of the track, and these two with George 
Manierre shot a hundred wild pigeons in the area of the Des 
Plaines River. On one occasion two Academy boys encountered 
three deer, but the bird-shot in their guns had no effect beyond 
causing the beautiful animals to bound gently out of sight. 

The ravines were wild and full of flowers, notably the lady 
slipper which grew profusely. In the spring, when the water was 
high, suckers used to run up the ravines and could be caught in 
great quantities. One spring the Academy boys reported a large 
pickerel in the Skokie marsh. Skokie, an Indian word, is said to 
mean "open marshy land." This area afforded the most pleasant 
sights and sounds : the booming of the prairie chickens, the twitter- 
ing of countless red-winged blackbirds, the notes of meadowlarks 
and bobolinks. Red-headed woodpeckers and blue jays added their 
harsh cries in contrast to their beautiful plumage. Throughout 
the night the weird hooting of the owls echoed through the forest. 

Lucien G. Yoe, a student 1 860-1 863, wrote: "In the spring the 
passenger pigeons flew north in flocks that almost obscured the 
sun. In the autumn during their migration south, when they lit 
in the oak trees to feed on acorns, one could bag three and four 


Lake Forest Academy, 18 58-1863 

in a single shot." These pigeons have been extinct a long time but 
are described as having soft rose breasts with delicate blue heads, 
wings in changeable green, blue and bronze with a pearl-like lus- 
ter. They came to the Lake Forest area when the Michigan nut- 
bearing trees had been stripped. Audubon claims that a flock con- 
sumed eighteen million bushels of acorns or beechnuts per day. 
Flocks are described as a mile broad, 240 miles long, each bird 
moving a mile a minute, and containing more than two billion 
birds. They came out of the sky with a great roar, the sun was 
darkened, but their wings flashed in the light. The sound was like 
the roar preceding a tornado. They landed in the trees. The forest 
boughs swung in rhythm like the waves on the stormy lake. The 
sound of their voices filled the air in an unending din. Boughs 
broke and crackled under the enormous weight. The whole forest 
became a vast chicken house, complete with the smells. Droppings 
covered the ground. Farmers resented their visits as one hour in 
a cornfield the flock could make a clean sweep of it. Farmers' pigs 
got fat on the dead pigeons. People shot them by the score and ate 
so much pigeon pie it came out of their ears. 

On June 25, 1859, occurred a massive picnic which the Wau- 
kegan Gazette reported: "A pleasant gathering met at the grounds 
of Lake Forest. At 9:45 a special train put out 700 individuals of 
both sexes and all ages, residents of Chicago, all bent on an in- 
nocent frolic. The party was accompanied by the Great Western 
Band and the Highland Guards in its peculiar uniform, not with- 
out the bagpipes." 

At 11:00 o'clock a Waukegan train brought three hundred 
additional picknickers. They were met by the Great Western Band 
and the Highland Guards at the station. They paraded the serpen- 
tine Deer Path, nearly a mile in length, arriving at the picnic 
grounds in the beautiful grove on the banks of the lake. Many had 
come from Libertyville, Half Day, and from Shields and Deer- 
field Townships. 

Peter Page was the master of ceremonies. He ascended the plat- 
form and made a few remarks in praise of Lake Forest. He ex- 
plained what the Association had done and intended to do. He 
said the future was cheering, then introduced William Bross of 
the Chicago Tribune who made a brief speech. He was followed 
by Dr. C. Volney Dyer, the prince of wits and director of the 


Underground Railroad, who made some humorous sallies. As a 
former army surgeon it was appropriate that he had everybody in 
"stitches." One of his witticisms is recorded by Thomas Hoyne 
who met him downtown in Chicago. The old cemetery was in 
present Lincoln Park. Beyond this, in 1840, only a scattering set- 
tlement existed. At that time Dr. Dyer moved to this area. Hoyne 
said to him, "Hello, Dyer, I don't see you often. Where do you live 
now?" "O, I am very comfortably situated, I have a new home 
beyond the grave," was the Dyer retort. 

The Chicago crowd left at 5 o'clock. The Waukegan crowd 
left soon after. Several Waukegan young ladies "waited for the 
10 o'clock train, fascinated no doubt by some of the Academy 

Baseball was introduced at the Academy in i860. It had been 
invented at Cooperstown, New York, in 1839. At least that has 
been a persistent report. It was an intramural sport in the 1860's 
and was played on the athletic field behind the Academy building. 
A home-run could be achieved by driving the ball into the ravine. 
This was the first and only athletic field in Lake Forest for several 
decades. The first baseball game with an outside team was re- 
ported in 1867, when the Academy team played the Waukegan 
Amateurs. The Academy team won 39 to 14. Edward D. Clark 
was the umpire. "Shinny," the antecedent of hockey, was popular. 
Football and tennis were as yet unheard of. 

In i860 there was a Young Ladies' Seminary, supported by the 
Lake Forest Association, a sister institution of the Academy. Its 
head was the Rev. Baxter Dickinson. His amiable daughters 
formed the faculty. Occasionally the girls came to the Academy 
to meetings of the Philologian Society to hear debates or elocution. 
There were also informal picnics including students from the 
Seminary and the Academy. This school, the antecedent of Ferry 
Hall, was located just south of the Holt residence and was discon- 
tinued when Ferry Hall was begun in 1869. 

When serious rumors of war were heard in 1 860, Colonel Elmer 
Ephraim Ellsworth of Mechanicsville, N.Y., came to the Academy 
during successive week ends and put the students through drills 
of various kinds and taught them to handle rifles. This was the 


Lake Forest Academy, 1 8 58-1863 

cause of much excitement at the Academy and in Lake Forest. 
These drills were held on the baseball grounds. The government 
had provided a Springfield army musket for each student. One of 
the boys trained, Edward J. Bartlett, later gave his recollections 
of the drilling and the long hikes taken through the country sur- 
rounding Lake Forest, the miles of double quick marching, the 
bivouac and the camp, and most of all how they enjoyed their 
gay yet dignified young commander. They called themselves the 
Ellsworth Guards. 

Elmer Ellsworth was already famous throughout the country 
as the organizer of military companies called the Zouaves. Arrayed 
in oriental costume: wide trousers, fez, and loose jackets, the orig- 
inal Zouaves were noted for their rapidity of movement and fe- 
rocity of courage as fighters in Algeria. Ellsworth, romantic by 
nature and a lover of the novel and dramatic, was attracted by the 
now famous and spectacular system, and sent to France for books 
fully explaining it, and set himself to acquire the language that 
he might read them. He drilled companies in Elgin, Rockford, 
Chicago and Lake Forest in Illinois, and in Madison, Wisconsin. 
In i860 he drilled a company of infantry which travelled about 
the country and gave military demonstrations, including one at 
West Point, by invitation, and another for President James Bu- 
chanan on the White House lawn. 

Ellsworth had studied law in Abraham Lincoln's law office in 
Springfield, Illinois, and was in charge of the train which carried 
Lincoln as President-elect to Washington. When the Civil War 
was imminent, President Lincoln called him to Washington, with 
the rank of Colonel. Ellsworth was the first officer to give his life 
for his country in the Civil War. He was shot by an innkeeper 
named James W. Jackson, in Alexandria, Virginia, after he had 
personally retrieved a Confederate flag from the roof of the Mar- 
shall House Hotel. 

Other favorite people of the Academy boys included Sylvester 
Lind who loaned his hunting dog for an expedition. When the 
dog was found reluctant to leave his master, Mr. Lind accom- 
panied the boys until the dog was willing to continue with them. 
Captain McLaughlin was another favorite. He was a carpenter 
and builder in Lake Forest. He never denied the use of his tools 
to any boy when the maple sap was running. Jock Steel enter- 



tained the boys with his clog dancing. Mayor and Mrs. T. R. Clark 
were very special friends of the Academy boys. "Nigger Joe," the 
village handy man, always whistling, always cheerful, was a pop- 
ular figure, a helpful companion to the boys. Dr. Charles H. Quin- 
lan took care of the boys in all their medical needs. Thomas 
Atteridge, Sr., who had built his log cabin in 1837 just west of 
Green Bay Road, frequently entertained Academy boys on his 
farm, especially during the hunting season. Everyone knew 
William Atteridge, his son, who was a member of the original 
Academy class. 

Lake Forest Academy was far away from the confusion and dis- 
tractions of the city, where boys and their teachers could find 
communion with nature and with God, as the founding fathers 
had intended. All town boys attended the Academy from the be- 
ginning until the turn of the century. Other students came from 
Chicago, a few from other states. The air, termed "salubrious" in 
the earliest catalogues, invigorated body and mind. Truly the 
early Academy students could agree with Pliny that Diana (God- 
dess of the chase) and Minerva (Goddess of wisdom) are natural 
bosom companions. By 1861, the faculty had increased to three, 
permitting Prof. Miller to concentrate on his great love— the teach- 
ing of mathematics. Studies included Greek and Latin, as men- 
tioned before, but Military Science was added in 1861 which 
study continued for two decades. Music was optional. Until the 
end of the Civil War the Academy offered a three year course. 

The first graduating classes were partial to Williams, Yale, 
Amherst and Princeton, in that order. The school library, just 
after the Civil War, boasted of 2,000 volumes. The first prize was 
the Peter Page Oratory Prize. References in the 1869 catalogue 
included well known Lake Forest and Chicago names, also Rev. 
Henry Ward Beecher, Brooklyn, N.Y.; Hon. Schuyler Colfax, 
Vice-President of the United States, Washington, D.C.; George 
L. Dunlap, General Manager of the Chicago and Northwestern 
Railroad Company; and Hon. Horace Greeley, Editor of The 
New York Tribune. 

Early family names in the earliest school lists include Charles 
G. and George D. Dyer, Walter Neef, Charles L. Page, Charles E. 
and George H. Quintan, Richard Stokes, and Edward L. Webster. 

On April 11, 1859, the Trustees of Lind University had a seal 


Lake Forest Academy, 18 58-1863 

designed for the institution. It was an open Bible with a closed one 
beside it, with the motto "Christo et Ecclesiae," for Christ and the 
Church. This is essentially the present seal of Lake Forest College. 
Among the early students was George Manierre, the author of 
the best description of the early days of the Academy and of Lake 
Forest. He attempted to practice the flute in the Academy attic, 
against the protests of his classmates. He was absent from Lake 
Forest long enough to be present in the Wigwam, convention hall 
in Chicago, where President Abraham Lincoln was nominated. 
He remembered that the boys had a lot of fun "jumping from one 
table to another before the delegates entered the Wigwam and 
came to order." One of his close friends in Lake Forest was young 
Bill Atteridge. Both loved to hunt with muzzle-loading guns. 
George furnished the powder and shot; Bill furnished the Atter- 
idge farm stocked with game. George Manierre was the son of 
Judge George Manierre who signed the original plat of Lake 





When the Lake Forest Association purchased all the lands to be 
included in Lake Forest, there were already a dozen or more farm- 
houses in the area: quaint, small, and simple. Several of these 
houses have survived as a whole or in part. A charming example 
of a house of this period is the west section of the Preston house 
at 1 260 North Green Bay Road. 

When the Academy building was finished, there were several 
new houses under construction. William Loughlin, the contractor 
of the Academy, was perhaps the first to build a home for himself, 
though he may not have been the first to occupy one. He is said 
to have moved into his own home on January 1, 1859. His house 
was erected on the south side of Deer Path and later moved across 
the street. It was occupied by Dr. Theodore Proxmire for several 
decades, in the new location, until it was torn down in i960, and 
the land converted to a parking lot for the Presbyterian Church. 

The Quinlan house, on the property just east of the present 
Lake Forest Library, is said to have been the first home to be oc- 
cupied. Dr. C. F. Quinlan moved to Lake Forest in 1859 and 
built his house that same year. A description by Mrs. Quinlan 
stated that the house was frame, built in Grecian style with large 

5 2 

Early Homes and Presbyterian Church, 1 859-1 862 

fluted columns, and stood on a terrace. A central walk, bordered 
with evergreens, led from the front of the house to a large tulip 
bed and a marble urn. A driveway around the house formed a 
semi-circle in front leading to the outside entrance. 

The grounds were well wooded, east and west, and contained 
giant oak trees while a parterre west of the terrace was ornamented 
by many choice flowering plants and numerous shrubs, as well as 
"scotch roses." In the front garden there was a large "grapery," as it 
was known in those days, filled with a variety of the most luscious 
white grapes. The house was white with green blinds. The rear 
grounds contained a large yielding orchard of pear, peach and 
apple, extending east, with a central walk bordered by currant 
bushes and the kitchen garden on the west. This house burned 
down in 1869. Dr. Quinlan built the present house the following 
year and sold it to S. B. Williams. This second Quinlan home was 
later occupied by Capt. I. P. Rumsey, and is now the home of 
Mrs. John Baker, Sr. 

Dr. Quinlan was one of the first medical men in Chicago to 
produce anesthesia by the use of sulphuric ether. He was a dentist, 
and the only medical man in Lake Forest until Dr. Henderson, a 
surgeon in the Civil War, came to town. Dr. Quinlan was also one 
of the founders of the Lake Forest Presbyterian Church and of 
the City of Lake Forest. 

In 1859 several other houses were built. Harvey L. House, a 
gardener, built just east of the present City Hall. Hugh Samuels, 
a carpenter who had worked in the construction of the Academy 
building, built on two lots immediately west of the present Chris- 
tian Science Church. The Hortons bought this house some ten 
years later and it is now lived in by members of the same family, 
the Wadsworths. This house stands in its original location on Deer 
Path. Rev. Yates Hickey built on Deer Path south and east of the 
present Lake Forest Public Library. Sylvester Lind built a cottage 
just east of the railway station, which was occupied by James 
Anderson until the completion of the latter's own house in 1863. 

Francis Nelson Pratt had come west on the Erie Canal. He set- 
tled in Waukegan. In 1857 he came to Lake Forest and took part 
in the construction of bridges, the Old Hotel, and the Academy. 
He served as depot-master when there were six trains a day. He 
also became postmaster and had a dry goods store next to his home, 



which he built in 1859. This house stood about where Martin's 
Drug Store stands. In the early days Mr. Pratt could see deer 
going by as he sat on his porch. This house was moved to the 
corner of Vine and Green Bay Road and is a part of the present 
home of the Wyndham Haslers. 

Gilbert Rossiter built in 1859 a house costing $1,200, on Deer 
Path south of Triangle Park. It had a porte cochere and a little 
bridge over the stream. In 1920 this house was moved to a lot just 
east of the Gorton School. Mrs. Norman B. Judd was a sister of 
Gilbert Rossiter and she together with her famous husband were 
frequent guests in this house. The Lawrence Robbinses and the 
Howard Gillettes owned it at various times. 

The Dickinson house stood in the middle of the block just south 
of present College Road and west of Sheridan. It was built in 
1859 by the Rev. Baxter Dickinson for his wife and four daugh- 
ters; but at the same time it served as the home of the "Dickinson 
Seminary for Young Ladies," beginning in 1859. Rev. Dickinson 
and his family, supported by the Lake Forest Association, operated 
this school until the establishment of Ferry Hall. At that time the 
Dickinson home became a boarding house. In 1877 it became a 
dormitory for girls of Lake Forest College, and the name was 
changed to "Mitchell Hall," after Maria Mitchell, a pioneer 
woman astronomer. In 1879 it was used by the Academy boys 
when their first building burned down. In 1900 Mitchell Hall 
was moved to the site near Hixon Hall of Lake Forest College, to 
become the South School. In 1917 part of Mitchell Hall was 
bought by the Charles B. Frenches and incorporated into their 
home on Mayflower Road. 

The D. J. Lake house was erected north of the Academy build- 
ing, on Deer Path, and was named "Forest Lawn." This is the 
1 96 1 H. E. Muzzey residence. The Lind House was the prede- 
cessor of the one now occupied by the Frank Woods family on the 
northeast corner of Deer Path and Washington Road. The first 
shed to serve as the Lake Forest railroad station was converted into 
the Lind kitchen. 

Sylvester Lind was the man after whom Lind University was 
named. He was a small but very bright man with penetrating 
eyes. A leader in the organization of the Lake Forest Association, 
he became the key figure in the chartering of the City of Lake 


Early Homes and Presbyterian Church, iS 59-1862 

Forest. He was well acquainted with the area of Lake Forest, 
when as a young bank messenger in George Smith's Bank in 
Milwaukee, he made weekly rounds to the Chicago branch bank 
with exchanges in his saddle bags. Four times he was to become 
Lake Forest's mayor. 

Lind had been a carpenter by trade when he first arrived from 
Scotland. He had been in the employ of Lord Aberdeen, Prime 
Minister of England, for five years. Arriving in Chicago in 1837 
he became a lumberman, a realtor, then an insurance executive. 
In the early 1850'$ he erected the Lind Block in Chicago which 
still stands in 1 96 1 , on the northwest corner of Wacker and Ran- 
dolph, one of the first Chicago skyscrapers, and seven stories high. 
This building survived the Chicago fire of 1871, one of the few 
structures in the loop area to escape. 

Lind was a very religious man, and his life ambition was to 
found and support a Presbyterian Theological Seminary in the 
Chicago area. However, during the world-wide depression and 
panic of 1857, just as Lind University received its charter, he lost 
so much of his fortune that he was unable to meet his promise 
to the Lake Forest Association, to make a donation of $100,000. 
Soon afterwards, Cyrus McCormick of the South Presbyterian 
Church of Chicago made enough money from his Henrietta 
reapers to import a Presbyterian Theological Seminary from 
New Albany, Indiana, to Chicago. This institution became the 
McCormick Theological Seminary. 

In Lake Forest "Pappy Lind" was a favorite throughout his life. 
When he visited the Reid family, the children would capture his 
hat and cane, so he would have to stay for dinner as they knew he 
wanted to do. At the end of the meal he would push his plate 
away and say three times: "And there we are," patting his knees 
with his hands. 

Several more houses were built in i860. The Samuel F. Miller 
house was built east of the Academy and on the north side of 
Deer Path. It was later torn down and a brick structure succeeded 
it, which was for long known as the Russel D. Hill house. In 1961 
it is owned by the Owen Wests. 

The Holt and Thompson homes were built simultaneously next 
door to each other. D. R. Holt was busy with his lumber business 
in Chicago, but Harvey Thompson persuaded him to build, saying 



he would watch the construction along with that of his own. The 
Thompson house stands today on the southwest corner of Deer 
Path and Sheridan Road. Harvey Thompson was quite artistic and 
had elaborate flower beds. The ravine was laid out in terraces, with 
vistas displaying statuary. Like other places this one had iron deer, 
and great urns here and there on the lawn. For years afterwards 
the college boys would knock down the deer at Halloween. There 
has been a succession of owners, among them the J. B. Durands. 
When a Mr. White owned it, he put up a fence so that the Holt 
children could not see the property to their north— one of the Holt 
horses had gotten into the White flower beds. The 1961 owners 
are the Paul Rowans. 

The Holt house, "The Homestead," is just about as it was in 
1 860. It stands at the north corner of College and Sheridan Roads. 
At one stage it was painted brown, a popular color at the time. 
When the family first arrived they lived in the back part of the 
house while construction was being completed. At first it was sup- 
posed to be for summer use only, though built substantially of 
brick covered with wood, with the first floor concrete. In 1861, 
the Holts stayed the year around and never went back to the city 
to their former home on Michigan Avenue where Orchestra Hall 
now stands. Mrs. Holt was thrilled with the educational facilities 
in Lake Forest— the Academy for her boys and the Dickinson 
School for her girls: 'They were private and there was nothing 
to worry about." The Holt gardens have been a great joy to Lake 
Forest residents for a hundred years, since the variegated colors 
and shapes of the flowers have been easily seen from close quarters 
by all passers-by. Red and yellow in the nineteen twenties, they 
became a more pleasing pink and blue in the nineteen fifties. 

In i860 Captain James H. Stokes built on Deer Path just east 
of the Academy grounds. His son attended the Academy next 
door. Captain Stokes was a West Point graduate. He enlisted in 
the Union army and as commander of the famous Board of Trade 
Battery became a Brigadier General of Volunteers. This property 
passed on to Carl Bradley, then to Henry C. Durand, and Clayton 
Mark. When the original house burned to the ground in 191 2, 
the Finley Barrells built the present brick structure. This house 
was next purchased by C. Frederick Childs, and is now owned by 
Newell Childs. 


Early Homes and Preshyterian Church, 1859-1862 

Nearly all the early homes had either greenhouses or conserva- 
tories, besides gardens and orchards. Houses had cozy fireplaces 
to heat them, long before central heating systems were invented. 
One grandfather spoke of his fireplace as "the bonniest flower in 
the garden." Almost all the upstairs shuttered windows opened 
out into little balconies, where children loved to go. Attics were 
filled with trunks and cedar chests, another favorite spot where 
children played. Oil lamps lighted these early houses. The simple 
"facilities" placed in some unobtrusive spot in the back yard were 
often of the same architecture as the house itself. 

Peter Page as manager of the Lake Forest Association, recorded 
that these early houses cost from $1,000 to $12,000. 

During the summer of 1858 Mr. Lockwood Brown and Mr. 
T. R. Clark of the Second Presbyterian Church of Chicago were 
two guests at the Old Hotel who wished to hasten the beginning 
of Christian education. On July 4, 1858, they called for a Sunday 
School class to be held in an old public schoolhouse which stood 
on Green Bay Road. Seven pupils reported for the first session, at 
which Mr. Brown presided as Superintendent, while Mr. Clark 
became the first teacher. Preaching services were conducted dur- 
ing that summer in the Lake Forest Hotel by the Rev. I. M. Weed, 
who resided in Waukegan. 

In March 1859, Sunday School was continued in the Hall of 
the newly finished Academy building. The superintendent was 
now Dr. Quinlan; Prof. Miller was the teacher, and Charles 
Vilasco Chandler, an Academy student, was the first Secretary- 

Church services soon followed Sunday School. By July 19, 
1859, the church members numbered fourteen, including two 
elders, Dr. C. H. Quinlan and Prof. Samuel F. Miller. At a special 
meeting of the Presbytery of Chicago, which was held at the 
Protestant Orphan Asylum near Wabash and 22nd Street, a peti- 
tion was presented, signed by several Lake Forest Presbyterians, 
requesting to be organized into "The First Presbyterian Church 
of Lake Forest." The petition was granted. Rev. C. L. Bartlett, 
Rev. Yates Hickey, and D. R. Holt, all of Chicago, were appointed 
to organize the church on Sunday July 24, 1859. Dr. Quinlan and 
Prof. Miller were ordained and installed as Ruling Elders. Prof. 
Miller became the first clerk of the session. The first Trustees, 



Erastus Bailey, Harvey L. House and C. H. Quinlan, were elected 
at a meeting on November 23, 1859. 

Other charter members of the Presbyterian church were James 
Anderson, Mrs. Elizabeth Baldwin, Miss Elizabeth Desencamper, 
Mrs. Jessie House, Miss Mary Lynch, Mrs. Charlotte H. Miller, 
Mrs. Ruth E. Quinlan, Hugh Samuels, Mrs. Elizabeth Samuels, 
James H. Wright, and Mrs. Eunice Wright. 

On the same Sunday evening, the Ruling Elders met with act- 
ing Moderator, the Rev. A. T. Norton, presiding, and completed 
the organization of the newly formed church. 

For the next two years church services were held in the Acad- 
emy chapel. At first there were no ministers to conduct the services 
and sermons were read by laymen. However, in the fall of 1859, 
when the Rev. William C. Dickinson, a minister of a Kenosha 
church, joined the Academy faculty as teacher of Latin and Greek, 
he began to conduct most of the Sunday services, sometimes as- 
sisted by the Rev. Yates Hickey and others. He served the church 
as part-time minister until 1 862, when he felt that he could not 
discharge his duties as teacher during the week and preacher on 
the sabbath, so he was replaced in July 1862, by a stated, supply, 
the Rev. A. H. Post, a student at Lane Theological Seminary of 

After the church services had been held at the Academy for a 
short while, it became apparent that the room was too small for the 
congregation as well as the forty-nine students. Moreover, it had 
not encouraged reverence on the part of the Academy boys to 
have Church in their school building. 

During a meeting on August 7, 1861, plans were made to erect 
a church building. On motion of Yates Hickey, it was resolved: 
"That the Trustees of this Society be requested to go forward as 
fast and as far as practicable in building a chapel 32 feet by 60 feet 
in lot number 1 16V2 at the point now staked for the purpose and 
that voluntary subscriptions in money and labor be obtained which 
it is possible to secure, and the same be expended on the building, 
with the understanding that the title to the said lot 1 16V2 is first 
to be secured before the commencement of the building/' The lot 
was bought from Dr. C. H. Quinlan, the present property, which 
cost virtually $300. By July 15, 1862, the building was ready for 


Early Homes and Presbyterian Church, iS 59-1862 

It was a Gothic cottage in the form of a cross, with a pointed 
roof and two low spires on either side of the front door. The win- 
dows were of clear glass. The building was completed with vol- 
untary subscriptions in money and labor. A loan of $300 for three 
years, without interest was arranged with the Synod of Peoria. 
This loan was subsequently paid back. The building was simple 
and small. It included a ten foot platform and a stove, which was 
later replaced by a furnace. The building had no basement. In 
1867, then in 1877, the building was enlarged to provide addi- 
tional room for the rapidly growing congregation. This church 
was torn down and the present church edifice was used for the 
first time in June 1887. 

D. R. Holt transferred his church membership from Chicago 
to Lake Forest in 1 86 1 , when the Holts became permanent Lake 
Forest residents. He was elected an elder and became the Super- 
intendent of the Sunday School, preparing his lessons every Sun- 
day afternoon for the next Sunday morning's lesson. His son 
Charles played the church organ. 

In July 1863, the Rev. W. C. Dickinson was again pressed into 
service and began to preach, giving up his teaching entirely. Sev- 
eral members of the small college class which he had been in- 
structing, suddenly was absorbed by the Union army. He was 
installed as the first pastor of the first Presbyterian Church on 
May 10, 1864, and served until his resignation on June 24, 1867. 
His salary as pastor was $400 per annum. 

When the church was completed, the furnishings included red 
cushions and a green carpet, which to some did not harmonize, 
creating a sharp difference of opinion. Mrs. Gurdon S. Hubbard's 
offer to buy the carpet, at cost, was accepted, and a new red carpet 
was bought, and harmony restored. The color of the outside paint 
also caused variations of opinions. This, too, was resolved when it 
was decided that whenever any color was unsatisfactory to anyone, 
that person had the right to change the color, at his own expense. 

The first business house in Lake Forest was a simple store on 
the northeast corner of Deer Path and McKinley in 1859. The first 
owner was James H. Wright, who sold it to Dr. C. H. Quinlan. 
The latter rented the building to Joel Hulbert, who lived upstairs 
and came down to open the store whenever a customer appeared. 
Many meetings of the early town trustees were held on the second 



floor of this building. Youthful Lake Foresters bought odds and 
ends here to break the monotony of school schedules. They could 
also buy chocolate creams. In 1862 James Anderson bought 
the building from Sylvester Lind and the business from F. B. 
Burchard and continued in this location until 1867 when he 
moved the building across the tracks, to the corner of Deer Path 
and Western. This new location became a landmark for the next 
thirty-five years. 

As construction continued in the early days the problem of 
creating a town cemetery was faced by the Lake Forest Associa- 
tion. During the March 7, 1859, meeting, the Trustees were "in- 
structed to lay out, adorn, beautify and fence in, in a suitable 
manner, the ground appropriated by a former meeting for ceme- 
tery purposes, to be called 'Ever Green Cemetery' and offer the 
same for sale. However, objections appeared immediately as it is 
undesirable to have the cemetery located within the limits of the 
village because it is regarded by the best physicians as objection- 
able on the score of health and because it will seriously impair the 
value of adjoining lots." As a result a Cemetery Association was 
formed and the Lake Forest Association Trustees conveyed the 
deeds for lots 1, 2, 3, and 7 (the present cemetery property) to 
the Cemetery Association. 

In February i860 $450 was raised by subscription to improve 
the cemetery. Fences were built, the grounds were cleared, the 
property was surveyed and platted and ten acres were added to 
the property. In 1863 the entire cemetery problem was absorbed 
by the City of Lake Forest when it received title to all the cemetery 
properties and a Cemetery Commission, composed of five resi- 
dents, was appointed by the Mayor. 

On April 2, i860, Lake County entertained a Springfield at- 
torney named Abraham Lincoln. The incident would have been 
forgotten had it not been reported in the Tribune on the next day 
and had it not become the favorite story of James Anderson of 
Lake Forest who was always proud to tell about it. 

This happened six months before the Republican convention in the 
Chicago Wigwam. Mr. Lincoln had been attending court in Chicago 
when "at the ernest solicitation of Lake County citizens" he came to 
Waukegan to deliver his address. His speech "followed the precepts 
of his Cooper Union address which was delivered in New York last 


Early Homes and Presbyterian Church, 1859-1862 

February. It was a masterful effort, characterized by precision of state- 
ment, simplicity of language, unity of thought, and withal a perfect 
sincerity that carried conviction. The address terminated somewhat 
prematurely due to a conflagration in town, which distracted the 
audience." The fire broke out on the flats on the Little Fort River, 
southeast from the hall where the rally was held. The glare could 
easily be seen shining in the windows of the room. Elisha P. Ferry, the 
chairman, rose and assured the audience that the fire was not near 
enough to endanger any of them. Mr. Lincoln made a second be- 
ginning, but the audience grew inattentive and gradually slipped 
away. Only a few remained, among them Jim Anderson. Mr. Lincoln 
turned to him and said: "Guess we might as well go to the fire too!" 
Had this rally been held six months later, after Abraham Lincoln had 
been nominated the Republican candidate for the President of the 
United States, the whole of Lake County would have been present 
and stayed to the end, come fire or high water. 

According to the Tribune story of April 3, the party which also 
included John G. Nicolay, Mr. Lincoln's Secretary, Norman B. 
Judd who nominated Mr. Lincoln to the presidential candidacy 
and was chairman of the Republican State Committee, were "en- 
tertained, following the address, in Lake Forest, at the home of 
Mr. Judd's brother-in-law," Gilbert Rossiter. At the time this house 
stood south of the Triangle Park and is now the home of the Jay 
G. Ridingers, on Illinois Road. 

In 1 860 there were probably two public schools in existence in 
the Lake Forest area. The first public school east of the tracks was 
a small white building on North Washington Road and just north 
of Triangle Park. It was sometimes called the Quinlan School. 
Roxanna Ward Beecher was the first teacher. She was a niece of 
Henry Ward Beecher, the famous Congregationalist preacher of 
Brooklyn, N.Y., and of his sister Harriet Beecher Stowe, the au- 
thor of Uncle Toms Cabin. Her father, Edward Beecher, was the 
president of Illinois College in Jacksonville, the first institution 
of higher education in Illinois. The Beechers were known as a 
family of reformers. Another little white school was soon built, 
perhaps in 1870, on the north end of the village near the inter- 
section of Western and Noble Avenues. Nearby stood the brick 
city jail. At this time one train each way each day provided the 
only contacts with Chicago. 

The promise of rapid growth of Lake Forest made the city 


fathers realize the need of drawing up a charter to incorporate 
the city. On June 3 and 6, meetings were held at the home of 
Sylvester Lind to make plans for an election to be held at the 
Lake Forest Hotel: "for the purpose of incorporating said town 
under the general laws of the State of Illinois. " M. A. Neef was 
chairman of these meetings, C. H. Quinlan, Secretary. Other 
members of the election committee were William M. Loughlin 
and E. Mather. A notice was issued for an election to be held on 
June 17, 1859, at the Lake Forest Hotel to decide whether or not 
to incorporate. The voters were required to have resided in Lake 
Forest six months or to be owners of freehold property on the 1 7th 
of June, 1859. The voters convened at 9:00 in the forenoon and 
voted in favor of incorporation, whereupon a request was drawn 
up and filed with the Secretary of State. On August 29, 1859, the 
store building of James H. Wright, on the corner of Deerpath 
Avenue and Depot Avenue was secured for a suitable place for 
town meetings and office for the Justice of the Peace. The room 
was 17 by 22 feet, with a closet, and cost $50 per annum for rent. 

The first town election was conducted in the Lake Forest Hotel 
on July 16, 1859, for the purpose of establishing officials, for an 
interim government until the charter should be received and ap- 
proved. The supervisors of the election were Thomas R. Clark, 
Erastus Bailey, William M. Loughlin, Harvey L. House and 
Charles H. Quinlan. Thomas R. Clark was elected President of 
the Trustees of Lake Forest. R. G. Rossiter was elected Secretary 
and James H. Wright, clerk. William M. Loughlin became No- 
tary Public. A marshal was elected to take care of the Council 
Room. Thirty-five "Rules and Order of Business of the Board of 
Trustees of Lake Forest" were drawn up. 

On November 19, 1859, the city fathers issued a petition stating 
that "Side-walks (boards) from the railroad crossing to the Hotel 
Crossing (Washington Road) on the north side of Deerpath Ave- 
nue is incomplete and broken in many places, consequently dan- 
gerous to pedestrians. Therefore it is ordered by the President and 
Trustees that side-walk be repaired and replaced in safe condi- 
tion." This sidewalk construction became a perennial activity as 
frost and weather caused the need for continual repair and re- 
placement, until cement came into vogue just before 1900. Mayor 
William S. Johnston, Jr., spent a great deal of time supervising 


Early Homes and Presbyterian Church, iS 59-1862 

the building of sidewalks in the i86o , s. W. B. Popliff and E. 
Rending did the work of construction. The property owners paid 
for the adjoining board walks. 

Another petition required the repair of the streets immediately 
in front of people's houses. Citizens hauled gravel from the lake 
shore and dumped it along the street in front of their properties. 
When the rains washed away these roads, citizens made continu- 
ous trips to the beach for more gravel, to make the necessary re- 
pairs. A. J. Sawyer, who lived just west of the Presbyterian 
Church on Deer Path, refused to sign the petition, and refused 
to make the necessary street repairs. This refusal may have pre- 
cipitated the employment of a city attorney in the spring of i860. 
In August of that year Francis N. Pratt was sworn in as constable. 
He took this oath, which has survived: 

I Francis N. Pratt do solemnly swear that I will support the Con- 
stitutions of the United States and of the State of Illinois, and that 
I will faithfully perform the duties of the office of Constable within 
and for the County of Lake in the State of Illinois according to law 
and to the best of my understanding, and I do solemnly swear that 
I have not fought a duel nor sent or accepted a challenge to fight a 
duel the probable issue of which might have been the death of either 
party, nor in any manner aided or assisted in such a duel, nor being 
knowingly the bearer of such challenge or acceptance since the 
adoption of the Constitution and that I will not be so engaged or con- 
cerned directly or indirectly in or about any such duel during my 
continuance in office. So help me God. 

Taken and subscribed before me 
this 17th day of August a.d. i860. 

William Loughlin 

Notary Public for the Town of Lake Forest 
Lake County, Illinois 

This same oath was taken by several hundred officials of the 
City of Lake Forest, before 1900. 

In i860 a copy of the Revised Statutes of Illinois was purchased 
by Lake Forest. Also a Market Clerk was appointed and hay scales 
were purchased, to insure honesty and fair dealing when farmers 
brought their loads of hay to Lake Forest. "Naturae et Scientia 
Amor"— the love of nature and science— was chosen as a motto of 
the City of Lake Forest and was placed on the city seal. 




The Charter arrived. It was titled "A Bill for an act to Incorpo- 
rate the City of Lake Forest/' bearing the date February 21, 1861 . 
It was signed by Governor Richard Yates and O. M. Hatch, Secre- 
tary of State. This document was written by hand and dealt with 
the usual subjects of taxation, police department, fire department, 
street and water departments. It also established a school district. 
It provided for a Mayor to hold office for one year. It established 
two wards, to be divided equally as to population, with two Alder- 
men to be elected from each ward. The Aldermen and Mayor 
were to constitute the City Council. 

The Charter required that voters should be 'all free, white, 
male and over 21." Provisions were made: "to restrain, prohibit 
and suppress tippling houses, dram shops, gaming houses within 
two miles of the University Park; within said City and within the 
limits of one mile beyond the boundaries of said city." A Mayor's 
court was established with "jurisdiction in all cases arising under 
the ordinances of said city" and declared the Mayor "entitled to 
such fees as are allowed in justice of peace for like services." The 
office of Mayor, although elective, has been occupied for a hun- 
dred years, by prominent citizens in turn, as a civic duty,, with no 
pay (with one exception), and all efforts have been made to keep 
it free from political patronage. 

On March 23, 1861, a poll was held at the Lake Forest Hotel, 
in order to approve or reject this document. There were four dis- 
senting votes. The list recorded twenty-nine voters: 

1. E. Bailey 

2. C. L. Bartlett 

16. S.W. Kellogg 

1 7. Fred Lake 

3. John Black 

18. William Loughlin 

4. Frank Calvert 

19. S.F.Miller 

5. Patrick Clark 

20. Andrew Moody 

6. George Cook 

21. William Nor kat 

7. Baxter Dickinson 

22. F.N.Pratt 

8. William C. Dickinson 

23. C. H. Quinlan 

9. M.J. Dunlap 
10. John Giles 

24. Gilbert Rossiter 

25. Luther Rossiter 

1 1 . Yates Hickey 

26. Hugh Samuels 

1 2. Harvey L. House 

13. J. H. Hulburd 

27. Terry Shealer 

28. James H. Stokes 

14. John Jackson 

15. Matthew Kelly 

29. Harvey M. Thompson 


Early Homes and Presbyterian Church, 18 59-1862 

On April 9, 1861, three days before the firing on Fort Sumter 
in Charleston harbor, South Carolina, which is considered to be 
the beginning of the Civil War, another election was held to fill 
the offices of mayor and aldermen. Harvey M. Thompson was 
elected the first Mayor. Erastus Bailey and J. H. Hulburd were 
chosen aldermen from the first ward; William M. Loughlin and 
Luther Rossiter from the second ward. 

The first city council meeting was held on April 13. S. F. Miller 
was named superintendent of public schools; S. W. Kellogg, city 
clerk; C. H. Quinlan, treasurer; E. Mather, assessor; W. M. 
Loughlin, marshal; and Erastus Bailey, street commissioner. The 
city marshal was the first police officer of Lake Forest. During 
this meeting the fee of the city clerk was fixed at $1 .00 per session. 
In 1862, H. T. Helm became the Superintendent of Public 
Schools in place of S. F. Miller, who became the first Postmaster. 

The first ordinance approved by the City Council read: "Be it 
ordained by the common council of the city of Lake Forest that 
no person elected to the office of Alderman of said city shall re- 
ceive any salary for his services as Alderman." In 1861 the city of 
Lake Forest had one park, Forest Park, on the lake front, with 
3,200 feet of lake frontage, a gift of the Lake Forest Association. 




i 860-1 870 

In January, i860, Chicago was the eighth largest city in the 
United States, with a population of 109,260, a fourfold increase 
in ten years. The total United States population was 31,443,000. 

The Medical School of Lind University had opened in 1859 
with thirty-three students, in the Lind Block in Chicago. Dr. 
Nathan S. Davis, a young Chicago physician, is given credit for 
this beginning. He was assisted by the following men in estab- 
lishing this school: Edmund Andrews, William H. Byford, Titus 
Deville, Ralph N. Isham, Hosmer A. Johnson, and David Rutter. 
Dr. Davis had been a pioneer in starting the American Medical 
Association in 1847. Now he and his faculty became pioneers in 
establishing the first basic requirements for entrance to and grad- 
uation from Medical School. The curriculum included a three 
year course. 

There were sounds of discord, however. On national issues 
Sylvester Lind had become involved in the Underground Rail- 
way. Increasing numbers of runaway slaves were coming, gen- 
erally from St. Louis, and with the help of several Chicago leaders 
were escaping to Canada by means of railroads, steamships and 
sailing vessels on Lake Michigan. Dr. C. Volney Dyer was the 
Chicago director of the Underground Railroad. As an executive 
of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad he secured trans- 


Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1870 

portation for thousands of Canada bound passengers. He har- 
bored many in his own home. He fought extradition of runaway 
slaves in the courts. In 1863 President Lincoln made him Judge 
of the mixed court for the suppression of the African slave trade. 
Captain Blake of The Illinois was a most efficient assistant of Dr. 
Dyer. He is said to have transported several hundred slaves from 
Chicago to Collingwood in Ontario, Canada. Philo Carpenter, a 
Chicago druggist, who established the first Sunday School in Chi- 
cago, escorted 200 fugitive slaves to Canada in one trip. The issue 
of slavery now overshadowed all other problems after the Dred 
Scott decision of the Supreme Court in 1857 decreed that slaves 
were property; and it was therefore illegal to consider them free 
when they crossed into a free state. The whole country now 
seemed open to slavery. 

The news that the fanatic abolitionist, John Brown, had seized 
the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, was published 
abroad on October 16, 1859. Brown had hoped that all slaves in 
the area would join him and he would lead them to freedom. After 
frantic calls for help, Governor Henry A. Wise finally brought the 
insurrection under control when Colonel Robert E. Lee invaded 
Harper's Ferry, with a company of marines and captured those 
still alive, including the leader, John Brown. The latter was exe- 
cuted for murder, criminal conspiracy and treason against the 
State of Virginia. 

Events were moving rapidly toward war. The Republican con- 
vention met on May 16, i860, in the huge wooden Chicago Wig- 
wam with 10,000 seats. It stood on the corner of the present 
Wabash Avenue and Wacker Drive. The nominating speech was 
made by Norman B. Judd, a Chicago attorney and an intimate 
friend of several Lake Forest residents and promoters, including 
the Rossiters and the Farwells. His speech was greeted with a 
prodigious response of screams, yells, shouts, and a stamping of 
feet that resounded in the panelled walls and shook the building. 
Thousands of black hats and white handkerchiefs were tossed into 
the air to the accompaniment of a mighty crescendo of cheering. 
Lincoln was nominated unanimously on May 18th as the crowds 
poured out into the Chicago streets to yell themselves hoarse. 
There was much carrying of fence rails, shooting of cannon, beat- 
ing of drums, and general bedlam. Everybody wanted to shake 



hands with the 'next President." On November 6, 1 860, Abraham 
Lincoln was elected President of the United States. 

There were many future Lake Foresters for whom the nomina- 
tion and election were banner days of their lives. Ezra J. Warner 
had come from Walpole, New Hampshire, to the Republican con- 
vention. He was so impressed by Chicago and the spirit of the 
West that he decided to stay, building his home in Lake Forest 
after the war. Calvin Durand, aged 20, went to the Tremont 
House after the nomination and shook hands with the Republican 
nominee. He built his home in Lake Forest after serving through- 
out the Civil War with the Board of Trade Battery. 

In contrast with the stimulation afforded by the nomination and 
election, the chartering of the city of Lake Forest, and the apparent 
progress made by the Lake Forest Association, prosperity had not 
claimed Lake Forest. People had begun to feel the panic of 1857 
and its consequences, and the quarrels over slavery made people 
cautious about new ventures. Several stockholders openly crit- 
icized the Association. Peter Page, Treasurer and agent, felt com- 
pelled to print a twelve page defense of himself and the Trustees, 
which he distributed to all members just before the meeting of 
March 1, 1861. 

It was known that several trustees had received pay. D. J. Lake 
had received $1,600, Peter Page $800, H. F. Mather $750, E. H. 
Aiken $300, T. R. Clark $100. Many Association members con- 
tended that the Trustees should not be paid, that improvements 
were unnecessary. Others objected that improvements had not 
been crowded forward rapidly enough. Some said that mortgages 
should be foreclosed and dividends paid. Other criticisms involved 
an improper accounting of disbursements. 

Peter Page answered each criticism point by point. He said 
Trustees were paid only for labors outside of their duties as Trus- 
tees, never anything like a full compensation. It was merely token 
pay for expenses incurred. He himself had spent far more out of 
his own pocket to serve the Association than he received. Improve- 
ments were authorized in Article 7 of the Association by-laws; 
besides they were voted by the members in a special election on 
May 28, 1859. Foreclosing mortgages would serve no good pur- 
pose, because the embarrassment of many is only temporary. A 
little patience would serve both good business and good religion. 


Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1870 

Every member was entitled to inspect the books of the Associa- 
tion, which were open to all at all times. 

Peter Page concluded: "During the past two years (and for 
which I have received no compensation), I have collected and 
disbursed more than $16,000, procured abstracts of title, perfected 
a number of titles, disposed of a number of lots, contracted for and 
superintended the building of three bridges and the grading of 
some miles of streets, most of which have been paid for in lands, 
and labored with many parties to induce them to pay up their last 
notes; have gone to Lake Forest, from Chicago, on the business of 
the Association, more than 300 times, collected about $2,000, paid 
out of my own pocket all my personal expenses, have examined 
personally and procured estimates for grading and bridging/' 

In August 1859, Rev. Robert Patterson and Hiram F. Mather 
had been appointed a committee to procure the services of the 
Rev. William Dickinson as an additional instructor at the Acad- 
emy, to assist Prof. Samuel F. Miller to organize a college class 
in the fall. The Church promised to raise $300 toward Rev. Dick- 
inson's salary. Some college subjects were taught beginning in the 
fall of 1859. 

The first Lake Forest Academy commencement occurred in 
June, 1 86 1. The first graduates included Charles Vilasco Chan- 
dler, Frederick Chapman, George Manierre, John C. Patterson, 
William D. Price and Ralph E. Starkweather. These continued 
as freshmen in the college course. Some of the boys were only 14 
years old. Their college studies included Cicero's De Officis, Livy, 
Xenophon's Memorabilia, Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, geometry, 
conic sections, declamation and English composition. The college 
course continued until the spring of 1862 when it was discon- 
tinued, as the older boys joined the armed forces. John C. Patter- 
son and George Manierre later attended Yale University. Stark- 
weather went to Williams College after the war and studied 
medicine later on. He practiced medicine in Chicago until his 
death in 1892. 

There were financial problems which forced the discontinuance 
of the Medical School of Lind University, though it lived on inde- 
pendently, and exists now ( 1 96 1 ) as the Northwestern University 
Medical School. The Theological School of Lind University was 
advertised to open in the fall of 1861; then the opening was de- 



ferred to 1862; then it was postponed indefinitely. This uncer- 
tainty was partly due to the fact that another Presbyterian 
theological school, McCormick Theological Seminary, had just 
been moved to Chicago from New Albany, Indiana, on May 13, 
1859. This school was at first called the Northwestern Theological 
Seminary. Cyrus McCormick's gift of $100,000 caused the trans- 
ference of the institution to Chicago. 

Lake Forest with perhaps less than four hundred people, nurs- 
ing a boys' and girls' preparatory school, continued during the war 
years as normally as possible. The first male child born in Lake 
Forest after the city was chartered was a war baby. Robert Davis 
Samuels was born in the house just west of Deer Path and Wash- 
ington, in 1862. 

The Academy boys were more than ever serious about military 
drill. Lake Forest Academy had its little share in the armed service 
and its losses too. C. Vilasco Chandler was wounded at Chicka- 
mauga. "A bullet went through one of his legs and made him lame 
for life." Chandler later became a Colonel on the staff of Gov- 
ernor Tanner of Illinois. Frederick Chapman was missing in ac- 
tion and was presumed killed. Wilbur T. Norton, the first editor 
of the Forest Gem, published in 1861, was a member of the 133rd 
Illinois Infantry. William Delano Price of Chillicothe, Ohio, a 
member of the 53rd Illinois Regiment, became a second lieutenant 
and lost his life in the battle of Big Hatchie on October 5, 1862. 
He had been an Academy student for two years. He had been 
sick when General Grant ordered his regiment to Corinth. During 
the battle "Willy" ordered his men to lie down and commence 
firing. He sat a little behind his men "telling them to keep low, 
and cheering them, when he fell. He fell, and died without a 
struggle." These four were Academy students. 

James Swanton of Lake Forest served in reconnaissance parties 
during the western campaigns, going ahead of the main body of 
the army to clear ambushes and to locate the Confederate army. 

Captain James H. Stokes, a West Point graduate and a teacher 
of Artillery at that institution, had built his home on Deer Path 
in 1 860. On July 23, 1 862, the Board of Trade Battery was formed 
in Chicago, and Stokes was elected Captain by acclamation. In 
September the Battery became a part of General Don Carlos 
Buell's army stationed at Louisville, then at Nashville. The story 


Civil War and Reconstruction, i860— 1870 

of this battery is the history of the war in the west, as it fought 
continuously in successive campaigns until the end of the war. 
After the battle of Nashville on December 1 5 and 16, 1 864, when 
all organized confederate resistance terminated in the western 
theatre, the Board of Trade Battery remained in Nashville until 
May, 1 865. One of the memorable days for the Battery was during 
the battle of Murfreesboro or Stone's River. Confederate General 
Breckinridge made a bold charge on the Union left. It seemed 
as though this would turn the Union flank and cause its retreat; 
but Captain Stokes and his comrades opened fire from a knoll 
on the massed columns with 58 guns. General Braxton Bragg re- 
treated after the failure of this final assault. General Negley said: 
"The promptness displayed by Captain Stokes in bringing his 
battery into action by my orders, and the efficient manner in which 
it was served, affords additional evidence of his marked ability and 
bravery as an officer and patriot." Stokes was commissioned Briga- 
dier General before the end of the war. 

A considerable group serving in the Civil War from various 
states made their homes in Lake Forest sometime after the war. 
This group included Samuel Dent, an ex-slave, born in Tuscum- 
bia, Alabama, according to his grave stone in the Lake Forest 
Cemetery. "Escaping from slavery he entered the Union army in 
1862," and served to the end of the war. He came to Lake Forest 
in the 1870*5, and until his death in 1898 was a much beloved 

Calvin Durand served throughout the war in the Chicago Board 
of Trade Battery, taking part in the campaigns of Generals Grant 
and Sherman. For a few weeks he was in Chicago in the winter 
of 1 863-1 864 on a recruiting mission. Returning, he took part in 
the battles of Chickamauga and Chattanooga, then in the several 
battles culminating in the battle of Atlanta. On July 10, 1864, 
just north of Atlanta, he was ambushed by Wheeler's cavalry and 
taken to the General's headquarters for questioning. The wagon 
train under his command had escaped. Sergeant Durand was then 
shipped to Anderson ville. He said: "After entering the stockade 
and closing the gates, the sights that met our eyes were simply 
appalling, and our hearts dropped within us. It seemed to me that 
we were really in the land of the Inferno." 

When Andersonville was under threat from Sherman's army, 



Durand was one of many transferred to other prisons. He was 
taken to Charleston, S.C., where 150 a day were being carried out- 
side and buried in long trenches. Then he was taken to a stockade 
at Florence, S.C., where he preserved his sanity by cutting wood 
outside the stockade, purchasing beans from Negroes, and selling 
them to his fellow prisoners. His next confinement was in Libby 
Prison in Richmond, Virginia, from which he was exchanged and 
returned to Chicago, arriving home at 3:00 in the morning. His 
family had presumed him dead. He returned to his Battery in 
Nashville, but the war was soon over. He built a Lake Forest home 
in 1875 and served as Mayor from 1891 to 1895. 

David Fales served throughout the war. Returning to Chicago 
he studied law and became a charter member of the Chicago Bar 
Association. He moved to Lake Forest, after the Chicago fire, and 
lived here until his death in 1926. 

Michael Fitzgerald was a member of the First Wisconsin Heavy 
Artillery. He volunteered at the age of sixteen in 1863 and served 
till the end of the war. He came to Lake Forest in 1 880 and helped 
to organize the Lake Forest Post of the G.A.R. in 1889, becoming 
one of the commanders. He died in 1927, the last survivor- of the 
G.A.R. in Lake Forest. 

Marvin Hughitt, a long time resident of Lake Forest after the 
war, aided the nation signally by keeping the trains moving to 
supply Union Generals Grant and Sherman with horse, gun, 
food and other supplies from Cairo, Illinois, southward, earning 
his title, "the Grand Old Man of the Railway World/' and a 
promotion in 1865 at the age of twenty-eight as General Super- 
intendent of the Illinois Central Railroad. Hughitt served the 
Northwestern Railway, from 1872 until his death in 1928, as 
General Superintendent, President, Chairman of the Board, and 
Chairman of the Finance Committee. 

George W. Huntoon, as a member of the Eighth Illinois Cav- 
alry Regiment, fought throughout the war in the eastern cam- 
paigns. He took part in the long Peninsular campaign and at 
Mechanicsville the Regiment fought a critical rear guard action 
until the rest of the command retreated to safety. At Gettysburg 
the Eighth Illinois, together with the Eighth of New York and 
Third Indiana Cavalry, a total of 800 men, were ordered to Cash- 
town, to make contact with the enemy. This they did, only to be 


Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1870 

overwhelmed by three Confederate divisions commanded by Gen- 
eral A. P. Hill, 25,000 rifles in all. In the retreat that followed into 
Cemetery Hill at Gettysburg, the Eighth Illinois was assigned to 
General Abner Doubleday, who later thanked the regiment pub- 
licly for saving his division from annihilation. The last assignment 
of the Eighth Illinois Cavalry was after the war, when the Regi- 
ment went into Maryland in search of the assassin of President 
Lincoln, John Wilkes Booth, whom they failed to find. During the 
four years of the war the Regiment captured seven Confederate 
flags, inflicted 4,000 casualties and freed 3,000 slaves. Huntoon 
came to Lake Forest after the war, and for years operated a bakery. 

Henry Mcintosh, a former slave, escaped from a Kentucky plan- 
tation through the Underground Railway and joined the 102nd 
Regiment of the United States Volunteers at Detroit, in 1863. 
He was nineteen years old at the time. He fought in several en- 
gagements in Georgia and South Carolina, taking part in Sher- 
man's March to the Sea. He was discharged on September 30, 
1865, at Charleston, S.C. He came to Lake Forest in 1871 and 
worked as a coachman and gardener. 

Abram Poole served in the quartermaster's department and was 
involved in the battles of Chickamauga, Chattanooga and Atlanta. 
He came to Lake Forest and built one of the first homes on the 
bluff, in 1884. 

Captain Israel Parsons Rumsey was the first to enlist in Taylor's 
Battery in Chicago, which he helped organize in April 1 86 1 . He 
was elected Second Lieutenant, then became Assistant Adjutant 
General on General W. H. L. (Lew) Wallace's Staff, then Chief 
of Artillery of the Second Division of the 15th Army Corps. He 
was commissioned Captain in July, 1864. 

Captain Rumsey fought under Grant, Logan, McPherson, 
Sherman and W. F. Smith. He took part in the battles of Fort 
Henry and Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg, Missionary Ridge, Look- 
out Mountain and Atlanta. General Wallace, after the capture of 
Fort Donelson called Captain Rumsey: "Active, intelligent and 
brave. Always ready to undertake orders, riding to any part of the 
field amid the hottest fire, his daring and coolness contributed 
much to the success of the day." Captain Rumsey brought his 
family from Chicago to Lake Forest in 1887 and lived on Deer 
Path on the old Quinlan property until his death in April, 1921. 



His son Henry Axtell Rumsey was Mayor of Lake Forest 1919- 

Captain Albert Robbins Sabin raised a company of volunteers 
in Vermont which became a part of the 9th Vermont Infantry. As 
part of Colonel Dixon S. Miles' command at Harper's Ferry, he 
was one of 12,000 captured by Stonewall Jackson on Septem- 
ber 15, 1862. This force had been trapped in a pocket and waited 
too long for reinforcements, which were so near, yet they never 
arrived. His regiment was paroled and sent to Kansas to fight 
Indians. At the end of the war they were mustered out in 
Chicago where Sabin began his teaching career in the public 
school system. He became a Principal of Lake Forest Academy, 
1 874-1 879. 

General Joseph Dana Webster, related to Daniel Webster, was 
a Dartmouth graduate and a civil engineer by profession. Early in 
the war he was attached to General U.S. Grant and became his 
Chief of Staff. He took part in the Forts Henry and Donelson 
campaigns; then at Shiloh he was credited with saving General 
Grant's headquarters when Confederate General Pat Cleburne 
made his final drive at nightfall on April 6, 1862. General Web- 
ster hurriedly collected miscellaneous artillery in time to defend 
it from capture. He was Chief of Staff to Grant again during the 
Vicksburg campaign, then became Chief of Staff to General W. 
T. Sherman during the last year of the war. General Sherman 
spoke in glowing terms of General Webster's service when he 
said : "He was one in whose keeping General Grant and I could 
always repose any trust with a sense of absolute security." Gen- 
eral Webster came to live in Lake Forest, on Deer Path, next to 
the Presbyterian Church, after the war. He became the collector 
of internal revenue in Chicago in 1 872, and about that time moved 
his family back to Chicago, where he died at the Palmer House 
in 1876. 

The war brought tragedy to The White House. When Presi- 
dent Lincoln's body was brought through Chicago from Wash- 
ington to Springfield, the Ellsworth Guards of Lake Forest Acad- 
emy acted as escort and guard of honor. They were taken from 
Lake Forest to Chicago in box-cars, the only available transporta- 
tion at the time. They escorted the coffin to the City Hall where it 
lay in state. They took part in a parade in Chicago, then escorted 


Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1870 

the body to its resting place in Springfield. Nelson Green Ed- 
wards was the drummer boy for the Ellsworth Guards and, dur- 
ing the funeral services, for the President. He later became a 
Colonel in the United States Army. 

There were hard times in Lake Forest during the war years. 
Many properties changed hands, as people wished to sell, but the 
buyers were few in number. The effects of the war, misunder- 
standings, bitterness of mind and spirit, and the final state of ex- 
haustion made their impact on Lake Forest; but this city some- 
how held on to its original ideals, and continued to build on its 
original foundations. One of the staunch supporters of Lake For- 
est was a dynamic little Scotsman with bushy eyebrows and a deep 
voice, named William Bross. He joined the board of trustees of 
Lake Forest University in 1865 and continued in this capacity un- 
til 1889. He was a former Principal of Ridgeway Academy at 
Goshen, New York, and a Lieutenant Governor of Illinois. He 
founded the Chicago Tribune. With his rich background of ex- 
perience, William Bross was a constant visitor to Lake Forest and 
contributed much to the development of her institutions. 

On February 16, 1865, the State of Illinois issued a new charter 
to the University. The first section stated: "Be it enacted by the 
people of the State of Illinois, represented in the General As- 
sembly that the name and style of Lind University created by the 
act mentioned in the title to this act, be, and the same is hereby 
changed to Take Forest University' by which name it shall here- 
after be known." 

The reason for this change has often been said to be that Mr. 
Lind had been unable to fulfill his promise of giving $100,000. 
It must also be noted that the name "Lake Forest University" had 
been used in the minutes of the Association as early as June 6, 
1856, and had appeared again in March 1861, indicating that 
this popular name would sooner or later supersede the legal title. 
Moreover, from the beginning, the first installment of the Uni- 
versity to be built was called Lake Forest Academy and not Lind 
Academy. Since Lake Forest Academy was the only visible part 
of the University during the years 1 858-1 865, it was natural that 
people continued to call the parent institution Lake Forest Uni- 
versity, even though the legal title was Lind University. The law 
was bound to follow the custom established earlier. Mr. Lind's 



chief interest in the University was the establishment of a 
theological school. Now that McCormick Theological Seminary 
had been confirmed, the name Lind University was no longer 

From i860 to 1870, Lake Forest increased her population to 
about 800. By the end of the Civil War, there were Negroes in 
sufficient number so that the members of the Presbyterian Church 
organized a Sunday School for Colored children, which met in the 
first public schoolhouse in the city of Lake Forest, just northeast 
of Triangle Park. In 1 866 the first Negro church was organized, 
The African Methodist Episcopal Church. A frame church build- 
ing was erected at the present corner of Maplewood and Wash- 
ington Road in 1870. This building was abandoned and early in 
the 1 Q2o's was moved north about fifty feet where it served as the 
Academy Infirmary for two decades. 

There was little home construction during the Civil War 
period. In 1861 the Alonzo Sawyers built a home just west 
of the Presbyterian Church. After the war this house was oc- 
cupied by General J. D. Webster. It is possible he was in Lake 
Forest on leave as his name is mentioned in the Council minutes 
of April 15, 1863. 

James Anderson purchased lot 324 for $350 on December 19, 
i860. Payments were made in labor in University and Mayflower 
(Ferry Hall) Parks. "He excavated and removed all dead and 
decayed trees and all stumps, also all logs and rubbish. He filled 
up all excavations to a smooth and level surface. Burning of logs 
and stumps was done on such locations so as not to expose to in- 
jury any standing trees." Having finished the work, he received the 
deed on June 1 , 1 86 1 . He began to excavate for his house on the 
day of the battle of Shiloh, April 6, 1862. This Anderson home 
became a landmark. It stood next to the southwest corner of 
Western Avenue and Illinois Road. 

In 1862, Henry T. Helm, a new superintendent of schools, 
built a home on the property now owned by William H. Mitchell 
on Rosemary Road. In 1 863 a house was built for the Rev. Wil- 
liam C. Dickinson, opposite the Stokes' on Deer Path, later known 
as the E. J. Learned house. Amzi Benedict built a home in 1865 
at the eastern end of present Deer Path. It has been occupied by 
the Bowes, the A. B. Dicks, the Colonel Harvey T. McElwees, 


Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1870 

and is the 1961 home of the Kimball Salisburys. Walter Frazier, 
architect, restored this house in the 1940^ to its original appear- 
ance. Dr. C. H. Quinlan remodelled the first schoolhouse at the 
corner of Walnut and Washington into a small home in 1867. 
For a time it became the home of Miss Annie M. Brown. In 1906 
it was bought by Ezra J. Warner, Sr., and his granddaughter Jane 
Warner Dick was born in this house. When the Warners built a 
large home on this location, the original house was moved to 334 
E. Westminster. In this location this house was for long known 
as the Sidney Burridge house. It is now occupied by Dr. A. J. 

E. S. Barnum built on Sheridan Road, incorporating in his 
home the first store in Lake Forest, the Wright store, the fore- 
runner of Anderson's. For long this was known as the Edward 
Samuel house and is now occupied by the Charles S. Werners. 
This house was completed soon after the Civil War. 

The J. V. Farwells built the present Robert Lehmann house, 
in 1869. The contractor was Leonard Double, who came from 
England to Lake Forest for this pioneer project: the first concrete 
house in America. The cement for this house was imported from 
England. The construction was described as "hand poured con- 
crete." The architecture was said to be "a turreted baronial castle, 
quaint and picturesque." The interior was finished in black wal- 
nut and cherry. Three other buildings were built in the same way 
—the J. V. Farwell barn which has been converted into a home, 
the house of Abby Farwell Ferry 5 just north of Lake Park, which 
has been razed to make room for a ranch house, and the house 
which Double built for himself with the remaining cement, on 
the corner of Spruce and Elm Tree Road. He also built many of 
the earliest Lake Forest cement sidewalks. For years the Farwell 
barn was the sports arena for all the young Farwells and their 
friends. Here boxing, wrestling, and cock fights took place. All 
four concrete buildings were built within a few years. 

Senator Charles B. Farwell built a house in 1869, across the 
street and south of Deer Path. He and his brother had bought their 
joint property in 1857 but did not build for twelve years because 
of their activities during the Civil War, and frequent trips to Eng- 
land. The C. B. Farwells stayed at the Lake Forest Hotel from 
time to time before their house was finished. He named their home 


"Fairlawn." The architect was Frederick Law Olmsted. This prop- 
erty contained the famous Farwell Pond, and the house was espe- 
cially remembered for an extension which was an art gallery, 
lighted through windows in the roof. Both Farwell homes on Deer 
Path had elaborate formal gardens and each had a large green- 
house. The C. B. Farwell house burned to the ground in January 
1920; the estimated loss was $150,000. 

In 1870 the Henry C. Durands moved into the Carl Bradley 
house, which had originally been built by Captain James H. 
Stokes in i860. This house was described as "a large English 
cottage. " Lands were sold several times during the i86o's at low 
prices, in order to make up deficits for the Lake Forest Association. 
There were even outright gifts of land, to families which had 
donated moneys when the Association was first formed. J. V. Far- 
well received several acres along the lake front as a present, be- 
cause he had bought a share for which he had donated $500. At 
this time land along the lake and at the end of town, so far from 
the business district and transportation, was considered almost 
worthless. The lake front was thought to be damp and unhealthy 
for year around habitation. As the town grew during the later 
decades, the lack of adequate sewer systems in these areas made 
these properties somewhat less than desirable. 

City Council problems, during the i86o's, revolved chiefly 
around the subject of money. Sale of lands, taxes, special assess- 
ments, improvements, schools, salaries, streets, alleys, sidewalks, 
bridge-building, repairs and elections were the principal subjects 
dealt with. In i860, a sidewalk on the south side of Linden (Col- 
lege Road) was authorized. In 1861 a "side walk 5 feet 4 inches in 
width, well spiked down was ordered for the north side of Deer- 
path Avenue." S. F. Miller was paid $18 for surveying in the 
Cemetery. In 1862 the Public School Library was given a sum 
of money for the purchase of new books. F. N. Pratt and Gilbert 
Rossiter were elected inspectors, the publication of taxes in the 
Waukegan Gazette was permitted, and a poll list of 34 names was 
compiled. In 1 863, the Forest Cemetery Association lots and prem- 
ises were transferred to the City of Lake Forest for Cemetery pur- 
poses, the city accepting it. In 1864 it was decided that evening 
school for adults should be discontinued. This school had been 
conducted, for three Negro and ten white men, three times a 


Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1870 

week, and was taught by H. D. Din who received $8 per month 
for his services. The sessions were two hours long, from seven to 
nine, at night. The city clerk was authorized to procure signs and 
place them upon bridges, with the notice of an ordinance against 
fast driving. On December 3 1 a citizen's meeting was held "for 
the purpose of considering the expediency of amending the City 
Charter." In 1865 Miss Sweet was hired by the City Council at 
$45 per month as a teacher in the public schools. S. F. Miller was 
paid $16 for surveying for the city. In 1868 an ordinance was 
passed "That no person shall without permission of the City Coun- 
cil slaughter, dress, or pack, any cattle, calves, sheep or swine 
within the limits of the City of Lake Forest." This ordinance was 
frequently disobeyed even after 1900. 

The City Council reports showed that Roxanna Beecher re- 
ceived $25 per month as teacher 1 860-1 863. The superintendent's 
report indicated that the number of pupils in the Public Schools 
increased to 48, in 1862, then dropped to 36 in 1864. In 1865 the 
number of pupils increased to 46, while the 1 868 report showed an 
enrollment of 106 pupils. 

During one quarter of Miss Beecher's teaching, $13.25 was 
spent for the installation of a lightning rod on the schoolhouse. 
I. M. Snodgrass undertook to supply heat for the school during the 
winter of 1 862-1 863, but had trouble obtaining sufficient fuel. 
$2.00 was spent for washing and cleaning the school, 90^ for 
chalk pencils, 30^ for a school register. A suitable bookcase for 
the school library was furnished by private subscription. Rules 
for the library were submitted to the City Council for approval. 
A school clock was recommended, the want of which had been felt 
by the teacher and the school. 

The Townline Road, later called 59A or Kennedy Road, 
separating Vernon and Libertyville townships, was laid out 
and surveyed in March 1862. Judge George Manierre of the 
Circuit Court in Waukegan approved and accepted the survey 
on March 20. 

In the fall of 1863, when the school enrollment had dropped 
to 36 pupils, the new superintendent, Prof. M. C. Butler, who also 
served as Principal of Lake Forest Academy, recommended that: 
"Text books in the common school of Lake Forest shall be the 
same as are used in the public schools of Chicago for scholars of 



the same grade." The following year it was reported that "Music 
had been used with good success, and a prize for good attendance 
(was) provided by the Superintendent out of his own pocket/' 
The subjects taught included geography, practical arithmetic, 
writing, history of the United States, algebra, and mental arith- 

In 1868 Hugh Samuels, the carpenter, built a new public 
school— on Noble Avenue, near Western, on the west side of the 
track. In 1861 a public meeting was held in School House No. 3 
and it would be logical to assume that at that time there were 
already three schools in the area. The exact number of schools in 
the 1860's is difficult to determine because of the lack of evidence. 
But there was no confusion in the mind of Luther Rossiter, the 
Superintendent of Schools 1 865-1 869. He philosophized on 
teachers and students: "There have been some scholars in the 
school of such unruly dispositions as to severely try the patience 
of the teachers. There is no such thing as a perfect teacher. It is 
often the case that women can maintain better discipline and give 
pupils a better intellectual drill than the majority of men." 

Soon after the Civil War, "Guv" Marshall, an ex-slave, -came to 
Lake Forest Academy to be the janitor. He was exceedingly reli- 
gious, and very popular with the boys. He served the Academy for 
about thirty years and was a well known person about town 
throughout his life. 

The Academy building was rebuilt and enlarged in 1865 at a 
cost of $20,000. This improvement nearly doubled the amount of 
floor space. Towers and a full basement were added, and the build- 
ing was raised so that it now had four stories, the new basement 
becoming a dining room and kitchen. 

In February 1865, Green Bay Road, also known as the "Mili- 
tary Road" or the "Chicago and Milwaukee Road," was relocated 
to come within the corporate limits of the city of Lake Forest. This 
change from the present area of west Lake Forest, was no doubt 
due to the need for higher ground, to insure better facilities and 
drainage for the ever increasing traffic, especially between Chicago 
and Milwaukee. 

The first record of a cultural community evening was a "Soiree 
Musicale," given in the Hall of the Academy on June 28, 1866. 
Joseph Matteson was the soloist. Other performers were Miss E. 


Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1870 

French, Mr. and Mrs. Ansorge, William A. Bond, and Miss Kitty 
Lind, the only child of Sylvester Lind. Miss Lind is remembered 
for driving about town in her carriage with a bow on her whip. 

The first newspaper, The Forest Gem, an amateur effort, was 
published by two Lake Forest youngsters, Wells C. Lake, 15, and 
William J. Fabian, 13. They set up a little printing press in the 
back of David Lake's grounds, across the street from the Academy 
building, and published monthly missives. Advertisements in- 
cluded one for Anderson, Lind & Company— Dry Goods, Sta- 
tionery, Crockery and Wooden Ware. Another for John Giles, 
advertising ice cream and fruits. In July 1867, they wrote: "We 
notice horses and hogs still running at large. These horses seem 
to have the full run of the city. They run up and down the streets, 
get in the way of trains, besides scaring children into fits. Will not 
someone pen them up? The city promises to pay five dollars for 
each animal so taken up, and fifty cents a day for keeping the 
same." A year later, on July 7, 1 868, the boys were repaid for their 
efforts, as the City Council voted: "That the Mayor be directed 
and empowered to employ a suitable person to enforce the city 
ordinances and the laws relating to stock running at large and 
that said person be paid out of the city treasury for such work." 

In the early sixties the business section of Lake Forest was on 
the east side of the railroad tracks. By the end of the decade it had 
gradually moved to the west side, on Western Avenue. In 1867 
Augustus Taylor opened the first meat market. Samuel Blackler 
bought the business in 1874, and in 1895 built the present Black- 
ler building— the first three story building, setting a pattern for 
the future business district. In 1868 Joseph O'Neill, a copper- 
smith, tinsmith and sheet metal worker, opened a hardware store 
as well, near the present Jaeger Pastry Shop. His wife operated 
the hardware store at first. During the first year of the hardware 
store, the stock was valued at $1 ,000. The following year the hard- 
ware store was moved a half block south, opposite the railroad 

In 1867 there was heavy erosion of the bluffs along the lake 
front. Mayor Harvey Thompson had Forest Park hill repaired that 
year. There was a heavy traffic of wagons and teamsters to the 
beach, where free sand and gravel were secured and delivered for 
a fee to the front of any homeowner who wished to be free of mud 



and dust. Gradually the city fathers became aware that this traffic 
may have been at least partial cause of periods of heavy erosion. 
Suits were brought against the teamsters, and free procurement 
of sand and gravel was finally stopped. 

On September 2, 1 869, Ferry Hall, the sister institution of the 
Academy, opened her doors. The first catalogue published that 
same year declared that: "Ferry Hall, the spacious and elegant 
edifice occupied by the institution, is a model of fine architecture, 
constructed of Milwaukee bricks and commanding an extensive 
view of Lake Michigan and its various navigation. It is lighted 
with gas and warmed by steam and all the appointments and sur- 
roundings are tasteful and commodious." The school was in- 
tended to complete the education of the young lady students, as 
the College proposed in the original charter was intended to be 
for men only. 

Ferry Hall was named after the Rev. William Montague Ferry 
of Grand Haven, Michigan, a Presbyterian minister, who had 
been a missionary to the Indians on Mackinac Island. A pioneer 
educator, he had established a school for Indian children- with an 
enrollment of 150 students. Over a hundred were boarding schol- 
ars, clothed, fed and lodged by Mr. Ferry and his family. Many 
came from more than a thousand miles. The boys were taught 
mechanical trades and the girls, serving and house work, in addi- 
tion to their scholastic work. Mr. Ferry was head of the school and 
pastor of the mission church. The project was discontinued in 
1834. He then returned to Grand Haven, Michigan, a city which 
he himself founded. Here he gradually accumulated land and 
funds. When he died on December 30, 1867, he left $35,000 to 
Lake Forest University, $15,000 of which was for the erection 
of a building for a female seminary. His interest in a school for 
girls may have been due to his early teaching in female seminaries 
and having been a principal of one in Massachusetts. Mrs. Ferry 
was a close friend of Mary Lyon, the founder of Mount Holyoke 

The original Ferry Hall building cost $60,000. It was 120 feet 
long and 54 feet wide with a basement and four stories of class- 
rooms and dormitory space. The school opened with 66 students, 
some from as far as Maine and Massachusetts. The first Principal 


Civil War and Reconstruction, 1860-1870 

was Edward Payson Weston of Maine, who served until 1876. 
The lady Principal was Miss Emily M. Noyes. Ferry Hall replaced 
the Dickinson Seminary for Young Ladies. The curriculum em- 
braced a four year course. The references in the first catalogue in- 
cluded several Lake Foresters, also James G. Blaine, Hannibal 
Hamlin and L. M. Morrill of Washington, D.C. The catalogue 
also envisioned a four year college course for women in addition 
to the preparatory school. All extravagance in dress was discoun- 
tenanced. The simple and tasteful were encouraged. It was spec- 
ified that "clothing should be plain, without puffs, rufflings or 
elaborate trimmings." During Miss Sprague's incumbency, Ferry 
Hall Bible classes were conducted by Mr. D. R. Holt. 

On march 11, 1869, the City Charter was amended and ap- 
proved. The new charter contained 16,000 words, while the 1861 
charter had consisted of only 6,000 words. It was an expanded 
and more detailed version based on eight years' experience in city 
government. New city officials were created: A City Surveyor and 
Engineer, a City Clerk, a City Attorney, a City Treasurer, a City 
Assessor, a City Marshall and Collector, a City Supervisor and a 
City Sealer. Duties of all officials were defined in detail. 

The two wards were expanded to three, giving the City Coun- 
cil the authority to "create additional wards" as the need arose. 
The Mayor's Court was discontinued. The mayors from 1861 to 
1869, Harvey M. Thompson, William S. Johnston (Jr.) and 
David Lake being Chicago business men, had been too busy with 
their occupations to devote sufficient time to the conduct of a 
court, nor were they qualified to pursue legal justice, having had 
no legal training. Instead, the City Council, with the advice of 
the new City Attorney, was empowered "to enforce the observance 
of all rules, ordinances and police regulations, and to punish viola- 
tions thereof by fines, penalties, and imprisonment . . . but no 
fine or penalty shall exceed five hundred dollars, nor the imprison- 
ment, six months, for any offense." 

The City Council members became "ex-officio, fire wardens and 
conservators of the peace within the city." The four stated meet- 
ings were changed to twelve, one in each month. The 1861 Char- 
ter had stated that "no tract of land exceeding ten acres within the 
territory (of the City of Lake Forest) shall be taxed for general 



city purposes." This was amended, as ten acres were changed to 
thirty acres, and it was added that "the same shall bear a propor- 
tionate share of taxes for school purposes." The sale of intoxi- 
cating liquors was prohibited within the city. Defaulters to the 
City or State were made ineligible to hold office in the City of 
Lake Forest. Apparently one or more city officials had failed to 
meet their tax obligations, but there had been no machinery set 
up to deal with such delinquencies. Punishment for illegal voters 
was prescribed. 

The Mayor was authorized "to call upon any and all white male 
inhabitants of the city or country, over the age of eighteen (18) 
years, to aid in the enforcing of the laws of the state or the ordi- 
nances of the city." All residents over twenty-one were required 
to perform street labor for three days in each year or to forfeit 75^ 
per day for each day so neglected or refused. Soon Aldermen and 
Firemen were exempted from this service and the forfeit price 
was left to the discretion of the City Council. No doubt the rising 
prices during and after the Civil War made it impossible to secure 
substitute labor for 75^ per day. The 1861 Charter had provided 
that the City of Lake Forest would "erect and keep in repair hay 
scales," so that farmers and purchasers alike would be protected. 
Now the rule was made all inclusive requiring: "all traders and 
dealers in merchandise or property, which is sold by measure or 
weight, to cause their measures and weights to be tested and sealed 
by the city sealer, and to be subject to his inspection." 

By the end of the decade (1870), Lake Forest had grown to be 
a quaint little town, with a few rickety bridges, across a few of 
its many ravines, or roads that detoured around others. There were 
board walks on several streets, and residents carried lanterns when 
they went out at night. One man who failed to carry a lantern, 
suddenly found himself deep in the Farwell Pond. Many of the 
villagers owned cows, which were gathered each morning by an 
enterprising young man and pastured in the vicinity of the Mc- 
Cormick estate, at the southern end of town. For this service the 
lad received fifty to seventy-five cents per week per cow. Lake 
Forest was proud of its "natural beauty and healthfulness. Here 
the annoyances of the great city could be avoided; at the same time 
the metropolitan advantages were only thirty miles distant. The 
community boasted of religious toleration and brotherly love." 




i 870-1 880 

Under an act of the Illinois Legislature a group of Chicago in- 
vestors bought three hundred acres of land just south of May- 
flower Park on March 5, 1867. They paid $80,000 for the property 
and erected an ' elegant" Hotel in keeping with the traditions set 
during the previous ten years of Lake Forest's existence. It was 
called The New Hotel to distinguish it from the Lake Forest 
Hotel which was now called The Old Hotel. This new structure, 
completed on November 18, 1870, had everything. Overlooking 
the high bluff above the lake, it commanded a superb view. It was 
located just south of Ferry Hall, on what is now the Schweppe 
estate. It was a six story frame structure with sixty rooms, capable 
of accommodating one hundred and twenty guests. It boasted gas, 
hot and cold water, bathrooms, and all modern improvements of 
the period, including telegraph wire service. Its auxiliary build- 
ings included an ice-house, laundry, stables and sheds. It enjoyed 
the shelter of forest trees and provided drinking water, second to 
none, from an artesian well. The New Hotel traffic to and from 
the station necessitated the installation of the first twenty-four oil 

street lamps "upon avenues and principal corners throughout the 


The New Hotel had the advantages of a happy combination 

of hotel and a modern country club, one of the earliest to achieve 



such forms of luxury. But it lacked one thing: safety. It was a 
firetrap. An attempt to build a fireproof building had been made 
in the Lind Block in Chicago, but generally, no serious effort was 
made to fireproof any homes or public buildings in Chicago or 
Lake Forest. 

At this time a list of twenty Lake Forest residents was published, 
containing names which were familiar in Chicago but intimate 
in Lake Forest. The list included these: 

Amzi Benedict, of Field, Benedict & Company 

J. V. Farwell, Hon. C. B. Farwell, of]. V. Farwell & Company 

T. Helm, Esq., Attorney 

W. V. Kay, Banker 

T. J. Kirk, ofT.]. Kirk &• Company 

Colonel William S. Johnston, Capitalist 

D. J. Lake, Real Estate 
Sylvester Lind, Real Estate 

Simon Reid, of Reid Murdoch & Fisher 
Henry C. Durand, of Durand & Company 
John Buckingham, of ]. & E. Buckingham 
William Warren, of London Liverpool and Globe 
H. M. Thompson, of the Brevoort House 

E. S. Wells, of Wells & Faulkner 

E. J. Warner, of Sprague, Warner & Company 

Hon. William Henry Smith, of the Associated Press 

William H. Ferry, Capitalist 

Samuel D. Ward 

E. S. Skinner 

The topic of conversation revolved around the Franco-Prussian 
War which began in 1870. With Europe three weeks away there 
was little personal interest except for the fact that Norman Judd 
had served as Ambassador to Prussia during the Lincoln adminis- 
tration and his family now resided in Lake Forest. 

On Sunday, October 8, 1 871 , a fire broke out in Chicago which 
burned out the heart of the city and seemed to put an end to all 
her future hopes and dreams. Following an extended dry spell, 
the fire began in the southwest section of the city, and swept 
across the river, north and east propelled by a strong southwest 
wind. The present area of the Chicago Loop burned completely, 


Ordeals by Fire, 1870-1880 

leaving only a little more than the Lind Block intact. The fire 
extended northward to Fullerton. The southern boundary was 
Taylor Street. In the west it was generally arrested by the Chicago 
River. Mayor R. B. Mason sent frantic calls to outlying fire depart- 
ments, but nothing availed. Thousands saved their lives by taking 
shelter in the waters of Lake Michigan. Some three hundred died 
attempting to save something or somebody. Chicago had been 
built too fast and too cheaply. The fire cost $200,000,000 with the 
loss of 18,000 buildings. 

When the fires had abated, looting, lawlessness and violence 
raised their ugly heads. The Mayor issued a proclamation stating 
that "The preservation of the good order and peace of the city is 
hereby entrusted to Lieutenant General Philip H. Sheridan, U.S. 
Army." General Sheridan did his duty quickly. 

Both of the Presbyterian Churches, First and Second, in the 
latter of which the idea of Lake Forest had been conceived and 
planned, were left a mass of rubble. Only the stone walls of the 
Second Presbyterian Church stood defiantly. The Chicago homes 
of many of the backers of the Lake Forest Association were de- 

Mrs. David Fales wrote her mother to assure her that she and 
David were safe. She wrote: 

Sunday night a fire broke out on the West Side, about three miles 
southwest of us. The wind was very high, and David said it was a bad 
night for a fire. About two o'clock we were awakened by a very bright 
light, and a great noise of carts and wagons. Upon examination, David 
found that the fire was not at all on the North Side, but was burning 
so furiously on the South Side that the whole sky was bright. They 
thought it would stop when it came to the river, but it proved no ob- 
stacle, and the North Side was soon on fire, and Wells and La Salle 
streets were crowded with carts and people going north. 

We saw that with such a wind it would soon reach our neighbor- 
hood, and David told me to pack what I most valued. It seemed useless 
to pack in trunks, as every vehicle demanded an enormous price and 
was engaged. Several livery stables were already burned, and loose 
horses were plenty. One of the Wheeler boys had a horse given him 
for nothing. He took it home and tied it in their yard. Having no 
wagon, it was no use to him, so David took it, and after a while suc- 
ceeded in finding a no-top buggy. David packed it full, set me and 
himself on top, and started off to the Hutchinson's. 

8 7 

Everybody was out of their houses without exception, and the side- 
walks were covered with furniture and bundles of every description. 
The middle of the street was a jam of carts, carriages, wheelbarrows, 
and every sort of vehicle— many horses being led along, all excited and 
prancing, some running away. I kept my seat by holding tightly to the 
trunk. The horse would not be restrained, and I had to use all my 
powers to keep on. I was glad to go fast, for the fire behind us raged, 
and the whole earth, or all we saw of it, was a lurid yellowish red. 

David had taken everything out of our house, and buried the piano 
and books, together with the china, in Mr. Hubbard's grounds. The 
Hubbards thought they were safe in a brick house with so much 
ground around it; but wet their carpets and hung them over the 
wooden facings for additional safety. It was all to no purpose. David 
saw ours burn and fall; then theirs shared the same fate. 

The West Side was safe; but to get there was the question. The 
bridges were blocked and some burned. Some carts had broken down, 
horses had given out, and many people were walking and pulling big 
things, and seemed almost exhausted. Furniture and clothing lay all 
along the road. After a ride of two hours and a half we reached Judge 
Porter's at dusk, and found a warm welcome. 

I never felt so grateful in my life as to hear the rain pour down at 
three o'clock this morning. That stopped the fire. David says the piano 
burned under the ground. The North Side is level, as is the burned 
part of the South Side, so that the streets are not distinguishable. Peo- 
ple in every class of life are out of doors. The churches are full, and 
food is sent to them, but hardly anyone has any to spare. 

William Bross, ex-Lieutenant Governor of Illinois and Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees of Lake Forest University, wrote a 
description of the Chicago fire which was published in The New 
York Tribune of October 14, 1871. He said: 

I reached the (Chicago) Tribune office, and, seeing no cause of ap- 
prehension I proceeded to the Nevada Hotel, my property, on the 
corner of Washington and Franklin streets. I remained there for an 
hour watching the progress of the flames, and contemplating the de- 
struction going on around. The fire had passed east of the hotel but 
it soon began to extend in a westerly direction, and the hotel was 
quickly enveloped in flames. I became seriously alarmed, and ran north 
on Franklin street to Randolph to get back to my house which was on 
Michigan Avenue, on the shore of the lake. My house was a part of 
almost the last block burned. 

At this time the fire was the most grandly magnificent scene that 


Ordeals by Fire, iSyo-iSSo 

one can conceive. The Court-house, Post-office, Farwell Hall, Tremont 
House, Sherman House, and all the splendid buildings on La Salle 
and Wells streets were burning with a sublimity of effect which awed 
me; all the adjectives in the language would fail to convey the in- 
tensity of its wonders. Crowds of men, women, and children were 
huddling away, running first in one direction, then in another, shout- 
ing and crying in their terror, and trying to save anything they could 
lay their hands on, no matter how trivial in value; while every now 
and then explosions, which seemed almost to shake the solid earth, 
would reverberate through the air and add to the terrors of the poor 

I crossed Lake Street bridge to the west, ran north to Kinzie Street 
bridge, and crossed over east to the North Side, hoping to head off the 
fire. It had, however, already swept north of me, and was traveling 
faster than I could go, and I soon came to the conclusion that it would 
be impossible for me to get east in that direction. I accordingly re- 
crossed Kinzie Street bridge, and went west as far as Des Plaines Street, 
where I fortunately met a gentleman in a buggy, who very kindly 
drove me over Twelfth Street bridge, to my house on Michigan Ave- 
nue. It was by this time getting on toward five o'clock, and the day 
was beginning to break. On my arrival home I found my horses al- 
ready harnessed, and my riding horse saddled for me. My family and 
friends were busily engaged in packing, and in distributing sand- 
wiches and coffee to all who wanted them. I immediately jumped on 
my horse, and rode as fast as I could to the Tribune office. I found 
everything safe; the men were all there and we fondly hoped that all 
danger was past. But a somewhat curious incident soon set us all in a 
state of excitement. The fire had crawled under the sidewalk from 
the wooden pavement and caught the woodwork of our basement. We 
believed that the building was fireproof. My associates, Mr. Medill and 
Mr. White, were present and, with the help of some of our employees 
we went to work with water and one of Babcock's fire-extinguishers. 
The fire was soon put out. Many kind friends gathered around the 
office and warmly expressed their gratification at the preservation of 
our building. 

Believing all things safe, I again mounted my horse and rode south 
on State Street to see what progress the fire was making, and if it were 
moving eastward on Dearborn Street. To my great surprise and horror 
I found that its current had taken an easterly direction, nearly as far 
as State Street, and that it was also advancing in a northerly direction 
with terrible swiftness and power. 

I saw that some wooden buildings and a new brick house west of 

8 9 


the Palmer House had already caught fire. I knew at a glance that 
the Tribune building was doomed, and I rode back to the office and 
told them that nothing more could be done to save the building. In 
this hopeless frame of mind I rode home to look after my residence 
and family, intently watching the ominous eastward movement of the 
flames. I set to work, with my family and friends, to move as much 
of my furniture as possible across the narrow part east of Michigan 
Avenue, onto the shore of the lake, a distance of some three hundred 
feet. Never did friends toil more loyally than ours did for us. They 
saved most of our books, furniture, pictures, etc., that were left to us. 
Some that were not friends helped themselves to whatever struck their 
fancy when opportunity offered. 

My coachman filled my buggy with some harness, a bag of coffee, 
and other articles, and left it with his friends on the lake shore. That 
was the last I heard of the buggy or anything that was in it. My daugh- 
ter supposed that I had hired an express wagon that stood at the door, 
and I supposed that she had. We filled it full of goods and furniture. 
The driver slipped off in the crowd, and that was the last we heard of 
any part of the load. These were slight affairs compared with what 
many others suffered by the thieving crowd. I sent my family to the 
house of some friends in the south part of the city for safety. 

For six or eight hours Michigan Avenue was jammed with every 
description of vehicle, containing families escaping from the city, or 
baggage wagons laden with goods and furniture. The sidewalks were 
crowded with men, women, and children all carrying something. One 
woman was carrying an empty bird cage; another some dirty, empty 
baskets. Anything that could be hurriedly snatched up, seemed to have 
been carried away without judgement or forethought. 

In the meantime the fire had lapped up the Palmer House, the 
theatres, and the Tribune building. We saw by the advancing clouds 
of dense black smoke and rapidly approaching flames, that we were 
in imminent peril. Having got out all we could out of my house, about 
1 1 :oo a.m. on Monday, the 9th, I sat down by my goods, which were 
piled up indiscriminately on the lake shore. Soon I saw the angry 
flames bursting from my home. Quickly and grandly they wrapped up 
the whole block, and away it floated in black clouds over Lake Michi- 
gan. Early in the afternoon we began to send our goods south by teams, 
and by sundown all that we had been able to save was distributed 
among friends south of Twelfth Street. 

The next morning I was out early, and found the streets thronged 
with people moving in all directions. To me the sight of the ruin, 
though so sad, was wonderful— giving one a most peculiar sensation, 


Ordeals by Fire, 187 0-1880 

as it was wrought in so short a space of time. It was the destruction of 
the entire buisness portion of one of the greatest cities in the world! 
Every bank and insurance office, law offices, hotels, theatres, railroad 
depots, most of the churches, and many of the principal residences of 
the city, a charred mass— property almost beyond estimate gone. 

While Mr. White and I were saving our families, on Monday after- 
noon, Mr. Medill, seeing that the Tribune office must inevitably be 
burned, had sought for and purchased Edward's job printing-office, 
1 5 Canal Street, where he was then busy organizing things. When I 
arrived, Mr. Medill was among the printers, doing all he could to get 
ready to issue a paper in the morning. On Halsted street I located four 
stoves which I wished to purchase for the Tribune company, but the 
owner required *de money for dem stoves.' On Saturday our note would 
have been good for $100,000, and on Tuesday we could not buy four 
stoves on credit. Messrs. Edward Cowles and E. S. Wadsworth fur- 
nished the cash with which the stoves were bought and the Tribune 
was printed, the day after the fire. But money soon began to flow in. 

By 4:00 p.m. the stoves were up, the clerks were taking advertise- 
ments, arrangements were made to print on the Journal press, next 
door. A council was called and it was agreed that I should start for 
Buffalo and New York that evening to get needed materials for the 
print shop. About 8:00, I took the middle of Canal Street, south to 
Twelfth, east to Clark, then south to Sixteenth and just saw the cars 
(train) moving away. Nothing was to be done but to return to 607 
Wabash Avenue. This was one of the most lonely and fearful tramps 
of my life. No street lamps, few people in the streets, and there were 
good reasons to give them as wide a berth as possible. 

Another sleepless night; and in the morning as I sat sipping my 
coffee over some cold ham, I saw Sheridan's boys, with knapsack and 
musket, march proudly by. Never did deeper emotions of joy overcome 
me. Thank God, those most dear to me, and the city as well are safe; 
and I hurried away to the train. Had it not been for General Sheridan's 
prompt, bold, and patriotic action, I verily believe what was left of the 
city would have been nearly, if not quite entirely, destroyed by the cut- 
throats and vagabonds who flocked here like vultures from every point 
of the compass. 

The Manierre home stood at the southwest corner of Michigan 
Avenue and Jackson Boulevard where the Continental Assurance 
Building now stands. George Manierre "used to shoot wild pigeons 
out of the locust trees in his father's front yard. The lake then 
extended to the middle of present Michigan Avenue. The Illinois 



Central came in on a viaduct from the south to Randolph Street, 
some few hundred yards from the shoreline." 

During the Chicago fire he sent his mother and three younger 
brothers in the family carriage to the Atteridge farm in Lake Forest 
as being his only thought of refuge for them at that time. When he 
saw the flames had engulfed his father's house, he went in his rowboat 
to the Illinois Central viaduct and tied up, to see if he could get a 
needed rest. The viaduct was crowded with refugees and he heard 
some rough masculine voices whispering: "Let's dump that boy out of 
his boat and take it and get out of here." George Manierre beat them 
to it and high-tailed it for Lake Forest where he arrived in the morning, 
having rowed all night. He came through the woods in the morning 
with a few of his books, his hunting dog and gun, his sole possessions 
he had salvaged from the Chicago fire. Miss Fanny Atteridge said he 
arrived at the Atteridge farm "black with soot and had had nothing 
to eat for two days and two nights." 

Years later when he told this story to his son, Francis thought 
that was quite a row. "No," replied the father. "It wasn't, when 
you had no other choice and when you were young and husky. 
And besides I could land on the beach pretty nearly anywhere 
then for a rest, which you couldn't do now, with all the forbidding 

Miss Fanny Atteridge added that the Manierre carriage which 
had carried many notables in its day, rotted and fell to pieces in 
the Atteridge barn. The only useful purpose it served in the barn 
was to provide a nest for the mother cats and their kittens. 

The people of Chicago were faced with the decision of whether 
to start life over amid the charred rubble or to join friends who 
had moved north along the railroad. To help people make up their 
minds, several attractive advertisements appeared describing the 
virtues of Lake Forest. One of these was in the North Chicago, in 
1873, which said: 

At Lake Forest the ideal of suburban beauty is certainly reached. 
There is probably no place in the United States which combines 
within itself such a culmination of landscape beauty as has obtained 

The rolling and diversified country, which has been gathering and 
swelling at this point, now masses in a grand effect, which is as beauti- 


Ordeals by Fire, 1870- 1SS0 

ful as it is remarkable. The features of scenery which prevail here are 
of all kinds— the level and placid, the gently undulating, the vigorous 
and wild, with gorges almost similar in depth and grandeur to those 
observed in mountainous countries, and looking, therefore, peculiarly 
unique and beautiful in this land of level prairie. At this point one is 
justified, if ever, in becoming poetical, for it does seem, that nature 
having here exhausted her generous mood, and having become wildly 
prodigal in her gifts, has flung down upon the whole her wreaths of 
flowers and her evergreens, and proclaimed this her ideal. 

We need such a natural prodigy near Chicago, and here it is. The 
limits of this domain have, fortunately, come into the possession of a 
cultured and wealthy people, and nature has been supplemented by 
the art of cultivated men. The residences erected here on the com- 
manding sites are unsurpassed in architectural beauty and costliness, 
while the grounds and ravines have been adorned by every variety of 
horticulture and floriculture of which it is possible to conceive. 

Another enthusiastic promotion appeared in Our Suburbs 


This is one of the oldest and altogether the far excellence of Chi- 
cago's suburbs. 

The village at present numbers about 1,200 inhabitants, represent- 
ing more millions than probably any other equal number of people 
similarly situated in the west. 

Lake Forest, it is safe to predict, now that it has a place to put people, 
will ere long become one of the favorite summer resorts of the country. 
Long Branch (N.J.) is a mud puddle beside it. Parties locating here 
will secure unexceptionable society, if they are worthy of entrance. 

A distant observer in the early 1870'$ wrote somewhat less en- 
thusiastically in the Portland, Maine, Transcript: 

Not after the fashion of any other city is it built; it can never have 
been triangulated or quadrangulated; there is nothing rectilinear or 
rectangular about it. A man must be very upright, he must be, to live 
here, and very orthodox too, if he would have peace, but he can do 
nothing "upon the square"; he cannot even walk straight to his neigh- 
bor's house, his ways will certainly be winding and tortuous. Hogarth's 
"curved is the line of beauty" is drawn here with a free hand. If any 
one desires to make a visit for the first time on a friend residing here, 
let him not think to surprise him by dropping in upon him unawares, 
for he is himself in danger in this labyrinthian place of being surprised 



by nightfall in the midst of his search through these meandering 

Another group of articles praised Lake Forest Academy. The 
Chicago Daily Tribune in a June 1873 issue wrote: 

The opinion which we hold of Lake Forest Academy cannot be a 
subject of doubt. We can but recommend it to all interested in educa- 
tional matters, as one of the best managed and most prosperous in the 
West— or in the land. 

The Chicago Daily Post reporting on the same date wrote: 

The growth of Western scholarship, and the degree of excellence 
which can be attained was finely shown in the closing exercises at 
Lake Forest Academy, which has long had so enviable a reputation. 

Sylvester Lind who had lost one fortune in the panic of 1857— 
1858 had made a strong recovery by entering the field of fire in- 
surance and real estate. Now that the Chicago fire had wiped away 
his second fortune, he devoted himself, undaunted to public serv- 
ice and became the Mayor of Lake Forest for four terms in the 
1870*5. His election to this office was a great tribute to the citizens 
of Lake Forest as they respected him when he was wealthy and 
loved him when he had lost his fortune. In May 1 872 Sylvester 
Lind requested of the City Council to borrow the "City screws for 
one day for the purpose of raising (his) house." As Mayor he spent 
much time rebuilding the many bridges across the ravines. Ezra 
Barnum was another Mayor of the period who devoted himself to 
local improvements. 

In 1872 Henry Horton was City Assessor, Luther Rossiter was 
again Superintendent of Schools, Timothy Howe was City Mar- 
shal, Thomas Polan was City Supervisor, and George Frazier was 
City Clerk. William S. Johnston complained to Mayor Barnum 
that: "Lake Forest people are close fisted and wanting in public 
enterprise. If it had not been for my persistent and untiring efforts 
we never would have had any parks." Many names involved in 
the Chicago fire began to appear in Lake Forest lists, as permanent 
or summer residents, students, or supporters of Lake Forest insti- 
tutions. The list included Bross, Chatfield, DeKoven, Fales, Hub- 
bard, McCormick, Medill, Ogden, and Rumsey. D. R. Holt 
wished to purchase a large part of College Park, but the Lake 


Ordeals by Fire, 1870-1880 

Forest Association turned down the requests. He must have rea- 
soned that since the idea of a college in Lake Forest is dormant, 
the property set aside for the purpose might well be used to raise 
money for the Association. 

Among the most cherished memories of many older residents 
are those of days spent in the public school which was taught by 
Miss Fanny Atteridge for several decades. She graduated with the 
first class of Ferry Hall in 1872. She began her teaching career 
that fall in a schoolhouse on Noble Avenue just west of Western 
on the site of the present Griffis Shop. 

Miss Caroline Benedict was another early graduate of Ferry 
Hall who taught in Lake Forest for many years. She was a daugh- 
ter of Amzi Benedict, one of the founding fathers of Lake Forest. 
She was known as a friend and confidant of scores of youngsters. 
She took care of decorations and refreshments at many social func- 
tions. It is interesting to note that in the early 1 870^, Miss Caro- 
line, together with Allie Smith and Anna Farwell, were sum- 
moned by D. R. Holt before the Session of the Presbyterian 
Church and rebuked for undue levity with Academy boys. There 
is no record of this incident in the Session records, as Amzi Bene- 
dict, who was Clerk of the Session from 1868 to 1893, omitted it. 

Colonel William Sage Johnston came to Lake Forest with his 
family in 1865. He is described as a business man with a high 
sense of honor, courteous, quiet and generous. He built a house 
on Illinois Road on the site of the Gorton School. He died, before 
his house was finished, at the age of 78. His family, surviving, 
continued to live in this house until about the late seventies. For a 
while it was rented by the Ezra J. Warners and here Ezra J. 
Warner, Jr., was born in 1877. The latter loved to tell his friends 
he was born in the Deerpath Inn. When the Gorton School was 
built in 1894, the Johnston house was moved directly north to the 
south side of Deer Path, to make room for the new school which 
was at first called the Central School. In this new location, the 
Johnston house changed hands several times but served generally 
as the only hotel in town. At one point it was owned and operated 
as a hotel by a family named Brewster and called the Brewster 
House. The Brewster yard was noted for its many fruit trees and 
gooseberry bushes. The yard also served as a home for a private 
kindergarten which was taught by a Miss Grace Taylor. In 1 906 



M. H. Patterson was the hotel proprietor when the house was 
called the Deerpath Inn. The Inn prospered until 1930 when the 
new Deerpath Inn was completed on Illinois Road. The old Inn 
was torn down, and the whole property became the play field for 
the Gorton School. 

Several other homes were erected in the 1870^. Mr. and Mrs. 
Simon S. Reid came to Lake Forest in 1869 and opened their 
home on Sheridan Road, "The Lilacs," in 1872. It cost $24,000. 
Just south of the Reids and across the ravine a small cottage was 
built for Sarah Jane Rhea, in 1873. She had been a missionary in 
Tabriz, Persia, until the death of her husband. She returned with 
her three children and became the first field secretary of The 
Presbyterian Mission of the Northwest. Her influence became so 
pronounced that many local Lake Forest names began to appear 
in her special mission field, such as Ferry Hospital in Tehran, and 
Lily Reid Holt Hospital in Hamadan. 

Most of the children in those days remember Mrs. Rhea for the 
missionary society which she started in the Lake Forest Presby- 
terian Church known as "Steady Streams." This society continued 
for fifty years and became a model for the "Lightbearers," a similar 
group of organizations throughout the Presbyterian Church. Chil- 
dren held all the offices except that of the presiding officer, who 
was a young woman especially interested in missions and in chil- 
dren. For many of these children Steady Streams provided them 
with a substantial knowledge of geography and foreign customs, 
and several became missionaries. 

Other homes were built in this period. Ezra J. Warner built 
"Oakhurst" on North Washington Road, just north and east of 
Triangle Park, in 1873. In 1875 Calvin Durand built "Merrie 
Meade" on Mayflower Road on the center of a lot occupied (1961) 
by the new houses of the Kenneth Templetons, Hixon Glores, 
John O. Giles and Arthur Dixon. Until this house was finished 
the family boarded at the Old Hotel. Mrs. Calvin Durand de- 
signed a formal garden with beds symmetrically laid out in cres- 
cent, circular and other geometric patterns divided by narrow 
gravel paths. The house itself, surrounded by a spacious porch, 
was built to afford comfort and durability. 

The C. G. Wenbans came from Diamond Lake in the 1870^ 
because of the educational advantages of Lake Forest. They rented 

9 6 

Ordeals by Fire, iSyo- 1880 

homes but built their own house in 1890. Mr. Wenban started a 
wholesale candy wagon with headquarters at the corner of Illinois 
Road and Oakwood. The Wenban boys attended the Academy. 
One son, Albert, returned to teach at the Academy for three years. 

Charles Pratt, son of the pioneer Francis N. Pratt, built his 
home at 360 E. Westminster in 1876. This house is occupied 
( 1 961) by the A. Allen Bates family. The William Taylors built 
an imposing home on the southeast corner of Deer Path and Green 
Bay, the present Graham Aldis house. In 1874, William Metzger 
was born on the Hubbard farm in Lake Forest, the present prop- 
erty at the north end of Lake Forest and just east of Green Bay 
Road. Still living during the Centennial year, he ranks as the 
oldest Lake Forest resident who was born here. 

In September 1875 Father James J. McGovern built St. Mary's 
Catholic Church and also served both at St. Patrick's and St. 
Mary's. John Birmingham and Timothy Howe helped to select 
the site. This frame church was organized and built at this time, 
but for some months previous to its completion, worship was con- 
ducted in the public school house. The August 28, 1875 issue of 
the Waukegan Gazette published a list of Lake Forest Protestants 
who had subscribed "liberally" to the new St. Mary's church edi- 
fice. The names included Senator C. B. Farwell, Ebenezer Buck- 
ingham, Sylvester Lind, William H. Ferry, Colonel William 
Johnston, Hugh Samuels, J. P. Manchester, Ezra J. Warner, Amzi 
Benedict, A. R. Sabin, and Simeon Williams. 

The horse and buggy or sleigh were necessary transportation dur- 
ing the 1870's. One was compelled to use the horse-drawn vehicle 
to avoid mud and dust in the summer, and deep snow or ice in the 
winter. During the winter of 1871 the John Baldwins drove their 
sleigh to a church social. They became lost driving home in a 
heavy blizzard. When they gave the horse his head, he turned in 
the opposite direction and got them safely home. 

Fourth of July celebrations included "rural sports." People 
played lawn tennis, croquet and took part in archery competitions. 
Archery was especially popular at Ferry Hall. Dances conducted 
by a leader and called "A German" occupied the youth, and con- 
tinued into the 1920's. There were also private theatricals, im- 
promptu charade parties, concerts and receptions. 



Baseball was a popular and well organized sport. James Lamb 
and J. V. Farwell, Jr., induced A. G. Spalding, owner of the Chi- 
cago White Sox professional team, to bring his team to Lake Forest 
for a game with the Academy in the spring of 1 876. The score was 
31 to 1. The lone Academy run was scored by E. J. Bartlett, a 
graduate of the Academy and at this time an Academy instructor. 
He lived to be the Grand Old Man of the Dartmouth College 

Robert Davis Samuels related that about 1876 he was one of 
several who were privileged to listen to Dr. Alexander Graham 
Bell's first message, through Highland Park to Ferry Hall. This 
may have been from the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition 
which occurred on June 25, 1876, or soon afterwards. Mr. and 
Mrs. F. N. Pratt of Lake Forest attended the Exposition. 

In that summer of 1 876 Mrs. C. B. Farwell, backed up by the 
Lake Forest Association, finally succeeded in organizing Lake 
Forest College as a permanent institution and on an unexpectedly 
co-educational basis. She wished to realize the provisions of the 
original Lind University charter of 1857, but she had a personal 
interest as well. She herself was an educated and cultured woman, 
a former teacher who wished to make liberal education available 
to all, especially to young women. Her daughter Anna was about 
to graduate from a Chicago high school and talked of going to 
college. Mrs. Farwell wished to have her at home during her col- 
lege career to get her acquainted with the people and places of 
what she hoped would be her future home. Besides, she was partial 
to co-education, which was not provided generally in the eastern 

Anna Farwell was happy to stay in Lake Forest and several of 
her classmates expressed their desire to join the first class of the 
new institution. Dr. Robert Patterson of the Second Presbyterian 
Church of Chicago consented to become the first president. Sev- 
eral of the students received substantial financial aid from Mrs. 
Farwell. She continued her interest in the College during the early 
critical years, until the school was on a firm foundation. Her gifts 
are said to have totalled $300,000. Lake Forest College could not 
have started without her nor could it have continued without her 


Ordeals by Fire, 187 0-1880 

The idea of a coeducational college was unusual at the time, in 
spite of nearby Northwestern University which had just become 
coeducational in 1873. Mrs. Farwell was therefore a pioneer edu- 
cator in a real sense. One school of thought believed in college 
education for women but not in coeducation. Another group 
thought that young ladies with college educations lost their charm 
and femininity. Very few girls attended college in those days. 

The New Hotel had been operating at a continual loss for the 
past five years since it functioned chiefly for summer guests. In the 
fall of 1876, when a $40,000 indebtedness to the Lake Forest As- 
sociation could not be raised by the hotel company, the New Hotel 
was turned over to the newly created Lake Forest College, together 
with twelve acres of land, and for a year and a half this building 
afforded dormitory and class-room space to the new institution. 
Classes were begun on September 7, 1876. The first faculty con- 
sisted of three members. 

Since the Hotel had been built without a heating system "the 
students shivered during the long winter months. Inexplicable 
fires began to break out. A watch was organized and the building 
was nightly patrolled. On the morning of December 16, 1877, 
after the watch had retired and all was quiet, suddenly at about 
two o'clock a single cry of 'fire' echoed down the halls. The little 
class hurried out upon the lawn, and saw that for the last time 
the nest of their Alma Mater had been attacked by flames. The 
conflagration had started in the cupola, surely an odd place under 
the circumstances of its being three vacant stories above any firing 
influence. Only a few moments were necessary to afford the fire 
uncontrollable headway, due to a fanning wind from Lake Michi- 
gan. In three hours the ravenous flames had devoured the hotel 
and licked up every shred, board and shaving about the place; 
the ashes were strewn far about, and a cloud of brown smoke hung 
over the lake until the wind scattered it." 

The College survived this baptism of fire. Classes were held in 
the Old Hotel. Plans were made, soon after the ashes had cooled, 
to erect a college building in College Park, the area which had 
originally been intended for the college. There was feverish ac- 
tivity as kilns were set up in the area of the old Gym and clay was 
dug from which the bricks were baked on the spot. Loads of lum- 
ber and other building materials were brought in, day and night, 



despite the mud and dust of the approaching streets. It was a hot 
and dry summer. The result was that College Hall was finished 
for occupancy in 1878, the fruit of great faith and dedicated labor. 
Where the clay was dug, a deep hole was formed known as the 
Gym Pond until 1930, when it was drained to form the girls' 
hockey field. 

College Hall was built in the architectural custom of the period 
with a "stoop" entrance. A high and wide flight of stairs rose to 
the main floor. It was graced with a mansard roof and an exten- 
sive open porch on the west side of the main floor. At the north 
end of this floor was the library with some 6,000 volumes. Newell 
Dwight Hillis, as a Lake Forest College freshman, was assistant 
Librarian for a year, and he said he read or looked over every 
volume in this library. He became a well known preacher and 
lecturer after the turn of the century. The Library racks were ceil- 
ing high, and in the center of the room was a reading table with a 
half a dozen chairs. 

Adjoining the library on the east was the reading room, a stu- 
dent enterprise with a large table and a dozen chairs in the middle. 
Around this room were wall stands to which the magazines were 
firmly chained and locked: Harpers, Scrihners, Century, Atlantic 
Monthly, Munseys, and the mucrrread Outing, the sport maga- 
zine of those days. Also there the student could read Puck and 
Judge, the two weekly funnies of those days, Youth's Companion, 
Leslies Illustrated, Harper's Bazaar, and occasionally War Cry. 
The daily newspapers included The Chicago Daily Times and 
Chicago Inter Ocean; the latter was published by H. H. Kohlsaat, 
a well known Chicago restaurant man. 

Across the hall from the reading room was the President's Of- 
fice, overlooking the campus. This office was the "holy of holies. ,, 
A call to go there was either an acolade, like a call to the White 
House, or a disgrace, like a summons before a Senate investigating 
committee. Adjoining the reading room was the modern language 
classroom and on the other side of the hall was the Latin depart- 
ment. At the south end of the Hall was the chapel, which could 
crowd in about 150 students. It was used as a classroom at times, 
but since chapel was compulsory it served as a main meeting place 
once a day. 

In the basement, under the library, was the coal bin, and, under 


Ordeals hy Fire, i8yo-i88o 

the reading room the boiler room. Adjoining the boiler room was 
the chemical laboratory. Under the chapel was the physics and 
higher mathematics classroom, complete with Scottish born Prof. 
Malcolm MacNeill, whom the students called "Little Mac." Then 
came the Biology room. This and the chemistry room were closely 
guarded, lest some inquiring numbskull pour water into sulphuric 
acid in its raw state, or disturb some biological experiment which 
had taken days to prepare. Directly under the entrance hall was 
the book store. The three upper stories were dormitories. 

The reputation of the Academy had spread far enough to bring 
a student from Constantinople. Hovhannes Nergararian was the 
first recorded overseas student, entering the Academy in 1877, 
knowing no English. His father was the eastern European repre- 
sentative of Chicago's famed McCormick Harvester Company, 
manufacturers of all kinds of farm equipment. Since that time and 
especially since the turn of the century, probably not a year has 
passed without several students coming from other continents to 
Lake Forest schools. Soshichi Asida of Japan graduated from the 
Academy in 1902 and then graduated from Lake Forest College. 

The Lake Forest Association continued to operate until April 13, 
1878, when it was dissolved and its affairs concluded by the con- 
sent of the stockholders. The lands then held by the trustees of 
the Association were sold and the debts paid. Lake Forest Uni- 
versity, composed of the College, Academy and Ferry Hall, then 
became the heir of the Association. 

In September 1 878, President of the United States Rutherford 
B. Hayes with Mrs. Hayes came to Lake Forest. This was the only 
Presidential visit to Lake Forest during the first century of its exist- 
ence. They were the guests of Mr. and Mrs. William Henry 
Smith. Mr. Smith was president of the Associated Press at the 
time. The whole town, including all the students, gathered at the 
station to greet the President and the first lady. 

The President's party also included Lieut. General Philip H. 
Sheridan, Colonel Albert J. Myer and U.S. District Judge Henry 
Blodgett. The entire party came by special train from Chicago, 
and received a loud welcome. Crowds lined Deer Path almost to 



the lake, to watch the procession pass. The Smith home, just south 
of the C. B. Farwell's was decorated with many floral gifts. One 
was a large American flag, skillfully fashioned in flowers, and 
presented by Mrs. Henry Durand. Another was a large 'Wel- 
come," written in lilies, heliotropes and tuberoses, a gift of the 
employees of the Custom House in Chicago. Jane Durand (Allen) 
a very tiny girl was held up by her father, a former member of 
General Sheridan's army, for General Sheridan to kiss. She re- 
membered vividly how she disliked the General's prickly mous- 
tache. In the evening, a reception was held at the Smith residence, 
at which many guests were present. A large brass band played 
throughout the evening. 

The Chicago Tribune described this visit as: 

One of the most complete affairs of the presidential trip. It was the 
subject of frequent remarks that the proportion, not only of well- 
dressed, but positively handsome ladies was much greater than is usu- 
ally seen on similar occasions. And then, the reception being a general 
one to the citizens of Lake Forest, and there being but few guests from 
abroad, the occasion partook more of the nature of a social party than 
a state affair. Add to this a fine brass band, playing at intervals on the 
lawn, a quartet from Lake Forest of Messrs. Sabin, Sprague, Barnes 
and Powers, elaborate floral decorations and a roomy and handsome 
mansion entirely at the disposal of the company, and little more could 
have been desired. 

Mrs. Hayes was most becomingly attired in a gray silk skirt with 
brocaded overdress, relieved in blue and shell trimmings. Mrs. William 
Henry Smith wore a heavy black grosgrain with point-lace trimmings. 
Miss Abbie Smith blushed in pink brocaded silk, relieved with black 
velvet, and Mrs. J. N. Jewett wore an ecru silk and velvet mixed. 

In 1878 the D. R. Holt boys, Arthur, George, Charles and Alfred, 
went around the world— an almost unheard of accomplishment. 
Their letters home were circulated for all the neighbors to read. 
When they returned to Lake Forest, flags were displayed all over 
the town. The gate of the Holt residence was gaily decorated. For 
a small suburb, Lake Forest had unusual contacts with and inter- 
est in the world at large. 

In September 1878, James Anderson imported six black Aber- 
deen Polled cattle from Scotland. Alexander Kelley accompanied 
them from Scotland through Canada to Lake Forest. This is per- 


Ordeals by Fire, 1870-1880 

haps the first shipment of its kind to the United States. The oldest 
was nineteen months, and weighed 1,100 pounds. Soon after this 
Kelley brought another shipment for the Farwell brothers. 

Many nationally known figures visited in Lake Forest at this 
period: Whitelaw Reid, the distinguished Civil War correspond- 
ent, editor of the New York Tribune and Ambassador to Great 
Britain; Senator W. B. Allison of Iowa; Senator John J. Ingalls of 
Kansas; General John A. Logan, the founder of Memorial Day, 
three times president of the Grand Army of the Republic and the 
acknowledged head of the Republican Party in Illinois; Robert G. 
Ingersoll, the celebrated agnostic and one of the great orators of 
the day; General W. T. Sherman and General Philip Sheridan of 
Civil War fame. 

In 1878 someone entered the Academy dining room to announce 
that there had been a serious railroad accident at Glencoe. The 
news soon spread over town, and everyone who had a carriage 
and a team of horses, and most people had, drove to Glencoe and 
brought back passengers to Lake Forest. The Kenosha train had 
run off the track. One of the cars rolled down an embankment and 
the stove had tipped over on a passenger, burning him to death. 
The other passengers had been piled up in the aisles on top of 
one another, and had escaped with a few broken bones. There 
were several Lake Foresters on the train. 

The first Chicago-Milwaukee & St. Paul train came through 
west of Lake Forest in 1872. The first Northwestern Sunday train 
Chicago to Milwaukee made the trip in 1879. An automatic block 
signal system was installed on the Northwestern from Chicago to 
Waukegan in 1903. 

On march 1, 1879, occurred the fire which destroyed the origi- 
nal Academy building. On that Saturday some of the boys were 
out enjoying the fresh promise of spring. Snow was still on the 
ground. Some boys were collecting sap from the maple trees. Two 
college students driving a sleigh along what is now Sheridan Road 
saw flames issuing from the roof of the Academy building. Rush- 
ing into the dining room, where faculty and boarding students 
were having their noon meal, they gave warning. Old "Guv" Mar- 
shall, the colored janitor, ran to ring the Academy bell and stayed 



at his post for some time, keeping his head out of the window for 
fresh air. Soon the park was filled with students and townspeople. 
A strong north wind kept the fire from the north end of the build- 
ing, and students threw out everything they could lift. When the 
south end had been burned out, the fire moved slowly back north 
again until the whole building was consumed. The entire roof 
caved in, but the first floor for a short while remained untouched. 
Henry Ware, a student, stood in the window of the Principal's 
office and held up a placard reading: "God bless our school." The 
woodsheds behind the Academy then caught fire from the intense 
heat of the main structure, but the barn and the immense piles of 
firewood in the back yard were saved. Soon the smouldering ashes 
were all that was left of the building. 

Miss Ellen Holt, who died in 1961, was a little girl at the time, 
and not allowed to go with her brothers, but she watched the 
whole panorama of smoke and flames from the roof of their house. 
She heard the shouts of students and townspeople striving to save 
furniture and personal belongings. John Birmingham was also too 
young to be allowed to go to the Academy fire. His mother per- 
mitted him to watch from the top of a hay stack. He later attended 
the school as did all Lake Forest boys until the turn of the century. 

According to Mrs. Robert G. McGann, one of the C. B. Farwell 
daughters, the fire was set by two students, Edward Pritchet and 
Charles Dole. They had soaked the floors with kerosene and had 
then applied a match. The building was insured for $10,000. The 
contents were also insured. 

The furniture and other articles which were saved were carried 
to the Old Hotel, and school continued in the Dickinson house as 
temporary quarters. In 1880 a brick building, known as North 
Hall, was erected on the College campus, a gift of the C. B. Far- 
wells. In September of that year, school opened in that building. 




i 880-1 890 

In collecting photographs of early Lake Forest one is im- 
pressed with the family groups of the period, which tell an elo- 
quent tale. The background is the family homestead. In the center, 
on the lawn, the father of the family is seated. He has originated 
in a simple environment on an Eastern farm, in Connecticut, 
Massachusetts or New York, and is proud of it. In the Mid-west 
he has prospered through selling lumber, real-estate, food or cloth- 
ing. His wife sits close by on another chair. Their children are 
carefully placed at intervals so that the photographer can include 
as much of the grounds as possible. The family circle is often com- 
pleted with two cows, horses, and the help. Sometimes there is a 
colored man holding the animals still. In the background is an 
orchard and a barn. It is almost a farm scene, but not quite. The 
garden, elaborate with geometric patterns and designs, and the 
long gravel driveway in front and around the house and on to the 
barn, suggest the fusion of the earth and sunshine of the country 
with the selected formalities of the city— this is the coming suburb. 
In 1880 a Ferry Hall student, Nellie Durand, wrote about Lake 
Forest for a school assignment. She said: "Yesterday the popula- 
tion of Lake Forest was 1000, but last night I had a baby brother, 
so now the population is 1001." Years later she recalled how her 
pet lamb followed her to Sunday School across the old wooden 



bridge at Sheridan and Deer Path, after she had carefully said 
good-bye to it. 

In those days, it seemed as if Lake Forest would remain a vil- 
lage forever. People did not want streets lighted, marked, or paved. 
Everyone preferred to contend with mud and dust continually. 
The only remedy was for people to go down to the lake shore and 
load wagons with gravel to put on the streets in front of houses, 
and on driveways. Going about at night could only be safely ac- 
complished by carrying an oil lamp. Lake Forest might have been 
called a "one horse town," except that there happened to be some 
three hundred horses in the village. There was, however, only one 
Protestant and one Catholic Church, and one doctor. Dr. Alfred 
C. Haven came in 1882 and served the community until his death 
in 1925. He practised medicine and some dentistry. His first office 
was in the Lake Forest Hotel. He built his home on Washington 
Road a few years later, the present Paul Curtis residence. 

The unmarked streets and their convolutions caused strangers 
to inquire their way as they do even now. One day a stranger asked 
the location of a certain house, and when he was told, inquired : 
"Why don't you have your streets marked?" A youngster replied: 
"They are, on the map." Another newcomer asked for directions 
to the railroad station. When he was asked: "Are you going away?" 

He answered: "No, I want to get back there so 111 know where 


Basic transportation was provided by the horse. When the father 
of the family left home to take the eight o'clock train for Chicago, 
it was a great occasion for the children who loved to go along in 
the family carriage. One pet horse would trot leisurely until he 
heard the train whistle, then nothing could hold him back. The 
Samuel D. Ward family's horse was deliberate and slow. When 
they offered a ride to a pedestrian, he replied: "No, thanks, I want 
to make the train; I prefer to walk." 

The Northwestern ran about ten trains daily each way. The 
line was single track. There was a cut-out switch north of the 
Station, where two trains could meet and pass. This frequently 
occurred. The usual trip to Chicago took about an hour and 
twenty minutes, with a couple of express trains doing the trip in 
58 minutes. Some Milwaukee trains stopped at Lake Forest, and 
then continued to Chicago, non-stop. It was rumored that the rail- 


College Town, 1880-1890 

road extended special courtesies to Lake Forest because of Senator 
C. B. Farwell. A few years later Marvin Hughitt, President of the 
Northwestern Railroad, built a home in Lake Forest, as did his 
son-in-law, Hugh R. McCullough, General Passenger Agent of 
the line. During their residence in Lake Forest, train service was 
even better. One record trip from Chicago was made in 28 minutes 
for a group of stranded students. Another time a special train 
brought only one person, a doctor from Chicago to Lake Forest. 

Lake Forest was a paradise for children, who enjoyed the simple 
pleasures of ponies, dogs, barnyard pets and bicycles. Many young- 
sters had old fashioned bicycles with a 52-inch wheel in front, a 
saddle on top and a little wheel behind. Charles Durand had one 
of the first "safety" bicycles, with wheels of equal size: the fore- 
runner of those of the present day. A dozen of these were intro- 
duced within their first year of introduction. 

During the 1880's there was a Lake Forest Bicycle Club, which 
was issued a booklet with a detailed map of all the usable roads in 
northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin. The members of the 
club included E. A. Barnum, Cyrus Bentley, Jr., Frank Douglass, 
Albert L. Farwell, Frank C. Farwell, F. J. Peabody, L. L. Spruance 
and Simeon L. Williams. The group rode to Geneva Lake "which 
never had so many people around it, but there is still room for 
more." They watched a "yacht race for a large purse" before pedal- 
ing back to Lake Forest. 

Other neighborhood activities were recalled by Miss Ellen Holt. 
Children would collect on the front steps of the Reid porch. 
Among them were the Reid girls and the Holt boys, who were 
always rather cross when an early supper hour interfered with 
their play. Grandfather Reid insisted that all must be home by 
four o'clock, even when they had been out in the country on an 
overnight trip. "A crowd of us went out by carriage to Deep Lake, 
including the Reids, Maud Warner, the Ward family, and the 
Holts. I'll never forget how upset the farmer's wife was when she 
saw so many of us arrive at her farm, and said there wasn't room 
for us. But we stayed and had a great lark, three children to a bed, 
and Alfred (Holt) and Mr. Ward in a room behind the kitchen 

Another youngster related that "overnight trips were quite pop- 
ular. When I was about twelve, we took a trip, by hayrack, way 



out to Round Lake to spend the night in hammocks on a pavilion. 
It was on a very hot day and one of the team of horses dropped 
dead in the harness. Fortunately we were near a farm where we 
could secure another horse. It was quite the thing for young 
married couples to take weekend trips in phaetons. These were 
one-seated, four wheeled rigs with folding tops. A 'sporty' week- 
end out at Diamond Lake might include hickory nutting, fishing, 
or just driving about the country. Since there were no paved roads, 
plans were made according to the weather to avoid deep mud." 

Commencement day, June 1880, was a significant one for Lake 
Forest. On that day the first Lake Forest College class graduated 
two girls and five boys. The board of trustees of Lake Forest Uni- 
versity held a meeting; then the academic procession formed, led 
by the Academy band, and marched to the Presbyterian Church. 
The Church was soon filled with townspeople and three carloads 
of Chicago Presbyterians. The services lasted nearly four hours. 
The seven graduates were : 

Anna Farwell Lake Forest 

Josephine Louise White Chicago 

Paul David Bergen Iowa 

Fred Levi Forbes Indiana 

William O. Forbes Indiana 

John E. Tarble Florida 

Charles Farwell Ward Chicago 

The two honor prizes were won by the two young lady grad- 
uates who "presented essays which would have done credit to the 
ablest male graduates of any college in the country," according to 
the Inter Ocean, a Chicago newspaper. "It was practical proof of 
the success of the co-education theory, so well illustrated in these 
scholarly and accomplished young ladies." Miss Anna Farwell, 
who was vice-president of the class, delivered her essay on : "The 
position and opportunities of women in America." Miss Josephine 
White spoke on: "Alexander Hamilton's Financial Policy." 

Anna Farwell became the wife of a prominent musician, 
Reginald de Koven, and wrote the authoritative life of John Paul 
Jones, and The Count of Gruyere. Josephine White became Mrs. 
Lindon W. Bates. Paul David Bergen was later the president of 


College Town, 1 88 0-18 90 

the Presbyterian College in Wie Hsien, in Shantung, China. The 
two Forbes were ordained as Presbyterian clergymen. Charles F. 
Ward became a musician, and died in 1883. John E. Tarble died 
in 1882. 

For three decades, after this first commencement, Lake Forest 
centered in Lake Forest College. The townspeople were eager and 
proud to build up their new and unique institution. New build- 
ings were donated in quick succession. Some of the children gave 
a play and a concert at Ferry Hall to raise money for the college 
bell. The bell was installed about 1882 and announced services at 
the Presbyterian Church as well as 6:30 student rising hour and 
classes. Lake Forest was once more on a sound basis after the 
Academy fire silenced the only bell in town. The President and 
faculty members were admired and entertained as the first citizens 
of the city. The Academy and Ferry Hall were to provide stu- 
dents for the college. Ferry Hall graduates were now encouraged 
to complete their education there until Ferry College for Young 
Ladies could be established late in the decade. This institution 
was likewise a part of Lake Forest University but differed from 
Lake Forest College in that it was for girls only. A unified and co- 
ordinated educational program was now offered from the primary 
grades on up. 

One of the faculty members of Lake Forest College kept a 
record of the average term grades of students during the two school 
years 1 887-1 889. The grades were: Sidney Benedict 97.87, Grace 
Reid 89.8, Juliet Rumsey 89.69, Rose Farwell 89.6, A. G. Welch 
89.53, E. S. Wells, Jr. 88.73, Kate Stroh 82.5, H. C. Durand 
75.93. Garcia G. Sickels was first in the class of 1890 with a four 
year average of 90.3 1 . 

In 1880 a Republican political rally was held in the Academy 
Hall, on the College campus, which seated more people than any 
other building in the village. Charles B. Farwell was a candidate 
for the U.S. Senate, and he and his brother, John V. Farwell, Sr. 
addressed the meeting. Great enthusiasm was aroused among the 
boys, most of whom preferred the Republican party and held the 
Farwells in high esteem. 

These two Farwell brothers were born in New York state, came 
to Mt. Morris, Illinois, as youngsters, in a covered wagon, then to 



Chicago. In due time they became leading citizens in the Chicago 
area, then nationally and in England. Charles B. Farwell was dis- 
tinguished-looking, with thin gray hair, moustache and chin 
whiskers. He was a member of the House of Representatives or 
the Senate of the United States on and off for thirty years, begin- 
ning with 1870. He and his family were staunch supporters of 
Lake Forest University and every civic and religious project in 
Lake Forest. 

His younger brother, J. V. Farwell, the original Merchant 
Prince, was clean shaven and wore glasses. He had the appear- 
ance of a scholar rather than a business man. He organized J. V. 
Farwell & Company, the leading wholesale dry goods firm in Chi- 
cago, in 1850, where Marshall Field received his early training 
in merchandising. For a while the firm was called Farwell, Field & 
Company. The new building in which the business was housed 
was burned in the Chicago fire of 1871. 

J. V. Farwell was interested in the Dwight L. Moody religious 
revivals of 1 857-1 858, and was instrumental in the erection of 
the first Y.M.C.A. building in the world, in Chicago. He donated 
the land and a considerable sum of money besides. During the 
Civil War he visited the battlefields to promote religious services. 
After the War he followed Moody to England in 1867, and 
continued to support his efforts with substantial financial aid. 
Through his influence "Billy" Sunday later received his first reli- 
gious assignment, working in the Chicago Y.M.C.A. 

The two Farwells undertook a pioneer project in 1 875 for which 
they received 3,000,000 acres of land in ten counties, in the Texas 
Panhandle, for financing the erection of the Capitol building in 
Austin. The gigantic XIT ranch became a model for organization 
and operation of many other famous Texas ranches. Aberdeen- 
Angus, Durhams, Shorthorns, Herefords and other fine breeds 
were stocked. In 1885 Ranch Rules were distributed, in which the 
use of small firearms, card playing, and Sabbath-breaking were 
forbidden. At that time a British syndicate was formed to promote 
the development of this vast acreage. 

A strong advocate of temperance, J. V. Farwell once discovered 
his Lake Forest help drinking beer in the ice house, gave them a 
lecture on the evils of drink, read the Scriptures to them, prayed 
over them, and then announced he would give them a second 


College Town, 1880-1890 

chance. They were soon caught drinking again, and fired on the 

J. V. Farwell served as the sixth mayor of Lake Forest. Three 
members of the Farwell family have been mayors. Farwell 
Winston, a grandson of C. B. Farwell, Albert Farwell, a grandson 
of J. V. Farwell, and Kent Chandler, the husband of J. V. Farwell's 
granddaughter, Grace Tuttle Chandler. 

During the 1880's the idea grew that the whole town of Lake 
Forest should become one big beautiful park, without fences or 
walls. This brought many problems. Student groups cut through 
private property to make more direct routes to the business district, 
the station or the lake. In fruitful seasons orchards became a worse 
temptation to these students. Stray cows visited strange lawns and 
flower gardens much to the dismay of citizens who did not ap- 
preciate their uninvited presence. Joseph B. Durand was elected 
mayor, in 1886, because he promised to keep cows out of people's 
yards. He must have succeeded since no complaints deface the 
records of his term as mayor. At this time, in the dry town of Lake 
Forest, there was a real crisis when whiskey was prescribed for 
an injured man. Where could any be found? The sheriff knew 
the only place in Lake Forest where it could be secured : the home 
of the mayor, Joseph B. Durand. 

There was a furor over locating the cemetery. Some wished to 
continue it where one had existed before Lake Forest had been 
chartered as a city, east of Green Bay Road near the Lake Bluff 
border. Others wished to maintain the site originally planned as a 
part of the earliest Lake Forest plat. The city became divided over 
the issue. A bare majority voted to maintain the latter site, the 
present one at the north end of town between Sheridan Road and 
the lake. Those who had opposed this location hoped for a future 
highway along the lake shore, from Chicago to Milwaukee, which 
the present location makes impossible. One of these, hoping to 
enlist the support of John S. Hannah, who lived near the ceme- 
tery on Lake Road, asked if he didn't object to the neighborhood 
in which he lived, received the reply: "Not at all. They are the 
quietest neighbors we have ever had." 

Once the new cemetery ordinance was passed, a new plat was 
made and new prices were fixed. In 1882 Henry C. Durand made 



a gift of $4,000 for "ornamenting and improvement of the ceme- 
tery grounds." By 1 90 1 , his gifts for this purpose had increased to 
$10,817. On May 1, 1883, the City of Lake Forest set aside the 
western portion of the cemetery for the use of St. Mary's Roman 
Catholic parish. 

Another ordinance involved the Sabbath. Baseball and other 
games were forbidden within the city limits, and it was declared 
unlawful to sell or expose for sale on any street or public ground, 
any newspaper or other article. The penalty for disobedience was 
$5.00. Other ordinances set penalties for killing birds, or for dis- 
charging firearms of any description. The mayor was empowered 
for such length of time has he might think proper, to order all dogs 
within this city to be muzzled. A dog license fee costing $1.00 for 
males and $2.00 for females was required. Metal tags were pro- 
vided and fines were set for shooting dogs, or for stealing their tags. 

The City Seal was adopted by an ordinance on June 5, 1882, 
which made the motto : "Natura et Scientia Amor." In the center 
was represented natural scenery. Another ordinance on the same 
date forbade anyone to "dig, remove, or carry away, or cause same 
to be done, any soil, sod, earth, sand or gravel from any street, 
alley or public grounds in this city." The fine was set for $10 for 
each offense. Another ordinance stated that "Beginning May 1, 
1883, the salary of the Mayor (shall) be fixed at $400, and there- 
after no salary be paid to any Mayor of the City until further 
order of the Council." On August 2, 1886, it was decreed that: 
"Every person, not a citizen of Lake Forest, who shall offer for 
sale any goods, wares or merchandise, in or along any streets or 
Avenue, or from house to house, or in any public place in the city, 
shall be deemed a peddler, and shall pay a license of $2.00 per 
day. This does not apply to farmers coming in from the country 
with produce for the market." 

During the winter of 1881 there was an unusually heavy snow 
storm, with high winds and drifts. The drifts were so high that 
they threatened to interrupt railroad traffic to Chicago. The North- 
western used a four-engine tandem to plow the snow. At the same 
time fifty shovellers worked day and night to keep the tracks open. 

People were beginning to have indoor plumbing. The Holt 
family had one of the first installations. One day a corpulent 
farmer lady was visiting Mrs. Holt. She was being shown over 


College Town, 1880- 18 go 

the house, when Mrs. Holt said: "And here is the bath." The lady 
remarked: "That must take off a lot of fat!" 

Water for the bathrooms was carefully stored in tanks in the 
attic after each rainfall. Mosquitoes gathered on the ceiling above 
the tanks, and people destroyed the pests by putting cans of kero- 
sene on ends of sticks and pressing them up against the ceiling. 

Every home had its well, in some cases artesian, with its own 
pressure. That of the I. P. Rumsey's, on the original Quinlan 
property just east of the present Public Library, was required to 
be kept available to everyone in the city, according to its deed. 
Some houses had windmills, but other wells were pumped by hand 
as was the one on the University campus. The main well on the 
campus was next to the frame building called Academia. When 
independent thinkers became objectionable to the conservative 
upper classmen, the former were put under the pump for purposes 
of correction and general character improvement. 

On a Sunday night in the summer of 1882, fire demolished a 
large part of the business district of Lake Forest. No fire depart- 
ment had been developed. There now grew up an agitation for 
a water system which was first necessary before a fire department 
could be effective. 

Joe O'Neill built the first brick building after the fire and ex- 
panded his hardware store. His brother, William, presided over 
the tin shop which soon became famous in the Chicago area by 
supplying all the tinware sold at the Columbian Exposition in 
1893. In 1885 C. George Wenban organized the Lake Forest 
Livery Boarding and Sales Stables, at the corner of Oakwood and 
Deer Path. By 1890, Fred and George, his sons, entered the busi- 
ness which now included undertaking. Since 1 909 George Wen- 
ban, Sr., has been a Buick dealer as well. 

In May 1884, "Fairlawn," the C. B. Farwell home, was the 
scene of the marriage of Anna Farwell and Reginald de Koven, 
which set a pattern for many Lake Forest weddings. Reginald was 
the composer of some fifty compositions and the light operas Robin 
Hood and The Canterbury Pilgrims, the music for Kipling's Re- 
cessional, and the ever-popular Oh, Promise Me. He was an Ox- 
ford graduate, a rarity in the Mid-west, and had an English accent 
which is said to have endeared him to the ladies, though the men 
did not quite know what to make of it. His uncle was a well known 



Chicago banker, but Reginald had little interest in business. His 
father, the Rev. Henry de Koven, had moved to Florence, Italy, 
where Reginald was brought up in an artistic environment and 
developed his musical talents. 

The Chicago guests arrived at the Lake Forest station in four 
packed railway cars. Nearly all the carriages in town met them and 
drove them to "Fairlawn." The house was decorated with plants 
and flowers, many of them from the Farwell and neighboring 
greenhouses. Smilax was draped about the chandeliers. 

The wedding ceremony took place in the bay window of the 
parlor where an altar had been erected against a background of 
plants and roses. The bridesmaids were Grace and Rose Farwell, 
the bride's younger sisters, Fannie Farwell, her cousin, and Louise 
de Koven, a cousin of the groom. The bride wore a gown of white 
satin, trimmed with Flanders lace, complete with a veil and dia- 
monds. The bridesmaids were in white muslin, over silk. 

The ceremony was performed by Dr. Bebbert, rector of St. 
James Episcopal Church of Chicago, assisted by Rev. James G. K. 
McClure, pastor of the Lake Forest Presbyterian Church. After 
the reception the couple sailed on the Bothnia to visit the parents 
of the groom in Florence, Italy, where they finally made their 

Prior to i 880 an idea was quite prevalent that the lake shore was 
a poor place to build a home. It was damp. The early families had 
built inland in all directions, but had avoided the bluff above the 
lake. Now that the newcomers were compelled to choose new 
properties on which to build their homes, many of them preferred 
the unoccupied lands along the lake front. The prejudice against 
these lots gradually vanished so that today they are considered 
among the most desirable. By 1880 people began to talk about the 
grand view of Lake Michigan, beautiful sunrises, and easy access 
to the beach. 

In 1883, Walter Larned built one of the first houses on the 
lake, "Blair Lodge." This house stood just south of Ferry Hall, 
where the New Hotel had stood. He installed a rustic gate at the 
south end of his property, and the driveway to his house was 
bordered by a high hedge of Japanese quince, which when in 
blossom, was a sensational sight to visitors. The house contained 


College Town, 1880-1890 

a secret room. Mr. Larned was a lawyer, the art critic for the 
Chicago Daily News, the author of several books, and an in- 
veterate traveller. He started the Chicago Art Institute Club in 
Lake Forest for which Durand Art Institute was built. It was re- 
ferred to as ' our cultural high-light." He and his family frequently 
entertained famous guests from all over the country, some of 
whom remained for a month or more. One of these guests was the 
Rev. Zephaniah Humphrey, whose daughter Zephine became a 
well known author. 

The Larned house had one drawback— the family had to warn 
guests not to look at the beach below as frequently nude bathers 
appeared there. This condition was corrected after August 5, 1 895, 
when an ordinance stated: "No person shall swim or bathe at any 
hour of the day between sunrise and sunset in Lake Michigan, in 
a state of nudity within one mile of that part of the shore of said 
Lake which is within the corporate limits of the City of Lake 
Forest. Fine $10." 

Another early home on the bluff was built by Abram Poole, in 
1884. He named it "Elsinore." This was the property now known 
as the Stanley Keith place at 13 15 N. Lake Road. All the Pooles 
were immersed in literature and the arts : one of the most interest- 
ing families of the period. Mr. Poole was a member of the Chicago 
Board of Trade and a veteran of the Civil War. 

In the eighties there was much talk about the problem of pro- 
hibition and local option. A crusade was developing throughout 
the North Shore, and children helped circulate petitions and 
pledges, which people signed, promising never to touch liquor. 
There was one particular young man about whom many were con- 
cerned. He used to ride by unsteadily, on his bicycle with the large 
wheel in front and the little one behind— very much the "dandy." 
One day three children, Alice Reid, Lily Ward and Ellen Holt 
hid in the bushes and as he came along they dashed out from be- 
hind the hedge shouting: "Sign a pledge and be a blessing!" 

In 1 88 1, the Presbyterians installed the church's fourth pastor, 
the Rev. James Gore King McClure. Lake Forest was a conserva- 
tive, church-centered community in those days, whole families at- 
tending Wednesday evening prayer meeting carrying lanterns 
along the dark streets. The older people in Lake Forest took the 
new minister under their wings and affectionately referred to him 



as: "The Little Minister." Dr. McClure was a favorite of town 
and gown, especially since there was no other Protestant church 
in the ' Village." He was genial, quiet, modest, and an unusually 
fine preacher. His message was full of vitality. During the twenty- 
three years of Dr. McClure's pastorate, he was twice President of 
the College, and the love and confidence which he inspired caused 
gifts to flow into the church, the schools, and the city. In 1887, 
Rush Medical College was attached to Lake Forest University. In 
1890, the Chicago College of Dental Surgery was annexed. This 
school was founded by the world-famous Dr. Truman W. Brophy, 
who devised an operation for cleft palate and harelip. Because of 
its close association with McCormick Theological Seminary, it was 
thought that the European conditions of a University having four 
faculties had been fulfilled by Lake Forest University. 

An unknown Academy boy has left this description of Dr. Mc- 
Clure in the Presbyterian Church : "The different people come in, 
the students all go up in front in the left and the right wings- 
well, all except myself, who take a back pew. They allow me the 
privilege because I am an Academy Vigilance Committee. He is 
a saintly man as ever lived— small and half shy like a school boy, 
but he has hold of every heart string in that congregation. Even 
the wicked 'Cad' (nickname of the period for Academy students) 
listens with sympathetic gaze. He is so pleading, pure, earnest and 
simple-mannered, and tells the story of Christ in so childlike a way 
that congressman (Hon. C. B. Farwell) and 'Cad' alike give their 
whole attention." 

In 1886 the Presbyterian congregation began to build a new 
church out of stone. Dr. McClure raised every cent by personal 
subscription. He collected as little as 50^ and as much as $5,000 
from different donors. Henry C. Durand headed the building 
committee. "He watched every detail of construction, he knew 
almost every stone and every beam, he was here early and late. At 
the same time the Manse was built." Simon Reid and D. R. Holt 
were the other members of the building committee. The architect 
was Charles Sumner Frost, a son-in-law of Marvin Hughitt. Frost 
was in the office of Henry Ives Cobb at this time. He used the 
stones from the Second Presbyterian Church of Chicago, "The 
Spotted Church," which was most appropriate since the Lake 
Forest dream had come from this Chicago Church. These stones 


College Town, 1880-1890 

had been assembled after the Chicago fire and taken to Winnetka, 
where they were sold to Hall McCormick, who in turn sold them 
to the Lake Forest church. 

Among the important documents included in the cornerstone 
were the papers freeing from slavery a beloved town character, 
Samuel Dent. Mrs. William Sage Johnston's six children provided 
the church tower bell which is inscribed : "In loving memory of 
Jane Butterfield, wife of William Johnston, died January 5, 1 875." 
The work on the interior of the church was supervised by Mrs. 
Simon S. Reid and Mrs. Ezra J. Warner. Construction was com- 
pleted in 1887. 

The church was dedicated free of debt in June, 1887. Dr. 
Robert W. Patterson preached the dedicatory sermon. Mr. Frost, 
who designed all the Northwestern railway stations from Wauke- 
gan to and including Chicago, added the Sunday School wing 
some years later, and found matching spotted stones in a south 
side church that was being dismantled. The first wedding in this 
church building was that of Miss Jane Durand and Hubert Allen. 

One youngster wrote a school composition which said: "There 
are two important men in Lake Forest— Dr. McClure and Mr. 
Dent." At the time, Samuel Dent had a livery stable and provided 
most of the transportation for those who did not have their own 
horses and vehicles. He was allowed to drive through the various 
estates with his carriage filled with sight-seers. He would tell 
something about each estate. It was not easy to run accurately 
over the wicket that opened the Cleveland gates at the entrances. 

One winter day Samuel Dent drove George Holt home from 
the station, upsetting the sleigh in a snow drift, and refused to 
accept the 25^ fare because of the catastrophe. He said: "Tip 
over enough, Mr. Holt." Samuel used to enjoy giving rides to all 
the youngsters in town. Once when he was surrounded by a group 
of children, he said: "I feel just like a fly in a pan of milk." The 
children had a riddle they liked to repeat: Why is Lake Forest 
like an old tea kettle? Answer: Because it has a Dent in it. The 
children in town were an important part of the Lake Forest com- 
munications system. Before the coming of the telephones, young- 
sters were asked to deliver messages, to Dent or to anyone else, 
which they did very proudly. 

Someone has left another description of Dent which bears 



quoting: "That noise you heard on the platform just as the train 
started from the Lake Forest station was Dent laughing. Dent is 
the best darkey that ever grew. He is the Lake Forest mascot. He 
can neither read nor write, but he can tell a bogus quarter in the 
dark. He runs a livery establishment, and will do anything, night 
or day, for you, up to Saturday night; then he shuts down till 
Monday. If a sick woman wants him to get up a rig to take her 
to Church, he won't do it without an affidavit that she isn't able 
to walk. He thinks that anyone who has to ride Sundays had better 
not come to Lake Forest to live. The Northwestern Railway people 
talk of putting Dent's picture in a panel on the station house, in- 
stead of the lake forest sign. He is a firm supporter of the Afri- 
can Methodist Episcopal Church and can get more big words in 
a prayer of the same length than any Andover professor. If doing 
kind things and leading an honest life make a good citizen, few 
towns have a better one than S. Dent." 

There is a gravestone in Lake Forest Cemetery which bears 
this inscription : 






ARMY IN I 862. 










The Negro district was in the vicinity of the Washington and 
Illinois Roads intersection. College and Academy students at- 
tended the meetings of the African Methodist Church and en- 
joyed especially the fervent prayers and the melodious singing of 
the congregation. There was an added attraction when a college 


College Town, i< 


boy preached the sermon and many students attended to give the 
speaker moral support. The town young people were often in- 
volved in projects to raise money for this church. 

There were many parties in town to occupy the youth of all 
ages. Grace Reid gave one large St. Valentine's party. Rose Far- 
well, a queenly beauty, gracious, athletic and truly democratic, 
gave parties which young men of her age were especially eager to 
attend. Mrs. Simon Reid entertained dozens of Academy and Col- 
lege boys at her home. She kept many of them busy doing odd 
jobs and paying them most liberally, to help them in their educa- 
tion. Mrs. Calvin Durand entertained groups of boys at her home 
for Sunday dinners and permitted Ferry Hall girls to tramp across 
her cow-pasture for a short-cut in going uptown. Caroline Bene- 
dict presided at the many social functions for the entertainment of 
school and college boys and girls. Singing was an integral part of 
all entertainments as people gathered around the piano, while 
Charlie Holt or some other person led them in soulful melodies. 
Everyone enjoyed debates, oratorical contests, band concerts, 
chamber music, and sport events. 

In the i88o's Ferry Hall was called "The Seminary/' Many pe- 
riod jokes revolved around this name. Charlie Fletcher was asked 
by a visitor where the Seminary was. He said: "Which do you 
mean, the girls' school or the burying ground?" Arthur Reid and 
Harry Durand took delight in calling themselves alumni of Ferry 
Hall. They had attended a primary school there which was coedu- 
cational. Fanny Atteridge, one of the first Ferry Hall graduates, 
taught several decades in the second public grade school of Lake 
Forest which was at the north end of town, west of the tracks, near 
Noble Avenue. The public schools were crowded with 140 pupils 
and only three teachers presided over them— the Misses Atteridge, 
Bonner and Marvin. One of the nagging problems for the Super- 
intendent was securing board and room for the teachers. 

Chicago at this time was absorbed with problems involving labor 
discontent. The city had made an amazing recovery after the Chi- 
cago fire, but now the whole country was in the depths of a severe 
depression, with falling prices and wages. Many were losing their 
jobs. At the McCormick plant, at Blue Island and Western, when 



workers were discharged because "they were not needed/' there 
was considerable strife and violence. The Arbeiter Zeitung, con- 
sidered an anarchist newspaper, published increasingly bold and 
incendiary articles. Inflammatory speeches were reported. There 
were threats to life and property. Armed groups drilled nightly 
and were reported to be practicing with dynamite, bombs, rifles 
and small arms. 

On May i, 1886, the original May Day, 25,000 people gathered 
at the Haymarket Square, two blocks west of the present North- 
western Railway Station, to be harangued by anarchist-socialists, 
following the McCormick strike. This demonstration had been 
carefully planned for six months, but no riot developed as the 
leaders had hoped. 

By Monday, May 3, the strike spread over the city. Many busi- 
nesses were affected. Red banners and flags were displayed in the 
loop area. Some struggled to take these down as others fought to 
display more and more bunting. Crowds gathered at the Mc- 
Cormick factory and more violence resulted. Captain Ward of the 
Desplaines Street Police Station, alerted by Mayor Carter Har- 
rison, and alarmed by the reports, increased his force to 100 police 

On Tuesday May 4th a new mass meeting gathered force at 
the Haymarket where farmers brought hay for the horse-drawn 
transportation of the city. The square was large enough to ac- 
commodate a large crowd. Spies announced that "we'll be masters 
of Chicago before morning." The meeting soon moved from the 
Haymarket Vi block North on Desplaines Street. Speeches fol- 
lowed in quick succession. 

All was comparatively peaceful until about 9:30 a.m. when 
Fielden took the stand. He advised the crowd to "exterminate the 
capitalists and do it tonight." By 10:00 a.m. the crowd got excited 
and very noisy. 

Captain Ward and his 1 00 police left the Desplaines station to- 
ward the meeting, marching in column. Fielden was still talking 
when they arrived on the scene. Amidst jeers and shouts Captain 
Ward ordered the crowd "to disperse peaceably," when suddenly 
a dynamite bomb exploded in the midst of the police formation. 
Many officers were thrown to the ground, then reforming, they 
charged the crowd with pistols blazing. Their fire was returned, 


College Town, 1880-1890 

then the unruly crowd dispersed as their leaders fled, under fire. 

In all 7 police officers were killed and an uncounted number of 
civilians. The police station was filled with the wounded and 
dying. The city experienced deep anxiety for several days and 
nights until federal troops arrived from Fort Laramie, Wyoming, 
to restore order. Nearly all the leaders of the riot were apprehended 
and convicted. 

In ensuing discussions, General Philip Sheridan suggested a 
federal military post close enough to be of immediate use, instead 
of depending on Fort Riley, Kansas, or Fort Laramie, Wyoming. 
The Farwell brothers had returned from a hunting expedition out 
west on the troop train which brought federal troops from Fort 
Laramie. These two were especially impressed by the effect of 
these troops on the strike and the riots. Senator C. B. Farwell now 
pressed the issue in Washington. A small committee of Chicago 
business men raised money and chose the site of Chicago's own 
federal military post, just south of Lake Forest. The movement 
was backed by the Commercial Club and the Board of Trade. In 
1887 six hundred and thirty-two acres were bought by the govern- 
ment for a total of $10.00, and construction had proceeded far 
enough so that two companies of the 6th Infantry were stationed 
in Camp Highwood, as it was called at first. 

On February 27, 1888, the name was changed to Fort Sheridan. 
In September of that year Congress appropriated $300,000 for 
substantial construction. The barrack buildings were erected dur- 
ing 1888, but the tower construction posed a serious problem, 
when excavation for its foundations revealed quicksand. The army 
engineers finally solved the difficulty by pouring carloads of ce- 
ment to establish a firm base for the foundations and to hold the 
enormous weight of the structure. The tower was completed in 
1 89 1, at a cost of $86,065. 

Among the early prisoners in the Fort Sheridan guardhouse 
were several Indian chiefs taken in frontier uprisings. These in- 
cluded: Chiefs Sitting Bull, Plenty Wound, Come and Grunt, 
Take Shield Away, Hard to Hit, Know His Voice, and Good 

Sergeant Lawrence H. W. Speidel, a member of Company K, 
6th Infantry, was an occupant of the first barrack to be completed. 
He, personally, raised the first flag over Fort Sheridan. His Com- 



pany had been transferred from Ft. Laramie. In May, 1888, he 
married and like others from Ft. Sheridan, established his home 
in Lake Forest. When he was discharged from the Army he started 
an oil and gas business, had a barn on Western Avenue, and horses 
with which he delivered his gas for the Wellsbach lights which 
were used to illuminate the homes of those days. He also assisted 
Mary McLoughlin at the Post Office. He died in Lake Forest 
after 36 years as a well-known and respected Lake Forester. 

Baseball was a firmly established sport in Lake Forest during 
the period after the Civil War, but now a new sport was initiated 
by Clyde Carr and James Harbert— football. These two gathered 
together a group that attempted to learn to play the game, in 1 886. 
The following year "Prof ." Billy Williams arrived to teach mathe- 
matics and physics at the Academy. He organized the first team in 
the Mid- West and became the first coach. He had learned the 
game at his alma mater, Williams College, in Massachusetts, and 
continued to play on the Lake Forest team which included both 
college and Academy boys. His team defeated the University of 
Chicago by three touchdowns; Burtis R. MacHatton, a former 
Academy student, scored two of the three. Northwestern was de- 
feated 20-0. In those early years Billy Williams was considered 
the father of Western football. When the forerunner of the Big 
Ten was organized during the next decade, Lake Forest Academy 
was one of the charter members, according to Billy Williams, the 
only secondary school so listed. 

Many graduated from Lake Forest schools and later achieved 
distinction in business and the professions. Charles H. Wacker 
came to Lake Forest to school because the Chicago fire had de- 
stroyed the high school he was attending. He later studied in 
Germany, and became a Chicago business executive. In 1909 
he was chairman of the Chicago Plan Commission, which beau- 
tified the city by supervising the erection of public buildings, parks 
and boulevards. The resulting project included the Union Sta- 
tion, Shedd Aquarium, Soldier Field Stadium, Field Museum and 
many other buildings. Wacker Drive was named after Charles H. 

James H. Rogers graduated from Lake Forest, then specialized 
in study of the organ. His graduate studies included the famous 


College Town, 1880-1890 

teachers of the day, Clarence Eddy in Chicago, then Paris and 
Berlin under the famous masters of music, Loeschhorn, Rohde, 
Haupt, Guiliamant and Widor. Returning to the U.S.A. he be- 
came a prolific composer and writer on musical subjects. His 
greatest contributions to American music were in the field of organ 
and church music in which he published over two hundred works. 

Paul Starret walked with his brother to Lake Forest Academy 
in the eighties, every Monday morning, returning to his Highland 
Park home, walking, every week end. He became a construction 
engineer and built the first skyscraper, the Flat-Iron building in 
New York, as well as the Pennsylvania Railroad Station, the 
Commodore and Biltmore Hotels and the Empire State Building, 
the highest in the world. He also erected the Blackstone Hotel in 
Chicago and the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. 

From the day the Lake Forest Hotel was built, Lake Forest was 
a favorite spot for visitors from Chicago. Their reactions were 
those of the most recent visitors. Mrs. Israel Parsons Rumsey 
spent a half day on such a visit with her family on July 4th, 1 887, 
which she described: 

We drove from the station to the Lake Shore, where we had our 
lunch on the bluff overlooking the lake which I never saw so beauti- 
ful. Part of it a deep blue, like the sky, part delicate green and as 
smooth as glass, with four white sailing vessels floating slowly over it, 
and shadows from the passing clouds varying the tints. The children 
went down on the beach, and played in the sand and water. Mr. J. J. 
Halsey read to us, and we had the benefit of Mr. Farwell's horses and 
surrey to take some of us to the station about 6:00 p.m., driving around 
by some of the pretty places. Lake Forest is such a quiet restful spot 
to spend the 4th and it rather grows on us as a place to live in. The 
children take very kindly to the idea. But it looks rather dubious as to 
being able to find any place that we can afford to buy. 

September of the same year found the family settled in the 
former Quinlan house, which for two generations was known as 
the I. P. Rumsey House: "The Evergreens," just east of the pres- 
ent Library. Mrs. Rumsey wrote of ' all kinds of vegetables and 
melons and grapes every day" and "perfectly lovely rides around 
here: we went down through a ravine (McCormick's), on a road 
very narrow in some places, down onto the lake shore, and rode 
right along the water's edge for a long way. The country seems 



to agree with the horses as it does with the rest of us. We hate 
to go back to our Chicago neighborhood and be talked to and 
scolded. There is no telling when they will stop. But we don't 
care very much. At the Presbyterian Church Miss Davies sits 
two seats behind us and says our family has been a problem to 
them ever since we came. They wonder who we all are. Monday 
afternoon I put on a bold front and went calling all by myself. 
Made five calls and found all the people in. In the evening my 
husband and I called on the Benedicts and Durands. In all I have 
made thirteen calls and have nearly as many more to do. Lake 
Forest is not an easy place to live in, there are some things about 
the life which require constant adjustment, and don't stay put. In 
this place of young people there are all sorts of ideas." 

In 1888 a property was acquired by the City of Lake Forest from 
D. R. and Ellen H. Holt on the corner of Deer Path and Oak- 
wood. A four room school house was built on this property and 
named the West School. The former school on Noble Avenue 
and just west of the railroad tracks was discontinued and dis- 
mantled. Part of it became the Baptist Church on Oakwood 
where it still stands. Another part was moved to Deer Path and 
became a private dwelling. It is the present home of Charles Over- 
all across the street from the Telephone building. 

Miss Kate McMahon became the Principal of the new West 
School. Miss Alice Treffry, Miss Louise French and Miss Alice 
Poole were the other teachers. In 1912, after a fire, this school was 
rebuilt, enlarged, and renamed the "J°lm J. Halsey School." 
When the West School was first erected, Superintendent Roy F. 
Griffin remarked: "Boys who ought to be in school, prefer to 
wander from place to place during the day instead of attending 
school. They acquire habits of idleness and often are led into vice. 
Your Superintendent sees no way of remedying the evil." Per- 
haps the new school was so attractive that students were eager to 

The new school inspired Miss Kate McMahon to ask for a 
salary increase to $50 per month. She said: "First, the labor is 
worth it, second, my experience entitles me to the increase, and 
other places are paying comparable salaries." She added: "Unless 
granted, Miss McMahon declines reappointment." 


College Town, 1880-1890 

On April 13, 1888, at a meeting at the residence of the Rev. 
and Mrs. George R. Cutting, Principal of Lake Forest Academy, 
the Alcott School was founded, in honor of Bronson Alcott, a 
pioneer American educator and the father of Louisa May Alcott. 
Miss Alcott was best known as an author of a series of autobio- 
graphical children's books, the best known being Little Women. 
Among those present were Mr. and Mrs. Calvin Durand, Mr. 
and Mrs. John H. Dwight, Mr. and Mrs. David M. Fales, Mr. 
and Mrs. C. K. Giles, Prof. L. F. Griffin, and Moses L. Scudder. 
The result was another private school at the grade level. Allen C. 
Bell took over the institution in 1904. The name was changed to 
the "Bell School" about 1930. Another school had begun in 1927, 
called the "Lake Forest Day School/' In 1958, after the retire- 
ment of Allen Bell, the two schools combined to form the "Lake 
Forest Country Day School." 

The Grand Army of the Republic, Lake Forest Post 676, was 
organized in 1889. Calvin Durand was the first Commander, 
B. F. Paullin was Post Adjutant. The year of its organization, the 
Post received the gift of a silk American Flag as a present from 
ten leading citizens of Lake Forest. The flag was unfurled for the 
first time on Memorial Day, 1889. In the 1920's, when the G.A.R. 
ceased to function, because of loss of membership through death, 
the flag was given to the newly organized American Legion. This 
flag was displayed in the Legion home until 1961 when it was 
placed in the Lake County Museum. 

Commander Durand, who had been a member of the Chicago 
Board of Trade Battery, ambushed by Wheeler's cavalry near 
Atlanta and imprisoned in Andersonville and at Libby, made the 
annual Memorial Day address recounting the tribulations of the 
veteran and stressing the cost of liberty and democracy. Captain 
I. P. Rumsey, another leading member of the G.A.R. is remem- 
bered for his appearances on a beautiful white horse during 
patriotic occasions. His last public appearance was in April, 19 16, 
on the birthday anniversary of General U. S. Grant, when he 
presented Lake Forest University an appropriate flag-pole, erected 
in front of the college library. The senior class of Lake Forest Col- 
lege supplied the flag. Captain W. A. Moffett, U.S.N., sent the 
Marine Band from Great Lakes. Lake Forest College's President, 



John S. Nollen, made the speech of acceptance. The large gather- 
ing included the student body and many townspeople. Mayor 
William Mather Lewis, a graduate of Lake Forest College, made 
a speech of welcome. Captain Rumsey's son, Henry, became the 
builder and first President of the Chicago Board of Trade in the 
new building, in the late twenties, and served Lake Forest as 



i 890-1 900 

In 1890 the United States census showed a population of 62,- 
622,250. Lake Forest boasted a population of 1,750, with an ad- 
ditional 250 students in the College, Academy and Ferry Hall. 
The city was without paved streets. The roads were in deep mud, 
and horses were continually in a lather from struggling through 
mire, often six inches deep. Most of the bridges across the ravines 
were about one hundred feet long. They were built of heavy 
timber trusses and floored with heavy planking. The roadbed of 
the bridges became a sounding board to the tread of steel-shod 
horses. It sounded like the beating of giant drums. 

There were several stores in the 1890*5 lining the west side of 
Western Avenue and extending north about two blocks from 
Deer Path. These were generally brick structures replacing the 
frame buildings, which were burned out by the big fire of 1882. 

James Anderson had the largest store in town. It was a general 
store and grocery, in a three story building where Walgreen Drug 
Store stands (1961). At this time oats could be purchased at 8^ 
per bushel, corn 19^, wheat 35^, eggs 5^ per dozen, milk at 1^ 
per quart, and cream 6^ per quart. Mr. Anderson was a fine, 
dignified, austere gentleman and a pioneer settler of Lake Forest. 

Next in line was the Post Office in a little frame rented build- 
ing. Miss Mary McLoughlin was postmistress for several decades. 



The center of interest to the juveniles of those days was French's 
Drug Store, the predecessor of Martin's Drug Store. It contained 
a soda fountain offering three kinds of drinks: a phosphate was 5^, 
an egg phosphate was 10^, an ice cream and soda were 10^. Mr. 
French introduced sundaes, first introduced by druggists in Evans- 
ton soon after the Chicago World's Fair. The press and pulpit 
fulminated and fussed over the degenerative effect of indulgence 
in such beverages. 

O'Neill's Hardware held the greatest interest for the young men 
in town who admired the display of hunting equipment including 
firearms each autumn. Sam Blackler ran the meat market and 
before any bank was organized, it performed a sort of banking 
service for the town. There was considerable grumbling in those 
days because the price of round steak had gone up from 10^ to 
12^, and sirloin was raised to 15^. 

Wenban's was one of the most active spots in town. It included 
a livery stable, an undertaking establishment and the original 
fire department. Mr. Wenban and his sons, George and Fred, 
were the Czars of transportation in that age. One of them would 
act as guide or driver for hayrack rides and picnics to Diamond 
Lake or to Waukegan, by sleigh or by wagon at eventide or for 
an oyster supper at the old Washburn house. Sometimes when 
the roads were muddy, a four-horse team was used. 

Frank Smith was the town barber, holding forth where the 
bank now stands. He was the only barber within eight miles. The 
standard fees were 10^ per shave, 25^ for haircuts. He was known 
to make special prices in wholesale lots. One family of four boys 
received haircuts for 65^ provided they came at noon on Mon- 
days. Frank was a student of human nature. He could tell whether 
a boy's allowance was 25^ per week or a dollar. When it was the 
latter he tried for the whole dollar. Many a boy was talked into his 
first shave, and then persuaded to a tonic and a singe, and if 
Frank could go no higher, in services, he told of the real rugged 
he-men of the past, who always left a generous tip. 

Another enterprising and versatile business man was Julian 
Matthews, who came from Virginia, riding in a box car loaded 
with fine horses. His first job was as coachman for Dr. William C. 
Roberts, President of Lake Forest College. In the 1890's Julian 
had a store on Western Avenue near the location of the present 


Budding Culture, 1890-1900 

Community Store. His family lived in the upstairs apartment. 
Downstairs he operated a restaurant and bakery, Mrs. Matthews 
presiding over the cooking and baking. Bread was sold to the Deer- 
path Inn when Mrs. Patterson was the proprietor. The waiters 
would eat the Matthews' bread themselves and serve inferior bread 
bought elsewhere to the guests. Bakery goods and ice cream, 
packed in ice, were delivered in Matthews' wagon. Bread was 6^ 
a loaf, pies 20^, doughnuts 12^ per dozen. 

Julian Matthews had a livery stable at the back of his restaurant. 
Livery charges were 25^ to anywhere in town. For sightseeing, 
$2.50 per hour. He operated a "stake wagon" which he used to 
move summer residents from Chicago and back, changing teams 
in Evanston at the Butler Brothers Livery Stable. His stable 
burned to the ground, but the polo ponies and Matthews' own 
horses were saved, except two which insisted, by force of habit, 
on returning to the barn though it was in flames. There was danger 
that the Speidel barn nearby would catch fire. It would have been 
disastrous as kerosene was stored there. 

Later the Matthews family moved to Illinois Road. During this 
interim Julian owned a spirited colt. One day the Matthews boys 
drove him uptown but forgot to weight him. A train standing in 
the station started up, as did the colt and his buggy. He raced 
south on muddy Western Avenue, without a driver, to the con- 
sternation of the passengers. He passed the train, then crossed the 
tracks turning east in front of the onrushing engine at Farwell 
crossing. Horse and buggy returned safely to the stable on Illinois 

Julian Matthews was a regular attendant at the horse shows at 
the Onwentsia Club with his ice cream wagon. When he went 
to the Academy football games, where the boys were partial to 
pie and ice cream, he soon learned not to leave the premises until 
he had carefully checked the harness and the traces because the 
boys were adept at practical jokes. 

In August 1 890 the double tracks of the Northwestern railroad 
were finished as far as Lake Forest. This improvement formed the 
basis of much comment, since it began as a left hand drive and has 
so remained for the first century. Many reasons have been ad- 
vanced, including design by an Englishman and a larger com- 
muting population on the lake side, but it must be noted that, 


after the Civil War, several railroads had left hand drives, in- 
cluding the New York Central, which was the only other large 
system to maintain the left hand drive for many years. The North- 
western began this system in 1890 and found it cheaper to main- 
tain what it began than to build new stations on the other side 
of the tracks. Automatic block signals were installed to Waukegan 
in 1903. 

A private water company was organized in 1890 to furnish 
water to the entire city. Bernard McGovern, who had come to 
Lake Forest directly from Ireland in 1887, was in charge of laying 
the first water mains. This led to the formation of the first fire 
brigade in Lake Forest in 1893 with William J. O'Neill, Sr., as 
fire chief. Claude Crippen was assistant chief, and Fred J. Wen- 
ban, captain. Other members included James King, C. T. Gunn, 
Joseph Anderson, George Anderson, John G. Hinge, William 
Lawson, and John E. Fitzgerald who was captain for many years. 
It was a volunteer organization with two small hose reels holding 
350 feet of hose each, supplemented by picks, axes, and poles, 
mounted on carts and pushed by manpower. One of these units 
was housed at the Wenban Livery Stable, the other at College 
Hall, because town and University young men had volunteered 
for the formation of the hose companies. Soon more hose was 
added, and horses were used to transport the equipment. 

An election for Mayor in 1891 pitted Mr. Calvin Durand 
against Mr. F. E. Hinckley. The former wanted cedar blocks for 
paving, the latter brick. Chicago had just installed cedar blocks 
in the loop area and they were proven to be quiet and well suited 
to horses and carriages. The brick pavement was recommended 
for its durability. 

The major issue, however, arose after the sewer assessment of 
the previous year, when their estimates were found to be unequal. 
The issue had been fought out in court and the assessments levied 
by the City Council had been confirmed. Nevertheless the issue 
was kept alive in the election for Mayor. Mr. Hinckley of the "Re- 
form Party" advocated reassessment. Mr. Durand of the "People's 
Party" advocated that the assessment promoted by the City Coun- 
cil be upheld. Newspaper articles appeared pro and con. The 
City Council issued hand bills stating that Mr. Hinckley's charges 
were unfounded due to his short residence in Lake Forest. There 


Budding Culture, 1890-1900 

was feverish electioneering activity. Two hundred twenty-four 
votes were cast, the largest in the city up to that time. Mr. Durand 
won by 28 votes. 

The sewer assessment was soon forgotten, but the cedar blocks 
were installed from the railroad station east on Deer Path and 
south on Mayflower Road to the Cyrus H. McCormick's. The 
blocks were cross sections of cedar logs, eight inches long, and 
varying in diameter from 6 to 10 inches. The foundation was 
about 1 5 inches, being one layer of slag, and two layers of crushed 
stone, and a course of sand, all watered down and rolled. The 
blocks were laid by hand and the chinks filled with tar poured by 

The result was a nice piece of pavement. It gave a good foot- 
hold for horses. A couple of miles were laid, which lasted about 
20 years, though some patches remained until 1930. These new 
pavements were in keeping with the increasingly handsome 
equipages, lovely phaetons, the sprightly run-abouts, conventional 
closed carriages, and also for mounts. 

Light sleepers could keep track of night life. One could hear a 
team leave the station and pound its way over the cedar block 
pavements to the Presbyterian Church, then across the bridge, on 
across the college campus and the Gym bridge, toward Ferry Hall 
and across the bridge there, beyond to the south toward Mc- 
Cormick's another large bridge, giving off a sound like distant 
thunder at night. Jules Knox took a job of unloading cedar blocks 
for 80^ a day. On Sundays he and other young boys were invited 
to Sunday dinner at the home of the Mayor, where Mr. Durand 
would tell them tales of the Civil War. A few years later a cheaper 
pavement called water-bound macadam was introduced, and by 
1900 there were probably ten miles of fair pavement in Lake 
Forest. The macadam roads were much quieter. 

Board walks had been installed on the main thoroughfares even 
before i860. In the i88o's the number of these increased so that 
nearly all the streets in and near the center of town were lined 
with these board walks. The college campus was adorned with its 
own board walks. They were purely utilitarian and ugly: two or 
three boards each twelve inches wide and two inches thick, but 
they were a comfort in bad weather. 

The first cement sidewalk was laid by Henry C. Durand in 



front of his house on Deer Path. He is said to have brought the 
idea from Pasadena, California. It was not supposed at that time 
that cement could stand freezing weather. Before the end of the 
decade all Lake Foresters became distinguished as sidewalk build- 
ers. The board walks of previous years were discarded. Cement 
was laid, everywhere, in any width the property owners chose. By 
the turn of the century the width was standardized, and the city 
built sidewalks, charging a special tax. E. Bailey, street commis- 
sioner, supervised an unusual amount of sidewalk construction. 

Several college buildings were donated and erected during the 
1 890*5. The Gymnasium, first in the Mid-west, containing that 
luxury of luxuries, a swimming pool, was erected in 1890, the 
gift of Senator C. B. Farwell. The following year the Durand Art 
Institute was built of the same red stone and by the same architect, 
Henry Ives Cobb, one of the leading architects in the country. 
It cost $50,000, a Romanesque building with brown stone walls 
and red tiled roof. The design was that of a central building with 
high, pointed roof and two gables projecting from it at right angles, 
the roofs of which are somewhat lower. This divided the building 
into three parts, one a gallery for pictures and statuary, one an 
auditorium with a capacity of 600, including a stage, a third part 
to house an art library and to provide rooms for the science de- 
partment. This building provided a home for the Art Institute 
Club with many members from town and gown. Its purpose was 
to promote all the arts. 

Lois Durand Hall, a dormitory for young women was built in 
1897 after a wide study of dormitories used in various women's 
colleges. This, too, was the gift of Henry C. Durand in memory of 
his mother. The Lily Reid Holt Memorial Chapel and the Arthur 
Somerville Reid Memorial Library were built in the gothic style 
in 1899, the gifts of Mrs. Simon Somerville Reid. The Chapel 
and Library are connected by a cloistered colonnade and "have 
the effect of one structure, the tower of the Chapel crowning 
them both with grace." The material used in their construction 
was Bedford stone. Frost and Granger were the architects. The 
gifts for nearly all these buildings came as a result of Dr. J. G. K. 
McClure's requests for them. Several hundred vines, shrubbery 
and trees were planted on the college campus through the gift of 
Byron L. Smith. 


Budding Culture, 1890-1900 

The College and the Academy were growing rapidly, nu- 
merically and in prestige, causing congestion on the limited cam- 
pus. Both used many of the same facilities: the Gym, the Library, 
the tennis courts and the other athletic fields. Football and baseball 
had their beginning on the old field, behind the original Academy 
building at the intersection of Sheridan Road and Deer Path. In 
1890 Knowlton (Snake) Ames and Ben Donnelly, famous foot- 
ball players from Princeton came to show the Academy and Col- 
lege teams the finer points of the game. One of the great athletes 
of the Academy, then later at the College, was Marion Woolsey. 
He became a construction engineer for the New York Central 
Railroad. He returned to Lake Forest long enough to supervise 
the laying of water mains and sewers in Lake Forest. He also in- 
stalled the first steam lines for the College, Ferry Hall and the 

The sport mecca, throughout the winter months, was the Far- 
well Pond, fed by an artesian well. When the ice was good, it was 
crowded with dozens of merrymakers. The well was capped with 
a spraying fountain near one end, which kept a bit of water not 
frozen over. On frequent occasions some youngster would get 
too near this water and in he would go. Then it was a major op- 
eration to drag the victim out. 

An interesting summer sport was practised by several groups 
of young men who secured coaches, each with a team of fast 
horses. With eight men in each coach all dressed up with vest and 
top hat, they raced around the "square." The starting point was 
the railroad station, west on Deer Path, north on Telegraph Road 
(Waukegan Road), east on present route 176 and south on Green 
Bay Road and back to the Station. The second coach reversed the 
route. The first coach back to the station was the winner. These 
were sometimes known as opposition coaches. One of these sports- 
men was Dr. George Fiske, whose home was on Fiske Hill just 
north of Sacred Heart Academy. Sheridan Road at that point went 
steeply down to the ravine bottom and up at a very sharp incline; 
the early autos could hardly make this hill. Dr. Fiske was an eye, 
nose and "bridge" specialist. He played bridge at the University 
Club with his Derby hat on. 

In 1892 the Academy was moved to a new campus, its third, a 
quarter of a mile south of the College campus, on Sheridan Road. 



With the growth of both these institutions, the College and the 
Academy, on the same limited campus, with increased activities, 
the pranks and never ending horseplay of the Academy boys be- 
came a continual and increasing annoyance to the more mature 
college students and faculty. When the Academy moved, the two 
institutions began separate careers. Now the athletic teams were 
completely separated, and the two institutions maintained sepa- 
rate faculties. They did have the same board of Trustees until 
1925, when these became legally separated. 

On June 8, 1893, three new Academy buildings, on the new 
campus, were dedicated. Pond and Pond of Chicago designed the 
buildings. George H. Holt was the chairman of the building com- 
mittee. Annie Durand Cottage was the gift of Henry C. Durand. 
Mrs. Durand furnished the building throughout with new furni- 
ture. East House, the second dormitory, was financed from funds 
advanced by members of the Board of Trustees of Lake Forest 
University and others. Reid Hall, the recitation-chapel-office 
building was the gift of the Simon Reids. The upstairs classroom 
windows were so high that a student could not be distracted except 
by the flight of occasional birds and Jthe waving of the uppermost 
branches of the trees. This innovation was considered a very im- 
portant advance in classroom construction. In 1894 another 
dormitory was completed, the Eliza Remsen Cottage, the gift of 
Ezra J. Warners, named for Mrs. Warner's sister who died during 
her college days. The Academy buildings were also the result of 
Dr. McClure's untiring efforts. The new Academy campus, in 
addition, contained a well drained football field, and three tennis 
courts. The entire area was planted with trees, shrubs and vines, 
through the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. L. W. Yaggy. 

The separation of the Academy released the old Academy build- 
ing and the building known as Academia which had been used 
for an Academy dining hall, for the use of the College. In 1 893 
Dr. A. C. Haven established the Haven Gold Medal for the best 
Academy Commencement Oration and Prof. A. C. McNeill estab- 
lished a prize of Fifty Dollars for the best essay in English. 

The Rush Medical College building was finished in 1893, "a 
beautiful and commodious building." The corner stone of the 
Dental College building was laid and provided accommodation for 
"the most numerously attended Dental School in the world." Both 


Budding Culture, 1890-1900 

these structures were a block west of the Presbyterian Hospital, 
in Chicago. 

The center of all interest in 1893 was Chicago's Columbian 
Exposition. It celebrated the landing of Columbus in America. 
It came a year too late; nevertheless, it was a triumph achieved by 
the Chicago city fathers, affecting the city and its environs in 
many ways. The location was Jackson Park, and the dominating 
note was the classical architecture, comprising 150 buildings. It 
was called the White City. 

One of the most popular buildings was the Columbian Mu- 
seum, containing birds and beasts, ores and precious stones from 
all over the world, and a rare American Indian collection. Two 
permanent institutions may be said to have descended from it— 
the Museum of Science and Industry and the Field Museum of 
Natural History. 

The cultural influence of the Fair was instantaneous. In Lake 
Forest, works of art began to adorn the walls and fringed mantle 
pieces. These were copies of famous European paintings and 
statuary of the period, some of which were created in Chicago on 
the spot and visitors purchasing them arrived home with proof 
that they had been at the Fair. French, Chinese, Italian and Japa- 
nese art objects, some useful, some ornamental, appeared in quan- 
tity in nearly every home. Rooms were rearranged, additions were 
sometimes built, to make room for these new acquisitions. 

The younger generation was attracted by the mass of humanity, 
the teeming activity and the bizarre entertainment of all kinds af- 
forded by the Fair. Many Lake Forest boys availed themselves of 
the opportunity to earn a few dollars. One boy, Johnathan J. 
Jackson, was a guide, at the princely and unheard of salary of 
$15.00 per week. He was also a conductor on a train which ran 
around the perimeter of the grounds, and occasionally an engi- 
neer and fireman on the little steam engine that hauled the four 
car trains. This railroad track was four miles long. 

There was the famous "Streets of Cairo/' with its "Little Egypt" 
and dancers. Here Billy Rose got his start as a circus man. In 
Igorote Village a group of untamed South Sea Savages spent the 
summer in peace. Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show was espe- 
cially attractive to the very young boys. There was the Ferris 
Wheel, Madam Farley's Wax Works, trained seals, Venetian glass 



blowers and gondolas, and Russian Cossacks and dancers. On a 
memorable day in October, the turnstiles checked in over a mil- 
lion people. The Fair was notable for its introduction of electric 
lighting. Strings of naked bulbs were everywhere. 

Then there was the quick lunch, a new idea introduced by H. 
H. Kohlsaat, the Chicago restaurant man. From then on wheat 
cakes were to take their place in the American diet. A big stack 
of them with lots of butter and maple syrup for io£ furnished the 
sustenance of many a visitor to the Fair. Kohlsaat's first quick 
lunch restaurant was on Randolph Street, at the entrance to the 
Illinois Central Station where trains left every few minutes for 
the Fair grounds at Jackson Park, eight miles away. 

Many substantial business contacts were due to the Chicago 
World's Fair. It was here that Albert B. Dick, soon to become a 
Lake Forest resident, and Thomas A. Edison met to lay the foun- 
dations of a typically American small but successful enterprise. 

A. B. Dick had a thriving lumber business in Chicago in the 
iSyo's. Because of this, he wished to send out 50 letters per day 
to his customers, describing his merchandise and quoting prices. 
When printing proved costly, he devised a simple duplicating 
process which he called: "Autographic stencils." He soon dis- 
covered that the more letters he mailed, the more lumber sales 

Thomas Alva Edison was contacted and a friendship grew be- 
tween the two men. Gradually A. B. Dick abandoned the lumber 
business and devoted full time to the duplicating business. In 
1 893 the two men met at the Chicago World's Fair, where further 
progress resulted from the adoption of Edison's "electric pen," a 
small pointed steel shaft with a rapidly vibrating needle at the 
point driven by an electric motor which in turn was powered by 
galvanic batteries. It made 8,000 perforations per minute on a 
sheet of paper which now became a stencil. By rolling ink over 
the stencil, it was duplicated on the sheet below. Edison made the 
stencils more durable by coating them with wax. He released sev- 
eral of his patents for use to A. B. Dick. The result was essentially 
the present A. B. Dick & Company Mimeograph. On May 5, 
1884, the first officers of the A. B. Dick & Company had been 
elected. After the Fair, the duplicating process was a successful 


Budding Culture, 1890-1900 

new business. The objective of the Company has since been "the 
delivery of well-printed duplicates of letters and forms, easily, 
rapidly and inexpensively." 

The railroad companies were among the first to accept the ad- 
vantages of the new process. Other businesses followed. Gradually 
the new stencils were adjusted to the rotary Mimeograph, intro- 
duced in 1 900, and to the typewriter. The discovery of long and 
soft fibers of a species of hazel brush, grown in Japan, improved 
the stencil. Then chemical stencils were introduced in 1924. To- 
day, electrically driven Mimeographs duplicate 1,000 sheets in 
an hour. 

In may 1 894 occurred the Pullman Car strike in the Chicago area. 
It started with the reduction of wages among the employees of 
the Pullman Car Company, but soon spread so that there were 
only a few trains operating between Lake Forest and Chicago. If 
one could take a train to Chicago there was no guarantee of re- 
turning. There was almost a complete tie-up of all traffic as far 
as the West coast. On July 3, out of 91 trains due at the North- 
western station, only 16 arrived. There was violence in Chicago 
and the southern suburbs; hundreds of people were injured and 
there was heavy property damage. On July 5, President Grover 
Cleveland sent out federal troops from Fort Sheridan to the south 
side, to restore order and to maintain the movement of the mails. 
Traffic was restored within a few days. Governor J. P. Altgeld of 
Illinois, a man of high ideals, a wealthy social and political re- 
former, but considered radical by nature, took sides with Eugene 
V. Debs, the labor leader, who had ordered the strike. Altgeld 
interpreted the President's action as an anti-labor and unconstitu- 
tional interference with states' rights, but Cleveland insisted he 
wished only to keep mail trains moving. Eugene V. Debs appeared 
in the First Presbyterian Church of Lake Forest, in overalls, which 
did not suit him, and attempted to justify the strike to the people 
of Lake Forest. 

The marriage of Miss Nellie Durand of Lake Forest was an im- 
portant social event in 1894; but it caused a considerable amount 
of misgivings to her parents, since the groom was a Democrat. 
Some of the ushers and the best man were entertained at the 



Holt's home, "The Homestead," just south of the home of the 
bride. At this time smoking, drinking, and card playing were 
frowned upon by all the Presbyterian families. When the best 
man could wait no longer to have his smoke, he and his ushers 
from Milwaukee retired to their bedroom fireplace to snatch some 
peaceful enjoyment. 

October io, 1894, was another red letter day for Lake Forest. 
This was the day of the Temperance March. The question of 
temperance first appeared in the Chicago area when New Eng- 
land Puritanism met the Irish and German liberalism in the rough 
and ready days of the Illinois-Michigan Canal building period. 
The June 11, 1 845, issue of the Waukegan Porcupine complained 
that "It is a fact too notorious to be concealed that our town con- 
tains seven places where liquor is sold, yet we have not even one 
church." On October 9 of the same year, a meeting was called 
at the Methodist Church in Libertyville to organize the promoters 
of temperance. The temperance question aroused great interest 
among the people of the Chicago area until the slavery issue be- 
came all absorbing. In 1880 temperance once more became a burn- 
ing issue and the growth of the W.C.T.U. during the 1890^ was 
phenomenal. In its wake many other organizations sprang up 
with the same general purpose, culminating in the all powerful 
Anti-Saloon League twenty years later. 

The leaders of the 1 894 Temperance March were the presidents 
of Lake Forest University, Northwestern University, the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, and the Roman Catholic Societies. They had 
proposed a parade in Chicago which was to be composed of volun- 
teers, all students. The March hoped to include 2,000 students, 
and wished to protest the 7,000 saloons of Chicago and their in- 
fluence on City Hall. 

About $200 was collected in Lake Forest, to pay for transporta- 
tion of the students and the Fort Sheridan Band. The donors in- 
cluded Sam Blackler, E. Buckingham, Ambrose Cramer, Calvin 
Durand, Henry C. Durand, John H. Dwight, Mrs. F. E. Good- 
hart, John H. Hamline, J. S. Hannah, D. R. Holt, William H. 
Hubbard, Dr. James G. K. McClure, Cyrus H. McCormick, 
Arthur Reid and his sisters, I. P. Rumsey, Mrs. Byron L. Smith, 
Ezra J. Warner, C. J. Weaver, C. G. Wenban, and L. W. Yaggy. 


Budding Culture, 1890-1900 

Upon arrival in Chicago the Band formed and led the parade. 
Lake Forest students followed, led by Israel P. Rumsey. The 
Roman Catholic Societies followed, about two hundred boys in 
all. But the Methodists from Evanston never appeared, nor the 
Baptists from the Midway. The parade marched across Kinzie 
Street, then known as Saloon Row. Men rushed out of the saloons 
and tried to force the paraders to drink, spilling beer on many. 
The parade ended on State Street at the old Central Music Hall, 
where Marshall Field's now stands. A continuous session was held 
afternoon and evening. John R. Mott of Y.M.C.A. fame was the 
master of ceremonies. Toward evening rowdyism got out of hand, 
and police came in from all sides to maintain order. Still later, 
several thousands congregated around State Street and in the 
Hall to watch the spectacle. 



i 895-1 900 

On june 25, 1 894, Waukegan received a charter for a small steam 
railroad which was to operate within that city. By the following 
year when service began, the line -was extended northward to 
Kenosha, and by 1899 south to Highland Park. The Lake Forest 
City Council approved the franchise to the Bluff City Electric 
Street Railway Company, as it was then called, on September 15, 
1897. The Council received $10,000 for granting this franchise. 
Originally three cars were operated, very small by modern stand- 
ards, attaining speeds up to ten miles per hour. Eventually, when 
the line was electrified, it operated as the Chicago and North 
Shore Line. Around the turn of the century, there was no over- 
pass across Illinois Road : the train came down to the level of the 
street, then up on the other side. A freight house was located near 
Illinois Road. The viaduct for the line was erected in 1898. By 
1 91 9 the name was changed to the Chicago, North Shore and 
Milwaukee Railway and operated between the Chicago Loop 
and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and boasted of some 130 cars. 

In 1895, when a City ordinance granted E. F. Chapin, J. B. 
Durand and M. L. Scudder "the right to erect and maintain a 
telephone system in the City of Lake Forest, for 1 5 years," John 
Chapman arrived from Chicago representing the Chicago Tele- 


Utilities, 189 5-1 900 

phone Company. He installed the first telephones in Lake Forest. 
The first telephones were difficult to sell as no one wanted one 
if there was no one to talk to. This condition was soon remedied 
and Chapman lived in a little room in the back of Hogue's Drug 
Store (later French's) and here he became the first night operator 
in Lake Forest. A young lady, name forgotten, took over the 
switchboard during the daytime. By the end of the first year 25 
telephones were installed in Lake Forest and the same number in 
Highland Park and in Glencoe. Due to the winding streets and 
ravines in Lake Forest, the erection of poles and stringing of wires 
was especially difficult. Chapman became a resident in Lake For- 
est, remaining until his death in i960. 

When Hogue, the pharmacist, became the manager in 1896, 
a direct line to Chicago was established so that remarkably quick 
service was possible. That year the number of telephones doubled, 
requiring a total of yy miles of wire and 507 poles. In 1 899 George 
T. Gibbons became the manager of the Company in Lake Forest. 
He handled a special project of providing additional equipment 
to serve the National Golf Tournament at the Onwentsia Club 
in July of that year. At the time the total subscribers had increased 
to 1 13. In 1 96 1 there were 5,531 telephone poles and about 6,000 

In 1896 the population of Lake Forest was 1,980, including 894 
males and 1,086 females. There were 705 boys and girls under 21, 
565 under 16, and 269 under six. 

Among the population during the i89o's were two town char- 
acters known to everybody. One was James Gordon, the first Lake 
Forest police officer in the modern sense. He operated on foot and 
sometimes on a bicycle. He was appointed in 1895. Another pop- 
ular citizen was The Rev. Washington Adams Nichols, an Am- 
herst graduate and a retired Congregationalist minister. He came 
to Lake Forest because of its high literary and moral tone and 
conducted a boarding grade school in the i86o's. Many remember 
him in a front pew in the Presbyterian Church when he tapped 
his cane saying "Amen, Amen!" whenever he thought the minis- 
ter had preached long enough. He lived in a house on the grounds 
of the present Library where he conducted studies in Isaiah be- 
fore a group composed of Mrs. Z. Humphrey, Mrs. Norman B. 



Judd, Mrs. Walter Larned, Mrs. C. B. Farwell and others. When 
they were not eager to continue after a year's study, Rev. Nichols 
was disappointed and said: "What will I say to Isaiah when I 
see him in heaven?" When he passed away at the age of 93, it 
was said of him that he had done as much for building up Lake 
Forest as any man of his day. 

The business men of the period included Charles C. Pratt who 
operated a laundry, which was later continued by Fred Held. 
It was in this Bank Lane laundry building, that the first issues of 
The Lake Forester were printed, on the second floor. G. L. Smith 
was the barber. F. C. Calvert and Son were florists. Mrs. Robinson 
and Moffert operated a restaurant. H. L. Hogue and Dr. G. G. 
French were pharmacists. Karl M. Rasmussen was a shoe dealer. 
Dr. J. C. Giltner was a dentist. Ruben and Goldberg had a confec- 
tionery store. R. C. Wirth was a butcher. F. N. Pratt sold insur- 
ance, rentals and real estate. M. Fitzgerald sold cigars and tobacco. 
F. C. Richards & Son sold dry goods, groceries, crockery, flour, 
boots, shoes, caps, hay, straw, and feed. Fred Weis was a tailor. 
James Anderson operated a general store, selling lumber, building 
materials, dry goods, groceries, hats, caps, boots, shoes, furnishing 
goods, and hardware. Dr. C. H. Francis was a medical doctor. 
John OLeary took care of plumbing and heating. P. Coughlin, 
J. Grady and A. McVay were blacksmiths. T. Eastwood sold 
cigars and confections. C. G. Wenban conducted a livery, as did 
George Fitzgerald. William J. O'Neill did the tinning, furnace 
work and roofing. C. T. Gunn conducted a cash grocery. Joseph 
Barnet sold wood and coal. Charles R. Mills was a harness manu- 
facturer and bicycle dealer. Frank Wondrak repaired wagons and 

The 1896 Mayor was Edward P. Gorton. The Aldermen were 
Prof. Walter R. Bridgeman, Calvin Durand, David Fales, T. S. 
Fauntleroy, L. H. W. Speidel, and C. G. Wenban. This Council 
established the North School for primary grades at the north end 
of present Sheridan Road on the east side. Children in this area 
had to walk much too far to reach the West School which they 
had been attending. The land was purchased from Andreas Ander- 
son. The North School was later sold and became the recreation 
hall of Thorpe Academy in the late i92o's. 

On March 24, 1896, the City Council passed another resolu- 


Utilities, 1895-1900 

tion on the perennial subject of sand and gravel along the beach. 
It stated: 

No person shall take, remove, carry away, any sand, gravel, clay, or 
other material, from any part of the beach, between the bluffs and the 
water's edge of Lake Michigan, in the City of Lake Forest, except at 
that part of the beach opposite Forest Park. Under penalty of $25.00, 
nor more than $100 for each offense. 

One of the outstanding Academy boys of those days was Sieg- 
fried E. Gruenstein, who first came to Lake Forest in 1891, when 
he was 14 years old, and became the organist of the First Presby- 
terian Church when he could barely reach the foot pedals. He 
served as organist and Director of Music for forty-eight years. Be- 
sides having a great love of music, "Sig" as the boys called him, 
had an editorial mind and a printer's devil's sense of humor. In 
1894 ne an d Johnathan Jackson published The Commencement 
Bulletin, a daily which claimed to be the first school daily in 
America. The only printer in those days was a Mr. Coon of Wau- 
kegan. The paper was published again during commencement 
week the following year. This publication was a companion of 
the college magazine which was a weekly affair. The latter gave 
news of the College, Academy, and Ferry Hall, but there was 
need for a publication for the townspeople of Lake Forest. 

In 1896, a meeting was held in the Brewster House, later called 
Deerpath Inn, which stood opposite the present Library. Prof. 
Walter R. Bridgeman of the College faculty had conceived the 
idea of a newspaper as a supplement to the college publication, 
which soon developed into the town's weekly periodical. Prof. 
Bridgeman asked for suggestions. Miss Ellen Holt proposed the 
name The Lake Forester. S. S. Speer began the publication of 
The Lake Forester on July 16, 1896. In the meantime Siegfried 
Gruenstein had induced D. W. Hartman to come to Lake Forest 
to print the College Stentor for 1896. Julian Matthews helped 
Mr. Hartman set up his printing press and the two publications 
went into production. The Lake Forester has had many editors 
and managers since its beginning. Mr. Gruenstein went on to 
become a journalist on the staffs of several newspapers and later 
founded and edited The Diapason, the only nationally known and 
accredited journal for organists. 



Hobart Chatfield-Taylor, Senator C. B. Farwell's son-in-law, 
brought added distinction to Lake Forest by publishing fourteen 
books, several on foreign subjects. In 1 892-1 894 he was an Hon- 
orary Consul of Spain in Chicago. He served as Secretary of the 
Inaugural reception of the Columbian Exposition. 

In 1 896 he organized the Onwentsia Club. Its humble begin- 
nings date from 1893 when he erected a seven hole golf course 
on the bluff along the lake in Lake Park. The first holes were 
tomato cans. In November of the following year, with increased 
interest in the game, the Lake Forest Golf Club was organized. 
Hobart Chatfield-Taylor was elected President. Charles F. Smith 
was one of the moving spirits. Robert Foulis, a Scotsman and a 
professional golfer, was secured, and a nine hole course was laid 
out on the Leander McCormick farm on Green Bay Road in- 
cluding 175 acres. The course had no bunkers but contained a 
very unpopular water hole within sight of the first club house 
which had previously served as a sheep pen and a chicken coop. 
Sheep grazed nearby. The Chicago and Northwestern tracks ran 
along the second hole. President Chatfield-Taylor promoted the 
Indian name Onwentsia, signifying a meeting place for braves 
and their squaws. The club members voted in favor of this change. 

In 1896 the Henry Ives Cobb home and farm were secured, 
including two hundred acres; the home becoming the first suit- 
able club house. Grass tennis courts were now installed. The 
first annual Fourth of July fireworks on the Onwentsia grounds 
took place in 1896. There was music all evening. In 1897 a year- 
book containing the rules of the club was published which in- 
cluded the rule: "No golf games shall be played or practised on 
the Club grounds on Sunday." Another rule forbade the playing 
of any games of chance in the clubhouse. The annual dues at this 
time were $35.00. The United States Golf Association Amateur 
Golf championship was played at Onwentsia in 1899. H. M. 
Harriman was the winner. 

Onwentsia Polo originated in 1896. It was played on Ferry 
Field at the north end of town near Sheridan Road. The orig- 
inators were W. Vernon Booth, Charles G. King, William W. 
Rathbone and George A. Seaverns, Jr. These were soon joined by 
Frederick McLaughlin, Edward Hasler, Robert and Medill Mc- 
Cormick and Clive Runnells. Gus Malmquist brought the first 


Utilities, 189 5-1 900 

polo ponies to Lake Forest. Before World War I, Frederick Mc- 
Laughlin was considered the outstanding player in the Mid-west, 
an 8 goal man. General George S. Patton, of World War II fame, 
played polo on the Fort Riley team about 1910 in Lake Forest. 
Polo was revived after World War I by Lawrence Armour, John 
Borden, Charles Glore and Earle Reynolds. An International 
Polo Tournament was held at the Onwentsia Club in July 1 93 1 . 
East- West Tournaments were held in August 1 933 and July 1 934. 

Several beautiful homes were built in Lake Forest during the 
i89o's. The Henry Ives Cobb house, built in 1890, was the first 
to utilize a view westward from Green Bay Road with beautiful 
vistas and gorgeous "Italian" sunsets. Soon the Onwentsia Club 
members enjoyed the house and grounds. In a few years the en- 
tire western border of Green Bay Road was lined with homes some 
of which were actually outside of the Lake Forest city limits until 
by 1 91 2 it was all included in Lake Forest from the northern 
extremity of the city to Westleigh Road on the south. 

The Presbyterian parsonage was not noted for beauty of archi- 
tecture as it was a large frame building and looked more like a 
country hotel. However, it was a very busy home in Lake Forest 
used for entertaining frequently. It was located in the area just 
west of the present Market Square. This property was bought by 
James Anderson, Sr., when the property next to the Church was 
acquired by the Presbyterians for a new parsonage, and the orig- 
inal site has since provided the space for the present Post Office, 
Marshall Field & Company, and the Recreation Center. 

Levi Yaggy built his home on Mayflower Road in 1890, just 
south of the Rosemary corner. Mr. Yaggy visited Switzerland in 
the summer of 1891 where he saw a beautiful maze made with 
bushes. He secured the plans and upon his return to Lake Forest 
erected one in his garden, much to the entertainment of the youth 
of Lake Forest. 

Granger Farwell built a handsome colonial home on the corner 
of Sheridan and Rosemary, in 1892. The general design and plan 
was copied from Westover, the ancestral home of the Byrd family 
since 1 691, on the James River, in Virginia. Robert G. McGann 
built a large frame summer house on Lake Road and Jessie L. 
Moss built "Meadowcrof t" on the corner of Mayflower and Maple, 



both in 1892. Carter H. Fitzhugh built "Insley" on Mayflower in 
1893. William Henry Smith built "Lost Rock," an excellent 
copy of a Virginia Colonial on Green Bay Road, north of the 
Onwentsia Club. The property contains the largest glacier boulder 
in Lake County. This house was finished in 1894. T. S. Fauntle- 
roy built "Parkhurst" on Woodland and Sheridan Roads, in 1894. 
This house was soon and for long occupied by the E. A. Russell 
family. Mr. and Mrs. David B. Jones opened "Pembroke Hall" 
on Green Bay Road, just west of St. Mary's Church, in 1895. 

Byron L. Smith built "Briar Hall" on the lake, in 1894. He 
had been among the many who had rented houses during the 
summer, from 1885 on. Mr. Smith had an agreement with young 
Harry Durand, who with his pair of Shetland ponies picked him 
up and took him regularly to the 8:00 o'clock train for a fee. Mr. 
Smith, a large man, filled up the whole back seat in the pony 
cart. He was also known as the greatest practical joker in town. 

Mr. Smith was a great friend of the Arnolds of Boston, whose 
father, James Arnold of New Bedford, Massachusetts, had set 
aside a large sum of money with which the Arnold Arboretum 
(of Harvard University) was established, in Boston, in 1872. The 
Arboretum occupied 265 acres of rolling country and contained 
6000 varieties of trees, bushes and vines from four continents. 
When "Briar Hall" was finished, many varieties were shipped 
from the Arnold Arboretum and were planted on the Smith prop- 
erty in Lake Forest. Some of these flourished in Lake Forest; 
others were more successful in Boston. The beautiful trees of the 
1 96 1 Smith property include: Arbor vitae; aromatic sumac; Eu- 
ropean and single leaf ash; birch; Brewer spruce; Chinese lilac; 
cucumber tree; cut leaf Linden; double-flowering horse chestnut; 
English elm; European elder; European linden; false cypress; 
hickory; Norway, pink velvet, schwedler and sweet gum maple; 
mockorange group; mulberry, red cedar; slippery elm; yellow 
horse chestnut; and many others. Several of these species found 
their way to other parts of Lake Forest as Mr. Smith had more 
saplings than he could use on his own property. 

Cyrus H. McCormick, (Jr.), built "Walden" in 1896, in the 
area in the south-east corner of Lake Forest. The architect was 
Stanford White who had designed the Madison Square Garden, 
the Madison Square Presbyterian Church, the Herald Square 


Utilities, 1 895-1 goo 

building, the Washington Arch and the Century Club, all in New 
York. He renovated the White House in Washington, D.C., in 
1902. "Walden" was on generous proportions, but unpretentious. 
It was in the English Cottage style of architecture with tile espe- 
cially made to look as though it was moss covered shingles. The 
several chimneys were tapestry brick. Lawns and a semi-circular 
pergola led to gardens and service houses on Westleigh Road. 
There were dairy cow barns on Ringwood, where also seasoned 
firewood was carefully classified and stored. 

The house and grounds were most charming in a natural way; 
the pergola was planted with wild flowers. There were attractive 
vistas in all directions; westward to the ravines lined with oak, 
maple and pine, eastward to the shores of the lake and out to the 
endless horizon; or one could stand on "the point" from which one 
could get a sweep of the Lake Michigan shore line northward and 
south. This "Look-out" over the lake resembled one in Ravello, 
Italy. The estate contained a half dozen steel-concrete private 
bridges crossing ravines, ivy covered. There were thirty miles of 
private roads, bridle paths, and other paths which Lake Forest 
residents were permitted to use and to enjoy, surrounded with 
myriads of wild flowers, artfully planted, so that nature received 
all the credit and human skill and good taste were not immediately 

J. V. Farwell, Jr., built "Ardleigh," just to the north of 
"Walden," in the same year. Ambrose Cramer built "Rathmore," 
just north of "Ardleigh." Edward F. Carry built "Broad Lea" on 
Green Bay Road. The following year, 1897, Charles S. Frost, the 
architect, built two homes on Westminster, just east of Sheridan 
Road, one being his own "Eastover." Howard Van Doren Shaw, 
another celebrated architect, built "Ragdale" on Green Bay Road. 
Alfred Granger designed and built his home on the corner of 
Westminster and Sheridan and called it "Woodleigh." The Alfred 
L. Bakers built "Little Orchard" in 1898, on Mayflower Road, on 
the bluff. 

The house most appreciated by the students in this period was 
"The Lilacs," the home of Mr. and Mrs. Simon Somerville Reid 
who lived across the street from the College campus. A spacious 
lawn swept three sides of the grounds, which contained many 
lilac bushes. During the spring blossoming season, the whole area 



was fragrant with blossoms. Mrs. Reid frequently entertained 
faculty and students, promoting a friendly spirit among the vari- 
ous groups in town. 

Electricity was brought to Lake Forest by the Highland Park 
Electric Light Company, to light the residences of Cyrus H. 
McCormick, J. V. Farwell, Jr., Frank Farwell, and J. A. Miller. 
First tested on July 15, 1896, it was hoped that soon other resi- 
dences and the beautiful streets would all be lighted by electricity. 
Two years later a few electric street lights were installed, which 
were turned off on moonlit nights. Between 1:00 a.m. and 4:00 
a.m. all electric power was turned off for purposes of conservation. 

Lake Forest was dotted with primitive refrigeration in the form 
of ice houses. The Farwell Pond furnished two or three crops of 
ice each winter. Another source was a much larger pond in Lake 
Bluff. If families did not own an ice house, they had a reliable ice 
box. The ice man, in his leather jacket, made his rounds two or 
three times weekly, while his horses waited meekly in front of 
each house and the ice wagon stood dripping. Milkmen delivered 
their wares, but as yet there were no milk bottles or any container 
furnished by the milk company. The customer supplied a pitcher 
and the milkman measured the milk with a tin dipper. Butter was 
delivered in stone crocks. Dr. Clifford Barnes and Barat College 
owned the last cows east of the railroad track. With the death of 
Dr. Barnes, in 1944, came the end of the tradition of private milk 
supplies for each family. 

For lighting the larger homesteads, a rather elaborate system 
was required. A 1 oo-gallon tank was sunk at a distance from the 
house. This tank held the gasoline which was forced by an in- 
genious method into the basement of the residence where it was 
forced again through a primitive carburetor, which created an 
inflammable gas, which in turn was fed into a drum. From this 
drum it was conveyed by pipes throughout the house. The pipes 
terminated in wall fixtures with burners, and the gas was often 
carried by tubes into the kitchen and there used as fuel. The fix- 
tures were later equipped with the famous old Welsbach Mantles 
which gave off the last word in illumination, before the turn of 
the century. The gasoline was delivered in oak barrels of 60 


Samuel Fisher Miller, 

Engineer, Surveyor, 


Academy Principal 

The Academy After the Civil War 

Sylvester hind, 
Mayor four times 

The New Deer Path School, 1955, Partially Landscaped 

t 5 :^iyi 


'The Eight O'Clock" Train, 

The First Northwestern Train, 

§s Henry Durand Family, 

7 1890 

Simon Reid Residence on Sheridan Road, 1900 





• ." - <. . * 

School Boys, 1880: 
Harry Durand, 
Preston McClanahan, 
Scott Durand 

1889 Football Team, Victors Over Northwestern and Chicago 

SpllPpM^ "pKRr 

Lake Forest Day Promoters: 
Robert Oliver 

Dr. T.S. Proxmire 

Mrs. M. C. Lackie 

(Woman's Club) 

Peter Page, 

Pioneer Lake Forest 


Thomas E. Donnelley, 

President and Later 

Chairman of Board of 

The Lakeside Press 

Until 1952. 

James Douglas 

Secretary, U.S. Air Force 
General Robert E. Wood 


Sears, Roebuck &■ Company 
R. Douglas Stuart 

Ambassador to Canada 

Utilities, 1895-1900 

Almost everyone worked in the Church and taught Sunday 
School in those days. There were lavish luncheons, dinners and 
receptions. The Art Institute Club was an important social and 
cultural outlet throughout the nineties. Its basic purpose was the 
study of art. Walter C. Larned started the group, and Prof. John 
J. Halsey was a leader and director for many years. The club met 
in various homes every two weeks where a lecture was given, at- 
tended by nearly all the leading citizens of Lake Forest and the 
professors of the University. The club had originated at the sug- 
gestion of Mrs. Z. M. Humphrey. Quite a library was collected 
and several prominent lecturers appeared before the Institute after 
the building of the Durand Art Institute. 

Sunday evening services at the African Methodist Church were 
an attraction. Boys had to get permission to attend these meetings. 
The singing of the colored people and the receiving of the offering 
were interesting. Two officers of the Church took seats at the end 
of the table in front of the pulpit. Each person arose, went to the 
front and laid his offering on the table. The Academy boys came 
last. They made quite a show as they marched up in a body to 
deposit their offerings. "Guv" Marshall, the former janitor of the 
original Academy building, was an officer of this church and was 
noted for his most sincere prayers, which he delivered aloud, 
leading the others. Many white people attended services and Sun- 
day School at the African Methodist Church because it was in 
their own neighborhood and they appreciated the simplicity and 
sincerity of the little congregation. This was the only Colored 
church in Lake Forest until the organization of the First Baptist 
Church, around the turn of the century. 

In the 1 890^ occurred several debuts in Lake Forest, follow- 
ing the city pattern. At one party of three parts, three young ladies 
were presented. Miss Frances Larned, "tall and fair, of graceful 
carriage and a graciousness of manner that has an indefinable 
magnetism"; Miss Florence D wight, "who is rather of a brunette 
type"; and Miss Marion Hall, "who is a little above the medium 
height, is bright and piquant, and has wonderfully expressive 
brown eyes." Miss Larned had graduated from Dobbs Ferry, Miss 
Dwight from Ogontz and had spent the past winter in Europe, 
Miss Hall from the Rye School outside of New York City. Each 
was introduced at afternoon tea, extending into a party in the 



evening for all the young people. Sixty young men and women 
were invited, many coming from Chicago on a special train. They 
were driven by carriage from the station to the three homes, then 
to dinner parties, and then to Mrs. Larned's dance. After the 
round of parties, they were driven to the station for the trip back 
to Chicago. 

Miss Isabel Scribner, the daughter of Mr. Charles Scribner, the 
New York publisher, and later Mrs. Carter Fitz-Hugh, made her 
debut at the home of her sister, Mrs. Walter C. Larned at "Blair 
Lodge." The house was beautifully decorated with Christmas 
greens as four foot logs burned away in the fireplace as a welcome 
to the many guests. Johnny Hand's orchestra furnished the music 
for the evening's dancing. A unique feature of the entertainment 
was a "gypsy tent" in which fortunes were told. Miss Scribner 
wore a 'white costume somewhat after the Greek fashion, without 
sleeves, and gracefully draped in classic folds." Miss Scribner, a 
tall graceful blonde, had made her home with the Larneds since 
the death of her mother. 

The Journal (Chicago) published an interview with a Lake 
Forest resident on the subject of Lake Forest women. He said: 

Yes, those ladies there you ask about are from Lake Forest. Never 
mind their names; they are not anxious to appear in print. Lake Forest 
ladies all dress well; they are all smart and all good-looking. When you 
see them together you may not see much difference in them. But put 
them alongside of a Philadelphia or Boston or Baltimore woman and 
you will see the difference. They have got better blood than the Phila- 
delphia women, they know more than the Boston women, and they 
are better looking than the Baltimore women. 

I know these women like a book, and their equals in all that makes 
up a real woman don't live on earth. I'm not talking of what makes a 
show in society, tho' even when it comes to that you will never be 
ashamed of them, but they are women that take possession of your 
home when you are in trouble; that fill your heart till it almost breaks 
—with kindness. You will find them where there is sickness and death 
and poverty. Why, some of them leave a streak of sunshine wherever 
they go. They hunt up sick and outcast and friendless. If I should tell 
of the kind acts of some of them you would think I was crazy. And all 
the while they don't seem to think they are doing anything. There is 
a more enduring pen than yours, sir, writing their record, and some 
day that record will be read. 


Utilities, 189 5-1900 

The homey type of entertainment, patriotic and melancholy, 
was popular amusement for all Lake Foresters, as all seem to have 
taken part. One such extended evening in April, 1889, is de- 
scribed, when fifty youths under the direction of Charles S. Holt, 
with the accomplished accompanist, Miss Kate B. Skinner, ren- 
dered stirring patriotic choruses with spirit and precision. This 
chorus was composed of Academy and College students and Lake 
Forest citizens. Dr. George F. Root, the veteran composer, sang 
"The Battle Cry of Freedom. " William L. Tomlins sang with 
splendid effect, 'The Battle Hymn of the Republic." Mrs. Abbie 
F. Ferry sang an exceedingly popular number, "Drafted into the 
Army" and then "Jimmie has gone to live in a tent." Miss Jennie 
Durand sang beautifully, "The Swanee River," with a pretty harp 
accompaniment of Miss Lucy Rumsey. Miss Durand also sang 
the "Star Spangled Banner" as the audience waved flags which 
had been previously distributed. Miss Louise Learned sang "Tent- 
ing on the Old Camp Ground," with a trumpet prelude by Lloyd 
M. Bergen. Miss S. Rhea sang "When this Cruel War is Over," 
accompanied by Miss F. Rhea on the guitar. Readings included 
"Wake Nicodemus" by W. C. Larned; "Babylon is Fallen," by 
George H. Steele; "When Johnny Comes Marching Home," by 
W. D. McMillan. They were all rendered by Messrs. Benedict 
and Danforth. Messrs. Steele, Armour, Smith and Stroh touch- 
ingly sang the familiar quartet, "Just before the Battle, Mother." 
Mr. Calvin Durand spoke a few well chosen patriotic words. Mr. 
Holt's Academy and College chorus then ended the program, as 
they sang with enthusiasm "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp"; "The Battle 
Cry of Freedom," "Tenting in the Old Camp Ground," "March- 
ing Through Georgia," and "The Battle Hymn of the Republic." 
"The audience dispersed with a greater love for country, more 
appreciation of its cost and value, and with their patriotic impulses 
aroused and strengthened." 

The schools introduced a grand affair which was called "The 
Promenade." It was held in the new Gym and all the young peo- 
ple in town were invited. It was a gala affair. The boys attended 
in their best regalia and filled out their programs. Couples then 
formed in line and marched around the Gym floor. It was a long 
procession, severely kept in line by a monitor. It would have been 
an evil thing for anyone to depart from the line of march, till the 



music ended. Dancing in couples was thought of as cavorting, with 
certain implications as to its degenerative effects on the morals of 
the participants. In 1895 a dancing teacher in Waukegan held 
classes, which many Lake Forest boys attended and dancing in the 
more modern sense was gradually introduced. 

Alice Home Hospital was erected on the College campus in 
1898. It was intended to serve everybody, including the College, 
Academy, Ferry Hall and the town. Students boarded here for as 
little as $1.00 per day until 1930. Dr. Alfred C. Haven, the only 
medical man in town at this time, a friend of all, beloved by all, 
was the president of the board of health and had pointed out the 
need for a hospital in Lake Forest. The Henry C. Durands fur- 
nished $12,000 for the building, naming it as a memorial to Mrs. 
Durand's sister, Alice Burdsal Burhans. It was built in English 
half-timber country cottage architecture. Mr. and Mrs. Cyrus 
McCormick financed the operating room. Rooms were endowed 
by Mr. D. R. Holt, Mrs. Franklin P. Smith and Mrs. Walter C. 
Larned. There were many contributions toward the equipment 
including those of Mr. John V. Farwell, Mr. Louis F. Swift, Mr. 
Byron L. Smith, Mrs. Albert M. Day, Mrs. Bessie Swift Fernald, 
Mrs. Alfred L. Baker, Mrs. Calvin Durand, The Lake Forest 
Horse Show Association, the Lake Forest Presbyterian Church 
and the City of Lake Forest. Mr. T. S. Fauntleroy donated an 
ambulance, horse drawn, of course. All these gifts were the results 
of Dr. James G. K. McClure's requests for them. 

This building and equipment, intended for a population of 
about 2,000, served its purposes adequately until the growth of 
the city necessitated the building of the present much larger, bet- 
ter equipped, and more expensive Lake Forest Hospital, finished 
in 1941. 

There was need for an expansion of the public school system 
with new grade school and public high school facilities. On 
April 2, 1897, a petition was signed by Mayor E. F. Gorton and 
five aldermen of Lake Forest for a Township High School Board 
of five members, who would in turn decide the location of the 
Township High School. At the Council meeting of that date it 
was said that "a High School in Lake Forest must come. If we do 
not get the Township High School we must take the entire burden 


Utilities, 1895-1900 

of a City High School." Land was purchased for the erection of 
the South School in 1898 from John and Joanna Johnson. The 
old Mitchell Hall on College Road, the original Dickinson Semi- 
nary building of i860 was moved to the property at the corner 
of Sheridan and Maplewood Roads. In this location a grade school 
and an interim high school were operated. 

The City Hall was built in 1898. It contained the Lake Forest 
Fire Department, administrative offices, police department, and 
the Lake Forest Public Library. The tower contained a bell to an- 
nounce all fires and it continued to do so until Armistice Day, 
1 91 8, when it was rung so hard and so continuously that it be- 
came disengaged from its hinges and broke. The building cost 
$10,234 °f which $10,000 was franchise money received from the 
North Shore Electric Railroad Company. 

To decorate the City Council room, the Council voted to spend 
"not over $1 75 for (photographic) portraits of each of the Mayors, 
prior to 1895, to be properly framed and placed on the Council 
Chamber in the City Hall." This tradition has been continued to 
the present, so that during this centennial year the portraits of all 
Lake Forest mayors may be seen in the Council chamber. 

Five hundred people turned out for the dedication ceremonies 
on the evening of June 24. Mayor Edward F. Gorton presided and 
spoke. He said: "Improvements were forced upon us" and advo- 
cated lectures in the Library on "landscape gardening, nature 
study, and birds and animals." Prof. John J. Halsey, a part time 
President of Lake Forest College, hoped that the library would 
"take the place of the club room and saloon, by giving young peo- 
ple a place to enjoy themselves." Little did he know that soon the 
Librarian's report would complain that too many youngsters came 
to the Library, not to read, but to meet one another and have a 
good time. Rev. Edward O'Reilly, pastor of the Church of St. 
Mary's spoke on "The First American (Public) Library," founded 
by Benjamin Franklin. Dr. J. G. K. McClure spoke on "The Li- 
brary and the People." There were solos and duets interspersed 
in the program. 

The original Lake Forest Public Library board consisted of 
Calvin Durand, Charles S. Frost, Mayor E. F. Gorton, Prof. J. J. 
Halsey, D. W. Hartman, David B. Jones, John Kemp, Rev. Ed- 
ward O'Reilly, and R. G. Watson. George H. Holt was Secretary- 


Treasurer and David Fales was a member of the executive com- 

The Library, on the second floor of City Hall, was a busy place. 
The City Council met here. It had been meeting in the Anderson 
Hall for which the Council had paid $75 per month rent. For a 
few years high school classes were conducted during week days 
until 3:00 p.m., except Sundays. On Sundays the Episcopal Mis- 
sion held services here. Miss Marie A. Skinner, a graduate of Lake 
Forest College, was the first Librarian. She began with 1,149 
books and a yearly levy of $1,200. The original library rules speci- 
fied that only one book could be borrowed at a time. It could be 
kept for two weeks. Fines were 2^ per day for overdue books, and 
$5.00 to $100.00 for wilful destruction. 

Two public servants passed away at the turn of the century. 
Council resolutions spoke of Charles C. Pratt, his "frankness, 
thoughtfulness, kindness, integrity, courage and devotion to duty." 
It described Luther Rossiter as having "most sterling and manly 
qualities with an unusually loveable and sweet character. The 
community has lost a citizen who as a member of the City Coun- 
cil, rendered it faithful and efficient service." 

On April 19, 1898, eight days after President McKinley's war 
message, a long train took 500 men of the 4th Infantry Regiment 
from Fort Sheridan to Tampa, Florida. The regiment went on to 
Cuba, then to the Philippines, under Colonel Herman Hall. Sev- 
eral cavalry units left the Fort under Major Robert P. Wainright 
for the same destinations. Major Wainright lost his life in the 
Philippines. The Spanish-American war had little effect on Lake 
Forest compared with the wars of the 20th Century. 





In 1900 the population of the United States stood at 75,994,575. 
The Lake Forest population was 2,215 w i tn 4 00 students in the 
Academy, Ferry Hall and the College, making a total of 2,615. 
Even this total did not represent the true picture, for, from the 
outset, the population of Lake Forest would swell every summer 
when families rented houses for a few months or stayed in the 
Deerpath Inn, or Onwentsia Club. At the turn of the century and 
for the next twenty years this growing summer colony built perma- 
nent homes which were occupied only during the warm weather. 
Some did not even have heating systems. A few families stayed 
into the late fall and returned early in the spring, causing prob- 
lems in the school programs of their children. They attended sum- 
mer worship and soon found themselves supporting two churches, 
making close the ties between the Chicago and Lake Forest con- 
gregations. The summer group was partial to golf and tennis, but 
the horse was still king. 

Many families which came to Lake Forest only for the summer 
often entertained Chicago notables of literary and artistic promi- 
nence. In the Aldis ' compound" Eugene Field, Eunice Tietjens, 
Albert Bloch, Harriet Monroe, Edgar Lee Masters, spent quiet 
weekends, sometimes taking part in creative drama written by 
Mrs. Aldis. Young people enjoyed their own dramatic productions 



on the Howard Van Doren Shaw place which boasted a natural 
outdoor stage. Sometimes the scene shifted to the stables where 
the villain jumped on a real horse, clutched the fainting heroine 
and was pursued by the hero on horseback out of sight into the 

The high point of each summer was the Lake Forest Horse 
Show held on the Onwentsia Club grounds and for years devoted 
to the project of raising money for the Alice Home Hospital and 
the Contagious Hospital. Vines covered the arbors over boxes on 
the north side of the ring; bleachers and standing room along the 
rail were open to all. Among the many accomplished performers 
were Ida May Swift (Countess Minoto), riding side-saddle, and 
Helen Morton (Mrs. William Swift) handling a tandem of six 
horses. The Samuel Chase daughters, Polly, Libby and Janet, 
were experienced jumpers. But the most anticipated event was the 
procession of flower-covered pony carts. Little boys and girls had 
ponies and carts to match their size, the smallest child with the 
tiniest Shetland gaining the greatest applause. Among the prettiest 
were those of Lolita Armour, Mary Baker, and the Dorr Bradley 
girls (later Mrs. Fred Fisher and Mrs. Benjamin Carpenter), 
Edith Cummings (later Mrs. Munson), and Muriel McCormick. 

Weekly polo matches attracted many spectators, and later on, 
international steeplechases thrilled the grandstands. Dudley Flut- 
ter was a frequent umpire. These were often dangerous sports as 
attested by the plaque in the vestibule of the First Presbyterian 
Church in memory of Nathan Butler Swift, placed there by his 
polo associates. He died in 1903 as a result of being struck on the 
head during a polo match at the Onwentsia Club. 

The Onwentsia Hunt Club was started in 1 900 by a fine horse- 
man, Vernon Booth of Chicago. Arthur D. Paley was huntsman. 
He wore a red cap and scarlet coat and blew a horn. Arthur Aldis 
was the first Master of the Hounds. The hunt was discontinued 
in 1908, then revived by Joseph T. Ryerson as Master, followed 
by Austin Niblack and Prentice Porter. Under the last two it was 
known as the most difficult drag hunt in the country and became 
very formal. The jumps got increasingly difficult, causing amusing 
incidents and serious accidents. 

A near tragedy of a different sort occurred on February 12, 
1900, when two college boys, Guy Caron and George Mallory, 


The Summer Residents, 1 900-1910 

together with five Academy boys, went to the beach on a bitter 
cold Sunday afternoon at two o'clock. They found the lake frozen 
solid as far as the eye could see. They walked out on the ice about 
three miles, then turned to come home, only to find that the ice 
was fast receding from the shore. One of the Academy boys, Wil- 
liam H. Bailey, jumped off in time and ran to the Academy to 
inform Headmaster A. G. Welch. Soon a large crowd of Lake 
Forest people gathered at the beach wondering what to do next. 
Prof. Welch went to Waukegan with a group of boys, hired a tug- 
boat and began to search down the coast. Fog, then darkness, 
hampered operations. Life boats arrived from Highland Park and 
Evanston. Crowds built beacon fires and kept them going all night 

About 7:30 Sunday evening, the Academy boys were rescued 
by L. O. Riper, Milton H. Baker and Fred Perryman of Highland 
Park, and brought into the Fort Sheridan pier. The search con- 
tinued for the two college boys. At four oclock Monday morning, 
three men from Rogers Park found and saved these two boys, still 
floating on the ice. A happy crowd met the Monday noon train at 
Lake Forest, as the two youths returned to school. It was a miracle 
that none of the boys had frozen to death. Prof. Welch was soon 
stricken with appendicitis and died after an operation, his condi- 
tion perhaps complicated by tension and exposure. 

Not long after this, a happier incident occurred when an Eng- 
lish traveller by the name of Winston Churchill made a tour of 
American cities, including Chicago. Here he was entertained by 
a small group of young lawyers who showed Churchill all the 
points of interest in our great city. After supper at the University 
Club, the group exchanged views on world affairs until three 
oclock in the morning. One of these lawyers was Bertrand 
Walker, Harvard 1891, one of the charter members of the 
Onwentsia Club. He remembers Churchill saying: "I don't know 
what the future holds, but I do hope I can be of some service to 
my country." 

In the winter of 1 902-1 903 a severe epidemic of scarlet fever 
broke out in Lake Forest. The whole city was quarantined in- 
cluding all public gathering places. All schools were closed. The 
boarding schools were confined to their own campuses. There 
were no church services. One girl died at Ferry Hall and the school 



was moved to Winona Lake, Indiana, for the remainder of the 
winter and spring, returning to Lake Forest in time for commence- 
ment. This was an especially trying winter for all of Lake Forest. 
In March 1903 when very few new cases were reported, the 
O'Neill and Eastwood billiard room petitioned to be permitted to 
open since they had sustained severe losses of revenue. There was 
no record that this was allowed immediately. 

At the turn of the century several changes occurred, in the ap- 
pearance of Lake Forest. Many fences began to frame properties. 
The wide and open spaces of the previous decades had ceased to 
be. Bushes were planted as herbaceous borders, or hedgerows, to 
insure greater privacy for property owners. A new railroad station 
was erected, designed by Charles S. Frost, which is the present 
structure in 1 96 1 , the gift of the citizens of Lake Forest. The old 
station, the third since the founding of Lake Forest, was moved 
across the street from the present Police Station and for two dec- 
ades served as the West Side Sunday School for the Presbyterian 
Church, and for Sunday evening services. It was razed in i960. 
The original station had become the kitchen of the Sylvester Lind 
house and was burned with it in 1905. The second station became 
a dwelling house on Western Avenue. The present station is 
therefore the fourth in over a hundred years. 

The new station became the meeting place of many families 
who came with their carriages pleasurably awaiting the arrival of 
the evening train, at the same time visiting each other. Lady pas- 
sengers wore large feathered or flowered hats, and long flowing 
ruffled skirts. The youngsters came along to watch the procession 
of carriages. Horses were hitched along the board walk on the west 
side of Western Avenue, opposite the station. Charlie Grimes 
drove one of the two Onwentsia Club "busses," horse drawn pas- 
senger coaches, meeting trains and carrying passengers to the 
Club. Grimes was a special target of children who waylaid him 
when he had no passengers and he generously gave them rides in 
his yellow bus. 

Arthur Farwell, one of the J. V. Farwell boys, became the talk 
of the town by bringing the first automobile, a black Winton, to 
Lake Forest. To begin with, the contraption was a source of amaze- 
ment; but soon opposition built up, as horses bucked, shied, and 


The Summer Residents, igoo-igio 

became unmanageable since the new vehicle chortled and roared 
with the deafening sounds of a threshing machine. 

One quaint newspaper article decried the horseless carriage, in 
these words: "Clear the way. The automobile is coming. Proud 
horses prancing ahead of victorias and landaus, horses of lower 
social degree that trot along between express-wagon shafts, and 
weary mules with attached dump carts, all scent trouble when 
they hear the cry. It heralds the coming of the common foe, and 
they dash wildly into the side streets or other places distant from 
the path of the automobile. Mothers take the children under their 
arms and rush frantically into the nearest house. Dogs go yelping 
through back alleys and cats seek the uppermost branches of the 
trees. The street is deserted and quiet hovers over the village." 

The writer had a sense of humor but the picture was not far 
from the truth, as many citizens were making frantic calls to com- 
plain about the new vehicle. Mayor Gorton joined in the crusade. 
He said: "A few evenings ago when I was driving home, I saw 
groceries and merchandise strewed along the street for several 
blocks. Finally I came upon a grocer's delivery wagon, broken and 
battered, reclining against a large tree. I was told Grocer Richards' 
son was seriously injured in the runaway, which was caused by 
the horse taking fright at Mr. FarwelFs automobile. The mobile 
makes a noise like a thrashing machine. The ladies of Lake Forest 
have been afraid to go out driving unless they learned from the 
Farwell mansion the highways the automobile was likely to trav- 
erse. They organized a crusade against it and the council passed 
an ordinance regulating the operation of self-propelling machines, 
which I at once signed. This ordinance is going to be enforced if I 
have to arrest the operator every hour in the day." 

The ordinance passed on July 2, 1 900, stated in Section 1 : Op- 
erating of any automobile in such a manner as to endanger life or 
property ... to frighten horses or other animals ... is declared a 
nuisance and is hereby forbidden. Section 2 set the penalty at 
$5.00. Section 3 set a speed limit of 5 m.p.h. Section 4 stated that 
no vehicle shall be left standing unattended. Section 5 required 
that: "Someone shall precede the same on foot in such street, ave- 
nue, highway or public place, at a distance of 300 feet ahead of 
any such vehicle . . . shall warn all people of the approach of any 
such vehicle." 

l 59 


Mr. Farwell saw the Mayor after this ordinance and explained 
that he had bought the auto for his own amusement and that he 
intended to continue to use it. He thought that if people did not 
like his machine, they should educate their horses to become ac- 
customed to it, and thus remove the cause of the whole problem. 

Another flurry of resentment broke out after an automobile ac- 
cident which involved the Hibbard family. On July 13, 1903, 
Carter H. FitzHugh, Calvin Durand, David Fales, and W. A. 
Morgan signed a letter to Mayor Herman F. Gade: "We venture 
the suggestion that the Council should take action at once with 
reference to the speed and conditions under which automobiles 
may be used in Lake Forest. The chances of an accident from an 
automobile in the hands of an intelligent and careful person, are 
not likely to be great. There are a large number of users of auto- 
mobiles who are neither intelligent nor careful/' They suggested 
that the Council place large signs at the northern, southern and 
western entrances to the city of Lake Forest. This was done. The 
signs read: "City of Lake Forest. Automobiles limited to 8 miles 
per hour and four miles per hour in turning corners within cor- 
porate limits. Under penalty of not less than $20.00." 

Gradually adventurous spirits accepted the automobile; at the 
same time caution was maintained. Mrs. Arthur Farwell asked 
Mrs. Calvin Durand if she wished a ride home after a meeting 
of the Coterie. Mrs. Durand replied: "Yes, thank you, but let me 
call home first and make sure that our driveways will be clear of 
horses when we arrive." 

Not all accidents of the period, however, were caused by the 
automobile. In 1901 The Lake Forester reported: "Mr. George 
Frisbie's team ran away near the Academy Wednesday morning. 
TTre wagon was broken up somewhat, several cases of eggs were 
mixed up promiscuously, and one horse slightly injured. Mr. 
Frisbie escaped unharmed." A year later, Grace Tuttle, a young 
girl who was often given a ride in the Anderson delivery wagon, 
got into it at her house. When the driver seemed to have delayed 
too long, she picked up the reins and the horse started out. Seeing 
a whip in front of her she applied it to the beast not knowing that 
he was not accustomed to being whipped. The horse charged 
ahead but was barely brought under control when Alex Robertson 
ran in pursuit and catching the back end of the wagon, climbed 


The Summer Residents, 1 900-1910 

into the driver's seat in time to save both the horse and the child. 

Walker Sales, a Negro, was added to the Police force in 1900. 
With James Gordon on duty during the day, and Sales, during the 
night, there were now two policemen in Lake Forest. Gordon 
served until 1907, Sales until 191 9. In 1907 Albert Hopman 
joined the force and continued until 1928. William Fletcher 
joined the force in 1910. 

By the turn of the century the Onwentsia Club had become a 
center of attraction for summer residents. At the end of the golf 
and tennis season, the doors of this club were closed. A group of 
permanent residents felt the need of a club, which might provide 
winter sports and social outlets for entire families. As a result the 
Winter Club was formed by Frederick C. Aldrich and Edward M. 
Samuel. Charter members included Bland Ballard, George Cobb, 
Scott Durand, Granger Farwell, T. S. Fauntleroy, Alfred H. 
Granger (a son-in-law of Marvin Hughitt), Herman Gade (the 
Norwegian Consul who married a Chicago girl, Alice King, and 
served twice as Lake Forest Mayor), Johnathan Jackson, Mark 
Morton, Edmund A. Russell, and Sidney R. Taber. 

Land was leased at the present location on North Sheridan 
Road and a skating rink was laid out and a warming shed built 
the following year. Soon tobogganing became a favorite sport 
when an impressive slide was built in 1903. It went eastward along 
the north end of the club property, arched over Sheridan Road 
and debouched into the area across the street to be brought to a 
halt by the rising ground in the field which is now part of the 
present Middleton J. Blackwell property. Cars on Sheridan Road 
drove under it. This was considered the most daring sport afforded 
anywhere, until an even more precipitous one was erected on the 
Onwentsia grounds in the 1920^, which lasted only a short time 
for reasons of safety. Mary Peddle broke her leg from a fall at the 
Winter Club and Mima di Manzionley had a similar fate at 

Winter Club skating carnivals were held from 1904 onward, 
also costume parties, and bowling; later a baseball field, swimming 
pool, tennis and finally squash courts were built. The present club- 
house was erected, about as it now stands, in the autumn of 1903. 
All of this has been especially suitable for youngsters under fifteen. 
Professional supervision and instruction have been provided. The 



Club also supplied the athletic programs of the Alcott (Bell) 

One of the town characters of this period was Charlie Gray of 
livery stable fame. He taught many youngsters to ride horseback. 
When a prospective rider explained apologetically that he was a 
beginner and wanted a gentle horse, he was given "Ice Wagon. " 
When a customer boasted that he was an excellent and experi- 
enced horseman, he was given "Spitfire." In each instance it was 
the same horse. Charlie's helper, Otis Smith, was also held in af- 
fection during his long service at the Community Grocery Store. 

Greenhouses and florists have been traditionally of high cali- 
bre in Lake Forest. Anderman and Calvert were forerunners on 
Illinois Road of the present-day Jahnke, Konradt and Grace Mc- 
Gill. But no one who ever visited the Hild's Greenhouse on the 
corner of Illinois and Sheridan Roads will ever forget Eddie and 
George Hild, who were probably the first local collectors of clip- 
pings, being newspaper cut-outs of Lake Forest socialites. They 
delivered their flowers and plants by horse and buggy even after 
other businesses were using trucks. Children were delighted to 
ride along. The old Hild house and the last privy in Lake Forest 
were removed only a few years ago. The house was never adorned 
with plumbing. The old barn still stands. 

Lake Forest was now growing at a faster tempo and changes 
were becoming the rule. Even the Presbyterian Church was af- 
fected. A handful of Protestant Episcopalian families had been 
happily worshipping in the Presbyterian Church; but with grow- 
ing numbers the hope of an independent church arose. Several 
families rented carriages which took them to the Trinity Episcopal 
Church of Highland Park. To cause coachmen and even horses 
to work on the Sabbath was considered less than good judgment 
by many. 

The first Episcopal service in Lake Forest had been held in the 
old schoolhouse off Western Avenue as early as August, 1872. 
These services were conducted by several of the ablest Episcopa- 
lian divines in the Chicago area. In 1898 a new series of services 
began in Blackler Hall, at the corner of Deer Path and Western, 
on Palm Sunday. There were 52 worshippers present. Dr. Peter 


The Summer Residents, 1900-1 oio 

Wolcott, rector of Highland Park Trinity Church, conducted this 
and other early services. Meetings were then transferred to the 
City Hall until 1902, then to the "Brewster House," afterwards 
called the "Deerpath Inn," opposite the Lake Forest Public Li- 
brary of 1 96 1. These series of meetings eventually led to the or- 
ganization and construction of the present Church of the Holy 

The cornerstone of the Church edifice was laid in 1902, and the 
building was ready for the first service at Whitsuntide, in May 
of the same year. Alfred Granger was the architect and the Rev. 
Owen J. Davies, was the first rector. The early Episcopalian fami- 
lies included the Appletons, Bricknells, Burridges, Calverts, 
Dwights, Gortons, Goulds, Hibbards, Huntoons, Tabers, Ster- 
lings, and Viponds. 

The tradition of fellowship with the Presbyterian Church has 
continued to the present and was well illustrated in 1937, when 
a new parish house was named "St. Anne's," after Lake Forest's 
Presbyterian "Saint," Miss Annie Brown, whose home it had been. 
Combined services have been held quite regularly on Thanks- 
giving and Christmas days. In 1926 the Church of the Holy Spirit 
installed a set of chimes, the gift of Mrs. Russell Lord, in memory 
of her husband. 

The Woman's Club of Lake Forest was organized in November, 
1902, at the home of Mrs. Charles T. Gunn. Dr. Elva A. Wright, 
a practising Lake Forest physician served as president during the 
first seven years. In 1904 the Club united with the Illinois Feder- 
ation of Women's Clubs. 

The earliest members and officers included: Mrs. John Griffith 
(2nd Vice President), Mrs. Charles T. Gunn, Miss Margaret J. 
Gunn (Secretary), Mrs. Orpha Jones, Mrs. Alan Murrie, Mrs. 
E. A. Nordling, Dr. M. Olive Read (Vice President), Mrs. M. 
Volkman (Treasurer), and Mrs. Curtis Wenban. 

The Club has sponsored cultural projects including music, art 
and history. Lectures were delivered before the Club by Prof. J. 
J. Halsey, John T. McCutcheon, Dr. Theodore Proxmire and 
others. In serving the community, the Club inaugurated Lake 
Forest Day, introduced Tuberculosis testing in the schools, 
granted scholarships, and brought the first visiting nurse, Miss 



Gertrude Barker, to the school system. During two world wars the 
Club contributed to several Red Cross activities, orphans, and 
veterans' needs. It also helped staff the local defense cottage during 
World War II. 

Before the turn of the century, Lake Forest streets were lighted 
with kerosene lamps on wooden posts. Boys on horseback lit and 
extinguished them. A few electric lights had been introduced be- 
fore this, but in 1902, the North Shore Gas Company brought 
illuminating and fuel gas to the city. Soon gas lights illuminated 
the streets. These were called Baltimore Lights, and a lamp-lighter 
lit them every evening and turned them off in the morning. There 
was considerable opposition to this improvement, and the objec- 
tion was voiced that the village had become too metropolitan and 
soon the gas would kill both trees and shrubbery. 

Youngsters felt that the older generation's opposition was an 
invitation to target practice. Several city gas lights were broken, 
but Puritanical parents believed in the "spare the rod, spoil the 
child" principle. Arthur Tuttle, one of these light extinguishers, 
was severely punished. Opposition to the gas lights ceased when 
no casualties were observed among trees and bushes. Although 
many of these lights have been removed from the Lake Forest 
scene, the city of St. Augustine, Florida, has just secured dupli- 
cates of these, purchased at great expense from Philadelphia, and 
placed them on their water front, in keeping with the tradition of 
being the oldest city in the United States. 

In 1902, with the formation of the North Shore Electric Com- 
pany, electric power was increased in Lake Forest. The executives 
of this company were Samuel Insull, John P. Walsh and Frank J. 

Another improvement was effected at this time by the removal 
of the Lake Forest Hotel (The Old Hotel) from Triangle Park to 
its present location on Wisconsin Avenue, opposite the American 
Legion home. For a year Samuel Dent lived in the rear section of 
the hotel after the front part had been removed. This hotel had 
outgrown its usefulness and remained in a dilapidated condition. 
In 1894 Dr. J. G. K. McClure raised a sum of money from sixteen 
citizens for the purchase and removal of the hotel. The donors 
were C. Buckingham, E. Buckingham, Calvin Durand, H. C. 


The Summer Residents, 1 900-1910 

Durand, J. H. Dwight, David Fales, Senator C. B. Farwell, John 
S. Hannah, D. R. Holt, David B. Jones, Thomas D. Jones, Cyrus 
H. McCormick, Abram Poole, M. L. Reid, Byron L. Smith and 
Ezra J. Warner. The property was transferred to the City of Lake 
Forest in 1924 after the payment of $10,000 to Lake Forest Uni- 
versity, the heirs of the Lake Forest Association. 

In August 1903, the new telephone building was finished at 
235 East Deer Path, affording an efficient exchange until the in- 
troduction of the dial system in i960, when the new and modern 
plant was erected a block west of the former exchange. Another 
addition was the three story Anderson block at the corner of Deer 
Path and Western, which became the largest business house in 
1904. It housed the new and expanded Anderson Store, one of 
the earliest business houses in Lake Forest, and also provided 
offices and other stores. 

The Convent of the Sacred Heart, later called Barat College, was 
transferred to Lake Forest in 1904 from Chicago, where it had 
existed since 1858. The name of the liberal arts women's college 
was derived from the Burgundian-peasant girl, Madeleine Sophie 
Barat, who showed an unusual aptitude for scholarship including 
languages, mathematics, sciences and literature. In 1 800 she had 
established the French Society of Sacred Heart in Paris, to pro- 
vide a well-rounded education for young women. Purity, truth, 
and service have been the basic ideals of the school and college 
from their inception. 

In 1898, a small Public High School was operated in the old 
South School at Sheridan and Maplewood, and then at the City 
Hall. In 1904 the Lake Forest boys and girls were sent to the Deer- 
field Township High School, which had been organized in 1 890, 
in Highland Park. During the school year 1 904-1 905 thirty-two 
Lake Forest boys and girls attended this high school. It cost the 
Lake Forest taxpayers $35 per pupil that year. The following 
school year the tuition per pupil increased to $56 and a total of 
$2,576 was paid. With the improved railroad facilities, it became 
desirable to continue this plan for all who preferred a public high 
school education. A plan to have these students attend the local 
private schools was considered until it was discovered that it was 
illegal for the city to pay tuition to a private school. In 1906 Dr. 



John J. Halsey of Lake Forest College became the President of the 
Board of Education. The following year a Lake Forest group spon- 
sored a movement for an act of the State Legislature in Springfield 
which provided the consolidation of that part of Shields Town- 
ship which was in Lake Forest with the Deerfield Township High 
School District, forming the new Deerfield-Shields Township 
High School District. This was a happy solution until new prob- 
lems were faced in the 1920^ and i93o , s. 

The Gorton School had been erected in 1894. It was designed 
by James Gamble Rogers, who also designed the Sterling Library 
of Yale University. Mrs. Rogers was the former Annie Day of 
Lake Forest whose family's home was on the lake at the east end 
of Illinois Road. The land for the Gorton School had been pur- 
chased from Colonel W. S. Johnston. This school had been called 
the Central School. In 1905 it was renamed The Gorton School, 
in honor of the beloved Lake Forest Mayor, Edward P. Gorton. 
The Gorton School housed the upper grades. In 1907, Howard 
Van Doren Shaw enlarged this school. There were now four 
grade schools in Lake Forest— Central, North, South and West. 
The total number of grade school pupils numbered 450 in 1905. 
There were 27 faculty members in the entire public grade school 

In April 1904 the Water Company raised the rates to its con- 
sumers. A year later the City Council made an investigation, fol- 
lowing complaints from many citizens and passed an ordinance 
in January, 1905, fixing the rate for private consumers at 25^ per 
1,000 gallons and a minimum rate of $4.00 per year. The Water 
Company claimed this "Unjust, unreasonable and insufficient to 
give reasonable compensation to its stockholders. The ordinance 
is invalid." After three years of litigation the appellate court in 
Water Company vs. City of Lake Forest said: "The evidence 
shows that the rates are reasonable and give a fair and reasonable 
return to the stockholders." The dispute continued until the city 
purchased the private Water Company in 1921. 

In the fall of 1905 a group of Lake Forest young men formed a 
club to foster organized athletics. They called it the Young Men's 
Club. The original sponsors included Dr. W. H. Wray Boyle, 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Mrs. Alfred Granger, and 
Mrs. Simon Reid. The first members included Carl and Walter 


The Summer Residents, 1900— 1910 

Krafft, James Griffis, William Dickinson, William Kemp, Otto 
Schaffer, Harry French, Carl Voght, Jr., William Marshall, and 
Lindel Darby the first president. 

A constitution was written stating the aims of the club: "To 
furnish healthy social intercourse among the members; to promote 
good fellowship between them and furnish them entertainments; 
to develop athletics; to further and support all movements and 
enterprises calculated to benefit Lake Forest; and to own and man- 
age a club house for the foregoing purposes and do all things suit- 
able to carry out the above." The slogan for the club was: "No 
class, no creed." 

The first athletic director was G. C. Bradstreet of the College 
athletic department. All kinds of team athletics were sponsored, 
especially football, basketball and baseball. The club operated un- 
der the direction of a group of older men who were designated 
"The Cabinet." Much of the early prosperity of the group is cred- 
ited to Dr. T. S. Proxmire who had just moved to Lake Forest. 
The club promoted lectures, song recitals, concerts, and other 
entertainments at the Durand Art Institute. 

In 1907 with the purpose of encouraging the purchasing of 
homes, the Young Men's Club sponsored a Young Men's Sub- 
division and bought several acres of land from the original Wil- 
liam Atteridge farm. Seven acres were laid aside and became 
West Park. The rest was sold to members at modest prices and 
generous terms. A permanent building to house the club was 
finished in the winter of 191 5-1 916, in conjunction with the 
creation of Market Square, the building behind the 1 96 1 Marshall 
Field Store, which to this day serves the original purposes of the 
club, although the Young Men's Club no longer exists. Its facili- 
ties now house the City's Recreation Department. 

Another Lake Forest organization was begun on July 19, 1905, 
"The Horticultural Society of Lake Forest." Its purpose was "to 
encourage and promote the study and practice of horticulture, 
floriculture and arboriculture and general gardening. To hold ex- 
hibits of flowers, vegetables, fruits, shrubs, trees and other products 
of the soil at seasonable times and places; to supply its members 
with reliable information pertaining to gardening and kindred 

During a meeting in September 1905, Horace H. Martin pre- 



sided and the following sponsors were present: Mrs. Scott Durand, 
Dr. G. G. French, Walter Larned, Mr. and Mrs. Cyrus H. Mc- 
Cormick, Byron L. Smith, and Mr. and Mrs. James Viles. 

In 1912 when a number of new members were received from 
other parts of the North Shore area, the name of the Society was 
changed to "The North Shore Horticultural Society." The So- 
ciety cooperated with the Garden Club and received many prizes 
in Lake Forest, Chicago and elsewhere for floats in Fourth of July 
parades, and for various exhibits of flowers, fruits, and garden 

Membership began with thirteen charter members. In 1945 
seventy-six were listed. The i960 membership was 221, extending 
from Chicago to Kenosha. Meetings have been held in the Durand 
Art Institute and in the American Legion home. Summer shows 
have been held in the Gorton School, and fall shows in the 
Durand Art Institute. The Society has sponsored trips to famous 
gardens and greenhouses and made contributions of money for 
Farwell Field of Lake Forest College, West Park, and the Deer 
Path Golf Club. 

Lake Forest owes a debt of gratitude to the organization which 
has had such a great share in the beautifying of the city. The inter- 
est it has generated may be even more valuable than the hard work 
and the scientific knowledge promoted by the Society. Karl Gep- 
pert worked at the 1893 World's Fair. Emil Bollinger was the first 
President of the Society. 

A partial list of past and present artists of nature, gardeners and 
the families for which they worked, include: Alexander Allen 
(Laflin), John Anderson (Woods), Otto Anderson (E. L. Ryer- 
son), Emil Bollinger (Byron L. Smith), Eric Benson (McBirney), 
Alex Binnie (Viles), John Brown (Gwethlyn Jones), Ralph 
Clauson (Brewster), Thomas Dobbin (Norris), Andrew Eide 
(Sample), Ernest Gernenz (Lawrence Armour), Karl Geppert 
(Chatfield-Taylor), Nels Hanson (Clow), Chris Jensen (Mc- 
Laughlin), Robert E. Kuehne (A. Watson Armour, A. B. Dick), 
George Kuppenhoefer (Swift), Kay Lindemman (Coleman), 
Knut Lofen, Carl Lundeen (Barnes), Harry Lynch (Cowles), 
Andrew Martenson, John Newbore (McElwee), Axel Nielsen 
(Cudahy), William Oke (Warner), Elbert Parshall (Ryerson), 
Hjalmar E. Peterson (Hamill), Albert Rippon (Mrs. Stanley 


The Summer Residents, 1900-19 10 

Keith), Gottlieb Schaefer (Clayton Mark), Frank Schreiber 
(Calvin Durand), Walter E. Steinhaus (J. O. Armour), John 
Tiplady (Dick), Marc Twinney (J. O. Armour), Camiel J. 
Vander Bennet (F. P. Smith), Robert Vipond (C. B. Farwell), 
Henry Wallace (Hamill), Fritz Zarte (Runnels), Andrew 
Zavaodka (J. O. Armour). 

Lake Forest College received an important building in 1906, 
the Calvin Durand Commons. Previously men students had dined 
in cooperative clubs or with private families. It was now possible 
for two hundred to eat at once in a building erected in the English 
collegiate gothic style, lined with oak panelling. It followed the 
design of the Trinity Dining Hall in Cambridge, England, and 
was erected in brick and stone, in the center of the campus. 
Charles Frost was the architect. That same year Mrs. Timothy 
Blackstone gave two attractive red brick men's dormitories, Black- 
stone and Harlan Hall. Frost and Granger were the architects. 

During the summer of 1906, the entire student body, faculty 
and their families, of the McCormick Theological Seminary, in 
Chicago, including Dr. James G. K. McClure, the president and 
former pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Lake Forest, made 
an excursion to Lake Forest as guests of the Cyrus McCormick's 
at "Walden." They were driven around Lake Forest and through 
the "Walden" ravines, before they were entertained at dinner. 
This was typical of what has continued for many years when large 
groups from the city come out to be entertained by various citizens 
or institutions of Lake Forest. Private gardens, school campuses, 
and city parks offered a welcome change. 

The First National Bank of Lake Forest opened its doors on 
October 31, 1907, during a mild recession. The first head of the 
organization was the Chicagoan, Frank W. Read, who came from 
the Central Trust Company of Illinois. David H. Jackson was the 
first president of the board of directors. The original bank build- 
ing was located where the Deerpath Theatre now stands. In 191 5 
the First National Bank united with the older State Bank of Lake 
Forest, which had stood on the northwest corner of Deer Path and 
Western, and moved to this new location. 

In 1 9 16 when the Market Square project was completed, the 
bank again moved, occupying the west end of the square. At this 
time the narrow street in front of the new building running north 



and south was named Bank Lane, having been called "The Alley." 
The bank has grown with the city, surviving the 1 9 1 9 depression 
and the bank moratorium of 1933. A new Georgian building of 
brick and stone was built in 1 93 1 , on the corner of Deer Path and 
Bank Lane. The deposits have grown from $40,835 to $35,095,71 7 
in i960. 

In early July, 1907, there was heavy storm damage following 
wind and rain. Charles C. Pratt of the Street department reported 
that the retaining wall near Blair Lodge and the tiles of the street 
drain were washed out. The bridge near the College Gymnasium 
was threatened by a bad slide of the bank. Trees were almost down, 
causing additional strain on the bank. South of Julian F. Rumsey's 
on Washington Avenue, water had washed away the earth, ex- 
posing sanitary sewer pipes. On Rosemary, east of the Dow's, two 
sewer catch basins were washed out. At the long bridge just south 
of Alfred L. Baker's on Mayflower Road a slide of the bank had 
washed away much soil, endangering the bridge. The need to 
protect the sewer plant from lake storms was indicated. Mr. Pratt 
thought that some of this damage was due to "much temporizing 
in the original construction, light work and cheap construction. " 





The first Lake Forest Day was held on Wednesday, July 15, 
1908, on the Lake Forest College campus. It was suggested by 
Dr. Theodore S. Proxmire, and promoted by the Woman's Club. 
It had the community purpose of raising money for a contagious 
hospital to be constructed at South Park, a homey, country affair, 
with local talent well in the foreground. Admission cost 25^, as 
did a carriage ride to Lake Bluff, the carriages being supplied by 
local residents. Vegetable, flower and baby shows were held, and 
Orson Smith appears to have won a sort of "Mr. Lake Forest" con- 
test. The town band played; the musicians included Dr. T. S. 
Proxmire, Frank Wenban, George Wenban, Carl Krafft and 
others. People sat around on the campus in family groups, eating 
lunch. Several games were going on at once. Everybody knew 

The climax of excitement was reached with a balloon ascension, 
followed by a parachute jump. The single, intrepid parachute 
jumper, a brave colored man, whose identity ought to have been 
preserved, landed on the Thomas E. Donnelley place on Green 
Bay Road. The only features to survive the first Lake Forest Day 
were prize competitions and dancing. Floats were introduced in 
191 1. The contagious hospital was insured through a gift of Mrs. 
Cyrus McCormick. 



In 1908 Dr. Clifford W. Barnes of Lake Forest, former president 
of the oldest college in Illinois, Illinois College in Jacksonville, 
founded the Sunday Evening Club in Chicago, a unique religious 
institution, often imitated in cities over the country. 

Mr. Barnes was among the first social workers at the famous 
Hull House on Chicago's Halsted Street. In 1 898-1 899, Mr. and 
Mrs. Barnes were in Paris in behalf of the Student Christian 
Movement. They ministered to English-speaking students in the 
Latin Quarter who were often destitute. They set about the task 
of remedying this situation when it suddenly occurred to them 
that they were faced with a deeper problem. Their efforts were 
then directed toward a non-denominational student group which 
met on Sunday evenings to hear the finest speakers of the day, 
including the American Ambassador to Paris. Opera singers and 
others high in the musical profession volunteered to furnish sacred 
music. The program was so successful that Dr. Barnes started the 
same type of program in Chicago's Orchestra Hall in 1908. He 
received the backing of Chicago business men, who made the pro- 
gram a continued success. Among the recent backers are found 
many familiar Lake Forest family names. The businesses listed 
include Armour & Company, Butler Brothers, Hibbard Spencer 
Bartlett & Company, Carson Pirie Scott & Company, Marshall 
Field & Company, The Pure Oil Company, The Quaker Oats 
Company, Joseph T. Ryerson & Son, Swift & Company, and Wil- 
son & Company. 

The Sunday Evening Club has heard the leaders of Christian 
thought including Lord James Bryce, Dr. Henry Van Dyke, Rein- 
hold Niebuhr, Cordell Hull, Harry Emerson Fosdick, Henry 
Pitney Van Dusen, John R. Mott, and Robert E. Speer, to name 
only a few. Its choir has nearly a hundred voices, singing each 
Sunday the finest sacred music. The meetings bring together a 
congregation from all walks of life and from many nations, with a 
special invitation to students. 

In 191 5, the Chicago Community Trust was established with 
Dr. Barnes as chairman. Beginning with some ten millions of dol- 
lars in the fund, it has grown steadily, becoming the largest fund 
of its type in the United States. During the difficult years in the 
1930's it was a sustaining help to many educational and medical 
institutions in the Chicago area. 


Cosmopolitanism, 1908-1916 

The death of Dr. Barnes in 1 944 was a loss to the community of 
one of its most devoted and dedicated friends. 

Just north of "Clark's ravine," at the eastern end of Woodland 
Road and south of the Cemetery, homes were built along the bluff 
for two decades. Across from the Charles Durand's lived a Colonel 
MacClanahan with his wife, Rose Hill MacClanahan, a sister of 
Mrs. Durand and their daughter, Bess. The home of Mrs. Donald 
R. McLennan now occupies this property. The Colonel, a Tennes- 
sean, six foot five inches tall, had been a Judge Advocate General 
on the staff of Braxton Bragg and had fought under General Rob- 
ert E. Lee during the Civil War. Upon his death, soon after set- 
tling in Lake Forest, his widow and daughter made their home 
with the Charles Durands. Next door lived the W. R. Stirling 

In the summer of 1908 Anna Bess MacClanahan was invited 
by the Stirlings to accompany them to Europe. On the return trip 
on the Mauritania she met Wilfred T. Grenfell, the English doc- 
tor whose work among the Eskimos in Labrador was already well 
known. Her subsequent marriage to him in Chicago on Novem- 
ber 18, 1909, has always been a source of pride to Lake Foresters 
who were honored to be associated with him in that way. In his 
autobiography, Dr. Grenfell refers to his visit to his wife's "beauti- 
ful country home among the trees on the bluff of Lake Michigan 
(as) one long dream," though he did not enjoy having to ride 
horseback, his lady's favorite pastime. 

The original plat of July 1857 brought the lot lines along the 
lake to the crest of the bluff. The entire Lake Forest beach and 
Forest Park were not platted in lots. As a result, the beach area was 
used indiscriminately by the public for picnics, bathing, and fish- 
ing. Teamsters had continued to haul away sand and gravel in 
spite of City Ordinances to the contrary. An injunction had there- 
fore been issued on June 5, 1882, forbidding anyone to "dig, 
remove, or carry away, or cause same to be done, any soil, sod, 
stone, earth, sand or gravel from any street, alley, or public grounds 
in this City." This injunction was pressed by the property owners 
along the lake who claimed that their property was being under- 
mined by wind and wave as a result of these excavations. 



In 1894, the Trustees of Lake Forest University deeded to the 
owners of adjoining lots the abutting strip of beach, but in 1908 
the City of Lake Forest claimed the entire beach area, based on 
the original plat. Abram Poole contended that his property in- 
cluded the beach area, based on the 1 894 gift of Lake Forest Uni- 
versity. Kenneth R. Smoot, City Attorney, and David Fales 
argued for the City of Lake Forest before the Illinois Supreme 
Court. Henry N. Tuttle supported Poole's contention. Both Fales 
and Tuttle had served as city aldermen. 

In Abram Poole vs. City of Lake Forest, February 19, 1909 
(Illinois Reports, Vol. 238, p. 305), Justice Vickers gave the fol- 
lowing opinion: 

There are no words on the (original) map indicating what the 
beach strip north of the north line of Forest Park and south of the 
south line of the said Park was intended to be used for. . . . When 
(Abram Poole) first purchased (his) property, he supposed that lots 
30 and 31 extended to the water's edge . . . The mere leaving of a 
blank upon the plat without any designation of its purpose can not be 
held sufficient proof of an intention of the owner to dedicate the 
premises represented by such blank or undesignated space to public 
use ... To establish a dedication it should clearly appear that the 
owner intended to give the land to the public. It is not enough to 
show that it is not intended for private use. The particular use for 
which the land was intended must plainly appear. 

The City of Lake Forest never expended any money or labor in the 
construction or maintenance of the premises, either as a street or park. 
The evidence simply shows that the owner of these premises, whose 
residence was on the bluff above, acquiesced in the use of this beach 
by the public so long as such use did not interfere with their own 
rights . . . The owner obtained an injunction against teamsters and 
stopped them from hauling sand across these premises . . . The law 
does not demand forfeiture of title simply because the owner of prop- 
erty does not cause it to be listed for taxation. 

Where a party is in actual possession of a part of a tract or a piece 
of land claiming to be the owner of all of it, the paper title under 
which he claims is evidence of the extent of his possession. . . . We 
think the evidence sufficiently shows that the appellees were in the 
actual possession of all of the premises. The evidence shows that such 
acts of ownership were exercised over this property as might reason- 
ably be expected in view of the nature and situation of the premises. 
This is all that the law requires in this regard. 


Cosmopolitanism, 1 908-1916 

Little did it occur to those involved in the litigation that as time 
went on, the owners of the beach area would be subjected to a 
great expense to arrest the erosion caused by storms, and would 
be taxed for this additional property. The case was especially sig- 
nificant because it became the precedent for all suburbs of the 
state which adjoin Lake Michigan. In Lake Forest the effects of 
the case have been tempered by the generosity of the property 
owners who have not objected to the use of their beaches by the 
general public. 

In 1904 the world's largest naval training station had its incep- 
tion five miles north of Lake Forest when the Federal Govern- 
ment was considering locating a station on the Great Lakes. There 
was a movement toward interesting the great Middle West in the 
United States Navy, since the naval burden of the Spanish-Amer- 
ican war had been borne by the coastal areas only. To help the gov- 
ernment to decide in favor of the Chicago area, the Merchant's 
Club of that city, which later merged with the Commercial Club, 
raised an initial $93,000 for the purpose of buying land. When the 
moneys reached a total of $175,000 fifty-two acres of the Joseph 
Downey farm were purchased on the edge of the shore north of 
Lake Bluff. The property was offered to the government for $1, 
1 a gift of Chicago's foremost citizens." Lake County Congress- 
man, George Edmund Foss, pressed for authorization of the Sta- 
tion. This was achieved on April 27, 1904, accompanied by $250,- 
000 in federal funds for buildings and development. Congressman 
Foss was soon called "The Father of Great Lakes" and Foss Park 
containing athletic fields and a rifle range were named after him. 

Seven years later the station was completed with 39 buildings 
and a capacity for 1,500 enlisted men. On July 2, 191 1, a whistle 
was heard by a group of several hundred interested Chicago and 
North Shore people which inaugurated the formal opening of the 
Great Lakes Naval Training Station. After the whistle, a gun was 
fired and the band struck up the Star Spangled Banner. The flag 
then was slowly raised aloft, until it reached the pinnacle exactly 
at high noon. Admiral Albert T. Ross took official command of 
the Station and made a brief speech. 

The Station was dedicated by President William Howard Taft 
on October 28, 191 1. At that time the first class of recruits was 



graduated. The President made a ten minute speech, and true to 
his Yale background, dedicated "the station to our country, our 
God and our flag." A large crowd from the Chicago area was 
present. Lake Forest Academy Headmaster William Mather 
Lewis was there with the entire student body. The first recruit to 
graduate was Joseph Wallace Gregg. At the time of dedication 
the cost of the Station had reached $3,000,000. 

The first inmates of the Great Lakes Brig were two eleven-year- 
olds, Stuart French of Lake Forest and his friend, Harry L. Bixby. 
These boys, together with their families, had been visiting the 
Station before its formal opening. When they misbehaved, they 
were warned of the consequences by Admiral Ross who was show- 
ing them around. When they continued in their mischief, several 
large sailors were summoned and committed the boys to the Brig. 
The gates crashed behind them, for a twenty-minute incarcera- 
tion. Ten years later H. L. Bixby graduated from the Naval Acad- 
emy and eventually became a Captain. 

Rear Admiral Albert Ross, that grand old man, became a fa- 
miliar figure as a Lake Forest resident, a loyal Presbyterian and a 
great social favorite. He was followed by Captain William A. 
Moffett, who also lived in Lake Forest during his tour of duty at 
Great Lakes which covered 191 4 through World War I. During 
that war 125,000 men were trained at Great Lakes. During World 
War II over a million bluejackets passed through the Station. 
Today (1961) there are a thousand buildings in the Station, in 
1,567 acres, housing over 20,000 trainees. 

Lake Forest was the smallest town to organize a branch of the 
Young Women's Christian Association. It had its beginnings in 
Mrs. Arthur Aldis' Red Bird Cottage. It served the needs of 
women and girls and provided many community services for 
thirty-nine years, 1911-1950. In 1950 the Y.W.C.A. became in- 
active, but retained a Board and membership in order to hold title 
to its property and to be a nucleus for future activities. It began 
with a budget of $2,700 but spent as much as $17,000 during its 
year of greatest activity. 

The Y.W.C.A. program included religious services, gymnastics, 
baby clinics, swimming instruction, Americanization, dancing, 
camps, lectures, projects of world-wide interest, clubs, and a wel- 


Cosmopolitanism, 1 908-1 916 

fare program. During two world wars it conducted programs for 
service men and their families. It is now providing scholarships 
for college students. 

In 1912a large reception was given at the home of Mr. and Mrs. 
Louis E. Laflin in honor of Booker T. Washington, the Negro 
educator and author. There were many invited guests including 
the Julius Rosenwalds of Winnetka, chairman of the board of 
Sears Roebuck, in whose private railroad car the Laflins later 
visited Tuskeegee College, in Alabama. 

Evangelist Billy Sunday preached several times at the Academy 
and at the First Presbyterian Church, over a period of fifteen 
years. His two sons attended the Academy, and the J. V. Farwell 
family were good friends and promoters of the Sundays. Capacity 
crowds turned out to hear the former baseball star, many coming 
from miles away. His description of his conversion during a base- 
ball game was related in detail, each year, and "got better every 
time he told it." Several young Lake Foresters recall this sermon as 
a highlight of the period. Charles C. Buell remembered the ser- 
mon to report it forty years later as follows : 

This is the testimony of an errant sinner. Boys, I was playing center 
field (1886) on the old Chicago team (Chicago White Stockings of 
the National League, the forerunner of the Chicago Cubs). The race 
for the championship was very close, and on a Saturday night late in 
the season, it became apparent that the big game to be played on the 
next day, Sunday, would decide the championship. 

That night I got very drunk, and was picked up in a drunken stupor, 
out of the gutter at Van Buren and State streets, by the Salvation 
Army. They cleaned me up, sobered me up, and converted me to 

Feeling much the worse for wear and my transgressions, I went out 
to the old West Side Ball Park, for the championship contest. Clarkson 
and Flint were our battery for the crucial game. Clarkson's speed was 
blinding, and going into the ninth inning everything was in our favor. 
We were protecting a two-run lead, then as often happens, we had 
several bad breaks and the stage was set: the bases were full, two out, 
and the mighty Delehanty coming to bat. Clarkson blazed the first two 
past him, and as he wound up for the third time, I started back. With 
the crack of the bat I looked over my shoulder and saw disaster wing- 



ing its way in my direction. I ran harder and harder and prayed: 
"O God, O God, O God, if you ever helped a converted sinner, help 
me catch this ball/* Way out in the deepest part of center field I made 
the most spectacular catch of my career. I have heen a Christian ever 

Tim Brady came into the dressing room after the game, and said : 
"Sunday, here is a thousand dollars. Your catch saved me fifteen thou- 
sand which I had bet on the Chicago team." Many have asked me 
since if I took the thousand dollars. Boys, I did! 

The Great Charlie Flint caught the mighty Clarkson without chest 
protector, leg pads, or mask. He was a great competitor but liquor was 
his undoing. He travelled the primrose path into drunken oblivion. 
His wife divorced him and later married a well-known Chicago 
banker. Years later his car, driven by a chauffeur, ran down a drunk- 
ard. At the morgue it was discovered that the body was that of the 
famous Flint. I preached the funeral service over Charlie Flint, at- 
tended by high and low, business men and harlots, bankers and bar- 
tenders, and my mind wandered back over the years, to that great game 
in which God helped me on my path of reformation. 

Remember boys, remember well, that you should never allow liquor 
to manage your life. Better yet, never touch it. 

Another celebrity to speak in Lake Forest was Senator J. Ham- 
ilton Lewis, U.S. Senator from Illinois, who was the Fourth of 
July speaker in Triangle Park, in 191 2. The chairman of the oc- 
casion was Mr. Robert J. Thorne who had recently moved his 
family to Lake Forest. He introduced the Senator and added: 
"We have Mrs. Lewis with us also." The people smiled knowing 
that the only Mrs. Lewis in the audience was Mrs. William 
Mather Lewis, not at all related to the Senator. 

A memorial service was held in the Academy Chapel in May 
1 9 1 2, for the mother and sister of Howard Hippacks, an Academy 
student. They were lost in the Titanic disaster on the night of 
April 14-15 when the ship crashed into an iceberg just south of 
Newfoundland in an attempt to set a new world speed record for 
crossing the Atlantic ocean. A total of 1,517 lives were lost. 

In 1 910 Mayor C. Frederick Childs introduced the first macadam 
pavements in Lake Forest. These gradually replaced the hodge- 
podge of dirt, brick, wood and stone pavements so that by 1920 


Cosmopolitanism, 1908— 1 916 

macadam pavements were the rule. In 191 1 he organized the 
oldest and largest business in America specializing in Government 
Securities. In 191 3 he created the first professional Lake Forest 
fire department, raising $2,500 by personal solicitation for a hook- 
and-ladder and hose truck, the first motor driven fire truck in the 
city. The present fire station was built in 1925. 

In 1 91 3, a group of Onwentsia members organized the Old Elm 
Club, just south of Lake Forest. It was for men only, with golf 
the sole feature. There were two reasons for a new club at this 
time. Sunday was the only time these men could play golf since 
all business men worked six full days each week. Because On- 
wentsia was crowded and had a rule against Sunday golf, Old Elm 
seemed to offer a satisfactory solution. The original membership 
included Colonel R. Harvey McElwee, Alfred Landon Baker, 
Clyde M. Carr, John V. Farwell, Jr., Stanley Field, Albert A. 
Sprague and James Viles. The membership was restricted to 150 
members to make it pleasurable for all. 

There was a furor in 191 5 over the subject of Sunday movies. 
After a long discussion Mayor William Mather Lewis called for 
a city-wide vote. Four hundred fifty-two wanted Sunday movies, 
495 voted against it. 

The Lake Forest Improvement Plan for remodeling the business 
district was formulated, culminating in the Market Square in 
1 9 16. This was a pioneer shopping center, planned and executed 
with an eye to beauty and usefulness, "the first integrated and 
artfully designed shopping center in this country." It comprised 
twenty-five stores, 12 offices, 28 apartments, occupying 400 feet 
by 260 on Western Avenue. The stores which previously oc- 
cupied the area were an eyesore, and the back lots had created 
slum conditions. Several buildings were moved to new locations. 
Others were torn down. The O'Neill Hardware Store erected a 
new and much larger building, in 1916, on Westminster. 

Howard Van Doren Shaw who designed Market Square was a 
graduate of Yale and M.I.T. One of the first citizens of Lake 
Forest in the first century, he was an outstanding architect, equally 
skillful in several styles of architecture. He could execute the 



Gothic as in the Fourth Presbyterian Church of Chicago, or the 
Italian as in several homes he designed in Lake Forest. He built 
the Lakeside Press building in Chicago and the Market Square 
in Lake Forest. He was also the teacher of several younger men 
who continued his ideals of utility and good taste. Stanley Ander- 
son and Ralph Milman were among his loyal students. 

The Market Square was designed with "rows" or arcades in the 
eastern corners. Two Tyrolean towers and an Italian Renaissance 
central building, across the west side, were all coordinated in 
cultivated taste and enduring beauty, making it one of the most 
attractive business centers in the country. Ground was broken in 
September 191 5 and many of the stores were opened in 1916. 
The completed project cost $750,000. 

The square contains a fountain at the east end, dedicated to 
Howard Van Doren Shaw, and a flag pole at the west end, dedi- 
cated in 1 91 7 to the "Men of Lake Forest who gave themselves 
for the safety of their country and the world." The grass plot in 
the center is surrounded with elms and flowering bushes. The 
original trustees, who made Market Square a reality, were Arthur 
T. Aldis, D. Mark Cummings, John V. Farwell, Jr., David B. 
Jones and Cyrus H. McCormick. The unit makes a fine impres- 
sion on anyone arriving at the Lake Forest station for the first 
time, and every time. 

In 191 2 one hundred motor cars were listed in Lake Forest. The 
number increased rapidly in the next four years. These were in 
all sizes and descriptions with Fords predominating. Almost 
within a year the horse and carriage disappeared from the Lake 
Forest scene. Other automobile makes included Buicks, Chan- 
dlers, Duryeas, Hupmobiles, Overlands, Stanley Steamers, 
Stevens, Stoddard-Day tons, Stutzes, Wintons and others which 
took care of the necessary transportation or for sport. The hunter 
and the mount were still found in several stables which provided 
hunting, polo, or riding for pleasure. 

There was one kind of car which seemed to agree with the 
Lake Forest temperament and scene— the electric. Many families 
favored these for their quietness and controlled speed. There was 
one Sheridan Road resident who learned to start and steer her 
electric before she learned to stop it. She could do nothing but 


Cosmopolitanism, io 08-1916 

circle her house until the battery ran out. Another young lady met 
a mounted soldier from Fort Sheridan as she drove her electric 
across the Sheridan Road bridge at Deer Path. His horse went 
completely wild and backed into the front wheel of her vehicle. In 
the end, one front wheel hung over the buffer of the bridge, 
barely missing a thirty foot drop into the bottom of the ravine. 
The horse had to be destroyed. Early electric owners included the 
Airings, Casselberrys, Colvins, Holts, Laflins, McLennans, Shaws, 
Trowbridges, Viles and Warners. 

As the gas engines were improved, the electrics were gradually 
retired. A few reappeared on the Lake Forest streets during the 
gas shortages of World War II. 

With more and more cars and a steadily growing city, more 
macadam roads were built and new streets came into being. New 
street names appeared and some older streets were renamed to 
correspond with the several attractive names already in use. Here 
and there a city ordinance changed a name. In 1897 one signif- 
icant ordinance changed University Avenue to Sheridan Road. 
In 191 5 the Mayor's wife, Mrs. Leverett Thompson, nee Alice 
Poole, took the initiative and changed nearly all Avenues to 
Roads. She renamed several streets. Elm Street became Elm Tree 
Road, Deer Path east of Sheridan was straightened and the old 
extension became a part of Westminster, Linden was renamed 
College Road, Poplar became the western end of Rosemary, 
Myrtle became Ringwood, part of Winona became Hawthorne 
Lane, Huron became a part of Elm Tree Road, and Winona dis- 
appeared, becoming a part of Barberry Lane, while Strawberry 
Lane became Hawthorne Place. 

There were many objections to these changes. One incensed 
resident remarked: "To think that she presumed to do this when 
she had lived in Lake Forest only twenty- two years." On October 
21, 1927, the Council approved by ordinance 29 additional 
changes in street names without serious objection from anyone. It 
is interesting to note that the present McKinley Road has been 
called by three other names during the past one hundred years- 
Railroad Avenue, Depot Avenue and VVaukegan Road. 

The Garden Club of Lake Forest was organized in 1 9 1 2 by several 
Lake Forest women including Mrs. Finley Barrel, Mrs. Tiffany 



Blake, Mrs. Samuel Chase, Mrs. J. Andrew King, Mrs. Cyrus 
McCormick, Mrs. Arthur Meeker, and Mrs. John T. Pirie. 

In 191 3, Gifford Pinchot, chief forester in President Theodore 
Roosevelt's administration, and his pretty red-headed wife were 
guests at Walden, to consult with Mr. and Mrs. Cyrus McCormick 
on matters of the national conservation program which had begun 
during the first Roosevelt administration, and then neglected. The 
new President, Woodrow Wilson, a long-time friend of the Mc- 
Cormick family, was able to reactivate the conservation program 
as a result of conferences and studies made at Walden during this 
visit. Mrs. Pinchot became one of the founders of the Garden 
Club of America in 191 3, and the Lake Forest Garden Club 
served as one of the pilot organizations of the country-wide move- 
ment. The first horticultural exhibit in Lake Forest was held at 
Walden as were many succeeding exhibits. 

Another unusual event of the period involved two local boys, 
about ten years old, Jack Durand and Arnold Sprague, who 
boarded a Northwestern engine at Lake Forest, while the engi- 
neer was absent in a restaurant, and drove it to Lake Bluff without 

A less dramatic but continuing activity involved the study of 
bird-lore in our midst. John Ferry had made a famous collection 
of birds, nests and eggs which had been installed in glass cases 
in the rotunda of the Durand Art Institute. Henry Tuttle, Mrs. 
Jesse B. Moss and Mrs. Sara A. Hubbard were early students of 
bird life in Lake Forest. Ellen Drummond Farwell (Mrs. J. V. 
Farwell, Jr.) left us a legacy of her bird observations from 1907 
to her death in 191 9, collected in a book published by her hus- 
band, entitled "Bird Observations Near Chicago/' From the win- 
dows of her home "Ardleigh," high on the bluff above Lake Mich- 
igan, she spotted many of the species appearing on her lists. She 
was instrumental in organizing the Audubon Society of Illinois. 

A second "Ellen," Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith, Associate in 
the Division of Birds of the Chicago Natural History Museum, 
fifty years later, is continuing to watch the birds from the windows 
at "Ardleigh," and has compiled a booklet for the use of bird en- 
thusiasts in the Chicago area called Chicagoland Birds— Where 
and When to Find Them. 


Cosmopolitanism, 1 908-1 016 

Marion Clow, a few miles north on the same bluff, is also a 
well-known bird expert reporting regularly to the National Audu- 
bon Society's migration studies. She remembers seeing two black- 
billed magpies on the lawn of her family home in 191 8. She com- 
ments that as wooded areas and cow pastures have disappeared, 
such species as the great horned owl, the orchard oriole and even 
the bluebird are rarely seen in the suburb, while others such as 
the cardinal and the starling are more plentiful than at the turn 
of the century. For the most part, however, the statistics have re- 
mained fairly constant throughout the years, including some 1 80 
species, comprising migrants such as warblers, residents such as 
the chickadee, and breeding birds such as the goldfinch. 

The increase of shrubbery and newly planted trees have added 
to the permanent shelter provided by the wild growth in the 
ravines. In recent years with increased interest in birds, more and 
more people have been engaged in feeding them during the 
winter months. Few people know that the cardinals might never 
have been so plentiful had they not been imported by John T. 
Pirie from Florida in 191 5. He brought a pair from which only 
the male survived the first winter. Pirie then secured a female 
from the Lincoln Park Zoo, put her in a cage on one of the bird 
feeders. When the male was seen near the cage several times, he 
released the female. They returned to the feeder together; and 
so are thought to be the ancestors of our many cardinals in Lake 

For the visitor to Lake Forest, the beautiful homes have been 
the most impressive sights. After the turn of the century there 
were many additions and new trends. More and more citizens 
discovered the advantages of building to the west. Green Bay Road 
became known as "The Ridge." These westward facing residents 
claimed the superiority of their "Italian sunsets" above the sun- 
rises over Lake Michigan. It was possible to have long vistas and 
to capitalize on the nearness to the Onwentsia Club, and the 
bridle paths, as well as to avoid city taxes as some did. Several of 
these homes had secret panels and secret staircases, some even had 
theatres in which plays were produced. In the fall, pheasants 
landed in their backyards to give these homes a touch of the north 



In 1900 still another trend began when Miss Helen Culver 
bought a neglected farm and built "Rookwoods," on Telegraph 
Road (now Waukegan Road). She was one of the first to appre- 
ciate the advantages of the "Second Skokie." Miss Culver was the 
well known philanthropist who gave her Chicago home to Jane 
Addams who in turn developed the pioneer settlement-house, 
Hull House, named after Miss Culver's cousin, Charles J. Hull. 
Miss Culver's brief residence in Lake Forest was a source of pride 
to the city, as she had served as a nurse behind the battle lines 
during the Civil War. She had been in charge of a hospital at 
Murfreesboro with 40 beds. She and two other women kept the 
beds sanitary, the wounded clean and comfortable, prepared their 
food, administered their medicines and wrote letters for them. 
She and her staff followed the armies to be on hand at Chicka- 
mauga and Chattanooga. After the war she returned to Chicago 
and became the first woman to be commissioned a notary public 
in Illinois. In Lake Forest she was known by many as "the old 
lady who rode a bicycle all over town." She died in 1925. 

Many unusual homes were built after the turn of the century. 
The area near the lake was still a popular place to build. Mark 
Skinner Willing employed Henry Dangler to build his home at 
45 North Stonegate Lane, but never lived in the house. The 
Charles I. Danglers bought the house in 1908 and later sold it 
to the Charles H. Morses who added an art gallery and named the 
place "Fairmore." Next door to the Willing house, the James A. 
Miller family erected a large frame structure, at the easternmost 
end of Illinois Road; but they too lived in their new home only a 
very short time. This house was soon bought by the Albert M. 
Day family. It has been the home of the James Douglas family 
for the past fifteen years. D. Mark Cummings had erected "Ioka," 
meaning "beautiful place," in an Indian dialect, at the north end 
of Lake Road, in 1903. Just south on Lake Road the Colvin sisters 
built "Halcyon Lodge" in 1910. Donald R. McLennan built 
"Sturnowzy," an Italian house on Lake Road at the edge of the 
bluff in 1 91 2. Louis E. Laflin had designed and built "Ellslloyd" 
on Hawthorne Place in 1907. Albert A. Sprague built a classical 
colonial home, "Woodlands," on the corner of Elm Tree Road 
and Hawthorne Place. This house was for long owned and oc- 
cupied by the Byron S. Harveys. Solomon A. Smith built "Mari- 


Cosmopolitanism, 1 908-1 016 

Sol-Ed-Cai Lodge" on Elm Tree Road in 1916. Trie Clayton 
Marks built an Italian villa, designed by Howard Van Doren 
Shaw, on Lake Road overlooking the lake, in 19 14. Bernard Eck- 
hart erected "Pinewold" in 1908 on Lake Road. John T. Pirie had 
built a traditional colonial home on Rosemary, across from Ferry 
Hall, in 1903. This house was later famous for an addition which 
contained an "African Room," an excellent museum of "Big 
game" tropies, rifles, and other equipment collected on African 
safaris. In 191 5 the Charles H. Schweppes built "Mayflower 
Place," just south of Ferry Hall, on the grounds of the historic 
"New Hotel," an English country house of the Tudor type, with 
spacious rooms and a panelled library looking out through lovely 
vistas of gardens to the lake. One long vista led to the knoll-top 
fountain, copied from one in the Villa d'Este in Italy. The French 
gardens, with clipped hedges, were reminiscent of Versailles. A 
rock garden and a swimming pool completed the picture. 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter Kirk built "Vallombrosa" in 19 14, on Il- 
linois Road, overlooking Mayflower Road. Edwin H. Clark was 
the architect and the model was a villa near Florence, Italy. Solid 
concrete throughout, simplicity was its enduring charm. Italian 
workmen executed interesting details. This house is now occupied 
by Dr. and Mrs. Philip Shambaugh. Clyde M. Carr built "Wyld- 
woode" near the intersection of Mayflower and Illinois Road in 
1916. Architect Harris T. Lindeberg, who designed the present 
Onwentsia Club-house later on, came to public notice in building 
the Carr house. He also erected the Cotswold English gem on 
Stone Gate Road, in 1926, on the site of a frog pond, for the 
Lowell Chapins. Since 1929 this house has been known as the 
Mrs. Francis Beidler house. 

Edward A. Ryerson built "Havenwood" on Ringwood Road in 
1 9 14, an early Renaissance masterpiece reminiscent of the Pitti 
Palace in Florence, Italy, with a garden and statues and ornaments 
bearing religious and poetic sentiments, the unit reflecting the 
best of the Italian Renaissance. This property is now properly a 
monastery of the Franciscan Fathers. The Harold McCormick's 
"Villa Turicum" was erected in 19 12, just south of "Walden" and 
north of Fort Sheridan. This too was an Italian villa, containing 
44 rooms, and a great number of old world garden statues. Charles 
A. Piatt was the architect and designed the gardens with vistas 



and panoramas. It covered 300 acres and was said to be the finest 
example in America of the Italian treatment in landscape design. 

The name, McCormick, had appeared in Lake Forest maps in 
1890. It indicated properties in various districts. In 1896 Cyrus 
H. McCormick, (Jr.), and his brother Harold soon after, had de- 
veloped estates on the lake, north and south of Westleigh Road— 
"Walden" and "Villa Turicum." Along with these two families 
who came for the summer months only, Mrs. Cyrus H. Mc- 
Cormick, (Sr.), widow of the famed inventor of the reaper who 
died in 1884, also had a Lake Forest home. 

Mrs. Cyrus H. McCormick, (Sr.), was noted for her support 
of the McCormick Theological Seminary in Chicago which was 
her husband's life-long enterprise. She worked with prominent 
women of Chicago and Lake Forest to found the Women's Presby- 
terian Board of Missions of the Northwest in 1 870. Mrs. Robert 
W. Patterson, Mrs. John V. Farwell, Mrs. George H. Laflin, Mrs. 
William Blair, were among the first officers. Mrs. McCormick 
served as vice-president or honorary vice-president for 34 years. 
The women met in "Room 48" in the McCormick block at Dear- 
born and Randolph, which was given rent-free by the McCormick 
family. They said of Nettie Fowler McCormick that her "inter- 
est in the spreading of Christianity over the world was as natural 
to her as breathing." Her special interest was Christian education. 
Her unusual business acumen was a boon to her husband's busi- 
ness and to the several religious organizations over the world 
which she promoted. 

In 1 91 6 "Madame" Nettie Fowler McCormick moved to her 
"House-in-the-woods" in Lake Forest, built for her by her daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Emmons Blaine, bounded by Ringwood, Sheridan, Il- 
linois and Mayflower Roads. Here she lived a quiet, secluded life 
until her death in 1922 at the age of 87. She kept close to her 
family, welcoming the younger members and newcomers into the 
circle, and keeping abreast of their activities. She kept up a volu- 
minous correspondence and received a stream of visitors repre- 
senting her far-flung interests. During her lifetime she entertained 
Dr. James McCosh, President of Princeton University; Woodrow 
Wilson, also President of Princeton University and later of the 
United States; Dwight L. Moody, the famed evangelist; John R. 
Mott, whom she supported throughout her life, helping him 


Cosmopolitanism, 1 908-1 916 

organize the Student Volunteer Movement; Samuel A. Moffett, 
pioneer missionary to Korea; Dr. Henry Winter Luce, missionary 
to China and father of Henry Luce of Time Magazine fame; Sam 
Higginbottom, farmer-missionary to India. Though friendly to 
all, Mrs. McCormick was never attracted to Chicago or Lake For- 
est society as such. A typical reaction at first to her daughter's 
choice of fiance was that he was "too worldly, a club-man." In 
politics and religion she and her husband made an effort to main- 
tain moderation. 

Two large homes were built on Sheridan Road in this period. 
The Edward A. Ryersons built their first home in 1 907, the work 
of Howard Van Doren Shaw. When the Reuben H. Donnelleys 
purchased this property, they called it "Thornehurst." It contained 
beautiful planting and Italian gardens. Clifford W. Barnes erected 
"Glen Rown" in 1909, across from the college campus. This house 
has become the host of great-name visitors from all over the 

Several homes were built on Green Bay Road. Louis F. Swift 
had built "Westleigh" over a period of years, finishing it in 1900. 
This was a combination of farm and country home. It stood just 
south of the Onwentsia Club and west of Green Bay Road, on 
37 acres, on which there were originally only 17 trees, while east- 
ward across Green Bay Road on what is now known as the Bertram 
J. Cahn place, still stands the last foothold of the original forest. 
Mr. Swift brought full grown trees from Libertyville, pulled by 
six-horse teams. He employed a Japanese landscape architect to 
lay out "water gardens" including a rustic tea house, moon bridges, 
and a Torii gate. 

The Walter S. Brewsters had built "Covin Tree" on a part of 
the Atteridge Farm in 1907. Thomas E. Donnelley built "Clinola" 
in 19 10. Edward S. Moore built "West Highlands" in 191 2, on 
the highest spot on Green Bay Road. This farm was a historic site 
near Lake Forest during Indian and pioneer transportation pe- 
riods. In old documents this farm is referred to as "Signal Hill" 
or "Oak Hill" or "Cemetery Knoll." It was first developed by 
William H. Hubbard. Arthur Heun built "West Highlands" for 
the Moores in the Italian style. The Charles Edward Browns built 
"Desbro House," opposite the Onwentsia Club, in 1916. The Wil- 
liam V. Kelleys built "Stonebridge House" at the north end of 



Green Bay Road, in 1916, a home which in the 1930^ became the 
"Stonebridge Priory" of the Servite Fathers. 

In 1902 two large homes had been constructed on west Deer 
Path. George A. McKinlock built "Brown Gables" in the open 
prairie at the intersection of Waukegan Road and Deer Path. The 
A. B. Dicks built a French Renaissance home with gardens and 
an extensive farm. The Dick property is now occupied by the 
Lake Forest Hospital, a part of the Deerpath Golf course, the 
Lutheran Church, the Lake Forest Club, and miscellaneous home 
sites. The Joseph M. Cudahys built a Louis XVI house, "In- 
nistail," across from the Dicks, in 191 5. Nearby on Waukegan 
Road, the Arthur Meekers built "Arcady," dairy farm and summer 
home, in 1906. Arthur Heun was the architect. Six hundred cows 
and a variety of wild and domestic animals were pastured on 1 00 
acres. The Charles D. Nortons remodelled one of the oldest houses 
in Lake Forest, part of the Sylvester Lind house, at the corner of 
Deer Path and Washington. They called it "Roadside," finished 
in 1905. 

Many others erected beautiful homes in Lake Forest at this 
time. The most pretentious of all was the J. Ogden Armour house 
with its entrance on Waukegan Road, finished in 1908. The prop- 
erty comprised one thousand acres including land which had been 
a farm belonging to Patrick Melody. Mrs. Armour called the 
whole property "Mellody Farms." The area before the turn of 
the century had also comprised what was called "the second 
slough"— a small edition of the Louisiana bayous, where earth 
and water mixed in an undisciplined swamp, and where the Lake 
Forest young men of 1858 onward had found a paradise for their 
hunting expeditions. 

Mr. Armour had the area of the slough drained so that five 
ponds, later combined into two, were created and stocked with 
bass and perch. A large enough mound was built to afford the 
site for a fireproof steel-concrete home in the Italian villa architec- 
ture, designed by Arthur Heun, who also designed the Fuji Lake 
Hotel on the slopes of Mount Fujiyama, Japan. Morton R. Mavor 
was the contractor. Two feet of black dirt were imported to cover 
the entire area surrounding the immediate grounds and buildings. 
A pretentious gate on Waukegan Road, flanked by two apart- 
ments, led to a large concrete and steel bridge over the tracks of 


Cosmopolitanism, 1 908-1 916 

the Milwaukee railroad. The driveway from the gate to the house 
was nearly two miles. Double rows of trees were planted on either 
side, along ten miles of driveway on the property. West of the 
bridge a large herd of deer was kept behind tall fences. A dozen 
beautiful horses lived in a large fireproof stable, with the name of 
each horse inscribed over its box stall. Orchards and an orangerie, 
similar to that of Voltaire at the Potsdam court of Frederick the 
Great, supplied fruits, while greenhouses furnished exotic plants 
and flowers. Antique vases and statuary from old gardens of Eu- 
rope, also a beautiful Italian well-head, decorated the house, the 
formal gardens and the front of the main house. Imported marbles 
were in evidence inside and out. 

The main building was 180 x 500 feet, containing a bowling 
alley in the basement. The first floor contained a dining room 
with marble walls, a breakfast room, an enclosed porch, a library 
panelled in Circassian walnut, and off this a little green panelled 
Georgian room which Mrs. Armour bought in London. The 
ground floor also contained an elaborate music room where a pipe 
organ was concealed in the panelling. The second story contained 
complete suites for each member of the family of three and for their 
guests. Mr. Armour's two offices, one above the other, connected 
by a concealed staircase, have been a source of admiration to visi- 
tors since. The plumbing and hardware were of very special manu- 
facture. Gold and silver were frequently used in door knobs and 
electric fixtures. There was silk panelling and especially chosen 
furniture brought over from various countries of Europe. The 
main building had an elaborate communication system : one direct 
line to the Stock Yards, and fifteen other direct connections with 
the outside. There were also fourteen phones connecting various 
rooms and buildings on the entire estate. 

Twenty marble fireplaces gave the house a cheerful aspect. The 
formal gardens contained unusual trees and three large reflecting 
pools, not to mention the myriads of flowers which bloomed in a 
continual procession from early spring until late fall. A private 
electric power plant furnished all the electricity and a private spur 
of the Milwaukee railroad made it possible to deliver large con- 
signments with the least amount of handling. In 191 5 the Ar- 
mours built a wall just west of the railroad tracks to fence the 
view of passing box-cars from the house and to minimize the roar 



of the engines. It cost $65,000. The Chicago Tribune called it 
the "costliest and longest wall in the world." 

Occasionally when the Armours entertained, it was done in the 
grand style. Even small dinners were quite formal. One lady re- 
members coming out from Chicago, being met at the Armours' 
private railroad station by uniformed and cockaded grooms, being 
escorted to a horse-drawn sleigh, and jingling up to the Great 
House. Huge fires burned in every fireplace, and the air was heavy 
with the scent of flowers everywhere, in addition to the Christmas 

Another time Ruth St. Denis and her company danced in the 
formal gardens on a platform built over the central reflecting pool. 
Mrs. Armour was disappointed in the flowers in the garden at 
the time, so she and her guests inserted gladioli in the beds to 
make it look more gala. This may have been the introduction of a 
new trend followed since during festive occasions requiring garden 

Another guest recalled the wedding and reception of Lolita, 
the only daughter of the Armours, and John J. Mitchell, Jr. This 
was in the early twenties and an outstanding social event as all 
of Lake Forest and Chicago friends of the two families were in- 
vited. Arthur Heun, the architect, came to decorate, and he used 
long-stemmed pink roses everywhere. "Lolita came down the 
rose embowered stair-case dressed in magnificent white velvet/' 
and walked to the floral background, where the ceremony was 





When the Lusitania was torpedoed off the coast of Ireland on 
May 7, 191 5, one of the 1 14 Americans to lose her life was Mrs. 
Catherine E. Willey. She was the mother of Mrs. Robert J. 
Thorne of Lake Forest, on her way to her Paris home with surgical 
dressings for the French wounded. The war in Europe suddenly 
invaded the thinking of United States citizens. The word was now 

Many young men were called for serious drilling and training 
camps. Some reported for duty on the Mexican border. People 
at home set up maps indicating the battle lines with colored pins. 
Then came the declaration of war on April 6, 1 9 1 7, followed by 
the registration of all men between the ages of 21 and 31. 

With Fort Sheridan and Great Lakes as neighbors it was said 
that Lake Forest was as safe a place as any in the world. These 
military establishments, which had barely been noticed, suddenly 
became objects of curiosity and visitations. Weekly reviews were 
attended by many Lake Foresters. Fort Sheridan speakers included 
Samuel Insull, Governor Frank Lowden, Ex-President Theodore 
Roosevelt, and the most popular speaker of all, Judge Kenesaw 
Mountain Landis. Civilian advisers and workers included Alfred 
Cowles, James C. Hutchins, Sr., William V. Kelley, George A. 
McKinlock, Sr., John J. Mitchell and Wallace Winter. 



Fort Sheridan graduates and officers of the Training Schools 
included A. Graham Aldis, Waldo M. Allen, Richard Bentley, 
John S. Broeksmit, Kent Chandler, Knight C. Cowles, Edward 
A. Cudahy, Jr., Donald B. Douglas, J. M. Ely, James C. Hutchins, 
Jr., Henry P. Isham, Clay Judson, Gordon McCormick, Fred- 
erick C. McLaughlin, Joseph Patterson, Lawrence Robbins, 
George Richardson, Albert A. Sprague, Wayne Chatfield-Taylor, 
Charles H. Wacker, Hempstead Washburne and Farwell Wins- 

Parades, band concerts, displays, war bond sales, Y.M.C.A., 
Red Cross, French Orphans, Belgian Relief, occupied nearly all 
the citizens. Troop trains were in constant motion through town 
carrying uniformed men or draftees to or from the two adjacent 
military establishments. Most of the Lake Forest draftees were 
taken to Camp Grant, in Rockford. Some served on the Mexican 
border in 191 6. Many were mustered into the 67th Brigade of the 
Rainbow Division, the first non-professional division to arrive 
overseas. Others became members of the 86th Division. Volun- 
teers who preferred the Navy were usually sent to Great Lakes. 
A Home Guard unit was formed in Lake Forest, drilling in the 
streets or at the Young Men's Club with wooden rifles. 

Huge and gay parties (fetes) were given to raise money for 
various projects. Those who were beyond the draft age volunteered 
their services, in an advisory capacity or for doing special jobs for 
which they had had experience before the war. Soldiers and sail- 
ors began filling the parks and streets. The town responded with a 
War Community Y.W.C.A. It took over canteen service, recrea- 
tion and amusement. It looked after the needs of women engaged 
in war work. Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., a Red Cross worker in 
the Chicago area, created a mild sensation by dancing with the 
young lady who was the official dish-washer of a Lake Forest 
Y.W.C.A. party for service men. Volunteers went to Great Lakes 
and Fort Sheridan to serve in the Hostess Houses. Entertainments, 
dinners and dances were held for large groups, and many Lake 
Forest homes were opened for the entertainment of strangers who 
were in uniform. Service men were driven about town and shown 
the places of special beauty, and entertained at many Sunday din- 
ners : several hundred. Churches went "all out" in organizing for 
the entertainment of service men who came to Lake Forest. Miss 


War and Normalcy, 1917-1919 

Helen Culver made a record by knitting the greatest number of 
scarfs, socks, and other pieces in Lake Forest. Mrs. Arthur Aldis 
and Mrs. George A. McKinlock headed the Canteen work of the 
greater Chicago area. Alfred E. Hamill served as Deputy Com- 
missioner for France for the American Red Cross. There were 
meatless days and gasless Sundays. Everyone joined in singing the 
war songs and knew the words to "Over There," "It's a long way 
to Tipperary," and "Keep the Home Fires Burning/' This was a 
highly emotional war, and a musical war. 

On May 23, 191 8, there was a Red Cross Rally at the Young 
Men's Club. The gymnasium was crowded to capacity. The band 
from the Great Lakes Naval Training Station furnished the 
music. Ezra J. Warner, Jr., was chairman, and several speeches 
were made. Captain E. J. Beyington, one of the survivors of the 
Princess Pat regiment, told about his experiences in the trenches 
and praised the work of the Red Cross. John Griffith presented a 
lot on Washington Circle to be auctioned off for the Red Cross. 
Henry Rumsey, as auctioneer, sold it to William O. Lindley for 
$1,000. He gave it back. Mrs. Reuben Donnelley paid $1,000 
for it and promptly gave it back. John T. Pirie then bought it for 
$800 and returned the property. In all about $5,000 was raised 
for the Red Cross from this lot alone. Mr. Rumsey then wanted 
to lead the singing of the "Star Spangled Banner." Captain Uri 
Grannis offered $10 if he did not sing. Mrs. Charles Schweppe 
then said she knew that Mr. Rumsey could sing and offered to 
pay $25 if he would take the platform. Pledges were signed long 
after the end of the meeting. 

Charles S. Dewey of Lake Forest became assistant and special 
adviser to Captain W. A. Moffett, Commandant of Great Lakes, 
who himself resided in Lake Forest. On a Saturday, Secretary of 
the Navy Josephus Daniels was due at a Great Lakes Review. On 
the night before, Captain Moffett received a telephone call from 
the war-time Mayor of Lake Bluff saying that the bridge over 
Sheridan Road was found to be defective and that the Secretary 
had better take a train from Chicago to Great Lakes, since Sheri- 
dan Road through Lake Bluff was the only automobile road to 
Great Lakes at the time. Captain Moffett assured the Mayor that 
the bridge would be repaired in time for the Secretary's arrival. 
A group of engineers with a large crew of naval personnel from 



Great Lakes worked all night until a new bridge was built on 
Sheridan Road in Lake Bluff. At wars end the city fathers of Lake 
Bluff named the former Sheridan Road in Lake Bluff, Moffett 
Road, which is its name to this day. 

Captain Moffett organized teams of eloquent speakers called 
"Minute Men," who travelled over the country with Sousa Bands, 
making speeches to encourage the purchase of war bonds. Several 
Lake Forest volunteers were so used. One of these was William 
Mather Lewis, a graduate of Lake Forest College, a former Head- 
master of Lake Forest Academy, and a former Mayor of Lake 
Forest. Mr. Lewis was also instrumental in organizing the Chi- 
cago chapter of the Navy League of the United States and became 
one of its early Presidents. 

These several Lake Foresters, working with Captain Moffett, 
established such a cordial relationship with Great Lakes that the 
Lake Forest people of all ages became habitual visitors at the Great 
Lakes Naval Training Center. There were roller-skating parties 
in the drill hall for young and old, to a spirited Navy band. On 
Wednesdays and Saturdays crowds sat in the bleachers to watch 
the parades and to give an outlet to their patriotic feelings. They 
heard the Sousa bands, the greatest concentration of music in our 
country. They got glimpses of visiting celebrities : Josephus Dan- 
iels, Secretary of the Navy; Admiral W. S. Benson, the first Chief 
of Naval Operations; Dr. Henry Van Dyke, author and one time 
Ambassador to Holland; Ex-Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and 
William Howard Taft; Governor Frank O. Lowden of Illinois; 
and many others who occupied the reviewing stands as guests of 
Captain Moffett and his Staff. The "Peacock of the Navy," 
Micheaux (Monk) Tennant would lead 1,500 picked musicians 
playing martial music, followed by battalions of four companies 
(singing squares) with a hollow center, and a band in the middle 
of each battalion; the men singing as they came past the reviewing 
stands, spotless in white uniforms. Another stirring sight was the 
"human flag" in which ten thousand sailors, dressed in red, white 
or blue, formed a living flag and marched past the reviewing 

A recent navy historian records that during the first fifty year's 
existence of the Great Lakes Naval Training Station, the high 
water mark of service morale was reached during World War I. 


War and Normalcy, 1917-1919 

He says the music of John Philip Sousa was greatly responsible 
for this, also the fine athletic teams which won championships 
with great regularity. He mentions also the large patriotic demon- 
strations and visiting celebrities. He fails to credit Captain Moffett 
with superb leadership, wonderful imagination and an intensely 
human and personal organization. 

In 19 1 7 the flag pole in Market Square was dedicated with 
troops and a large band from Fort Sheridan taking part, assisted 
by the Home Guards. The base of the flag-pole contains a quota- 
tion from President Woodrow Wilson : "We are glad to fight for 
the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peo- 
ple/' It was "dedicated to the men of Lake Forest who gave them- 
selves for the safety of their country and the world." 

When the end of the war came and the losses were counted, 
there were sixteen casualties from Lake Forest. Ten had died of 
disease and six were battle casualties. The honored dead included 
Guy Bezy, George Alexander McKinlock, Jr., William J. Sandy, 
Ellsworth W. Stoker, Leroy H. Wheeler, and Lewis Yore. Guy 
Bezy went into the battle line in August 1914 and was killed 20 
days later near Charleroix. There were five sons of the Robert 
Sandy family in the service, two of whom did not return. Influenza 
took a heavy toll among both the military and the civilian popula- 

Colonel Noble B. Judah, a Chicago lawyer, served in the Rain- 
bow Division throughout our participation in France. He became 
assistant Chief of Staff of this division which suffered 16,000 
casualties. He received the Legion of Honor. Stanley Gublin re- 
ceived the Croix-de-Guerre because he took 1 9 German prisoners 
single-handed in the Verdun sector. A total of 345 Lake Forest 
men served in the armed forces. 

Lake Forest celebrated Armistice Day, November 11, 191 8, 
by ringing all the church and school bells in town. Children from 
the Halsey School came to the City Hall to ring the bell. It was 
rung with such vigor and so continuously that the bell broke, 
never to ring again to announce fires. It was replaced by a siren 
two years later. Fearing that this siren might get out of order, the 
city fathers ordered that it be tested every noon. This testing has 

Uniformed men returned to Lake Forest to change into citizens' 

J 95 

clothes as soon as possible. Some of these got together to form the 
George Alexander McKinlock, Jr., Post No. 264 of the American 
Legion. After several meetings, they received their charter on 
February 1, 1921. The post was named after a Lake Forest boy, 
a Harvard graduate, who was reported missing in action in France 
at the age of 25. The first meetings were held in John Griffith's 
real estate office. The charter members included Stanley Ander- 
son, Wilbur Chapman, Ellis Griffith, William H. Harding, Stan- 
ley Kiddle, Joseph H. Lindenmeyer, Oswald E. Obermiller, 
Colonel Albert A. Sprague, Chaucer Westbrook, and the first 
Commander, Montague R. Rassmussen. The present American 
Legion Home was dedicated in 1935— it had served as the Rasmus- 
sen Shoe Store on Western Avenue and had been moved to its 
present location when the Market Square was erected. 

The American Legion has sponsored Lake Forest Day since 
1 92 1, and devoted itself to the service of the community. Early 
in its existence the Legion made a gift to the city of elm trees on 
Deer Path, dedicated to those who lost their lives in the war. They 
have sponsored a youth program including athletics, citizenship, 
national holidays and several Lake Forest charities. Its very special 
interest has been the Veterans' Hospital at Downey (Great Lakes). 

On October 2, 191 9, occurred the "Welcome Home Celebra- 
tion" for all returned service men. The Durand Art Institute was 
filled to capacity for the dinner; then the entire party moved across 
the street to the Presbyterian Church where the program took 
place. War-time Mayor Keene H. Addington made an address of 
welcome. Major General Leonard Wood delivered the main ad- 
dress of the evening. Mayor Henry Rumsey presented each vet- 
eran with a bronze recognition medal, bearing the Seal of Lake 
Forest on one side and an inscription on the other which read 
"Presented by the City of Lake Forest in grateful recognition of 
patriotic services rendered in World War." Montague Rasmussen 
of the American Legion made an appropriate response in behalf 
of the veterans. 

In May 191 9 there was a milk strike, but there was no shortage in 

Lake Forest as a fleet of private cars drove to the Bowman Dairy 

in Highland Park and supplied the need until the strike ended. 

The 19 1 9 version of Lake Forest Day was held on Labor Day 


War and Normalcy, igiy-igig 

and sponsored by the Commercial Association. This was an in- 
novation as most Lake Forest Days had been sponsored by the 
Young Men's Club and held on July 4th. 2,400 bottles of pop 
and 100 gallons of ice cream were consumed. Sports were the 
main feature. There was a baseball game, then a 100-yard dash, 
a 50-yard dash for boys and girls, a 50-yard married ladies race, 
a three-legged race, a mile bicycle race. A trained dog performed. 
There was a Punch and Judy show. Prizes were given to the oldest 
couple on the grounds, to the youngest baby, to the most popular 
boy, to the best woman nail driver. Dinner was served on the 
grounds at reasonable prices. Everybody enjoyed everything. 

When Mayor Henry Rumsey was elected in the spring of 191 9 
he made the following remarks in his speech of acceptance before 
the City Council: "Your mayor has ridden around the town in a 
high two-wheeled cart with a lamplighter when we burned coal- 
oil in our street lamps on nights which were not moonlit accord- 
ing to the calendar. He has helped Miss McLoughlin put up and 
distribute mail in the old post office. He has played baseball with 
our fire chief, but not recently. He has called on the young ladies 
at Ferry Hall with our health officer. He has hidden on the side 
of Green Bay Road watching for automobile speeders. He has run 
onto red-light island on a Saturday night and demolished the 
'Safety First' signal. He has sat at the southwest corner of this 
table. He has been Chairman of the Garbage committee. He is 
now on the Cemetery commission. So, do you wonder, that he 
appreciates the honor which has been conferred upon him by 
being the unopposed candidate for the position of your Mayor?" 
Mayor Rumsey served six years. 

During 19 19 Lake Forest lost two of its leading citizens. Prof. 
John J. Halsey passed away on May 31 and James Anderson on 
July 11. Dr. Halsey had come to Lake Forest in 1878 as a member 
of the faculty of Lake Forest College. For fifty years he served as 
the connecting link between town and gown, between Church 
and Education, cutting across all groups that developed in the 
village. He served as Alderman, President of the Board of Educa- 
tion, member of the first Library Board, President pro tern of Lake 
Forest College, elder in the Presbyterian Church, a mainstay of 
the Art Institute Club, eloquent leader, and a promoter of Lake 



Forest's civic and cultural interests. The Halsey school was named 
after him in 191 2. His greatest monument remains the "History 
of Lake County" which represents an enormous amount of work, 
for he interviewed several thousand people in order to write this 
original work. His dedication to truth, without petty prejudice, 
and without trying to prove something, makes the book a source 
book for local history for many years to come. 

James Anderson was born July 11, 183 1, in the Parish of New 
Deer, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. He arrived in Quebec on May 26, 
1 85 1, after a six weeks' passage by sail. He came to Chicago on 
June 4, 1 85 1, from Quebec, by boat nearly all the way. He 
married May Davis in 1857 and moved to Lake Forest in April 
1859. He became a member of the Presbyterian church and served 
as deacon, trustee, and elder for thirty years. His early work in 
Lake Forest consisted of opening streets, clearing of roads and lots. 
In 1865 he went into general merchandising and continued in this 
business until his last year. He served as Postmaster, City Treas- 
urer, Supervisor of Shields Township for 28 years. He raised a 
large family. By his friendly and humble spirit he made every- 
body his friend. 

The last Memorial Day in which the G.A.R. took part was in 
1920 when the original forty member organization of 1900 had 
dwindled to only four. The service was sponsored by the City of 
Lake Forest, the G.A.R. , and the newly formed American 
Legion. Mayor Rumsey presided. Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg 
Address, the bible of all patriotic speakers, was read. Major Rath- 
bone of Fort Sheridan made a brief address; then taps was 




191 9-1929 

Gradually Lake Forest settled down to normal living and civic 
improvements at war's end. The seemingly insoluble problem 
was that of the city's water supply. The Lake Forest Water Com- 
pany had been formed in 1 890, supplying many homes with water 
from Lake Michigan under pressure provided by steam pumps. 
Many families continued to get their water from private wells. 
However, as the population increased, automobiles multiplied, as 
did the hard surfaced roads, rain-water found its way directly and 
quickly through the sewer system to the lake. The water level 
within the city sub-soil dropped appreciably, rendering many wells 
unproductive; and so more city water was needed. The private 
Water Company was not able to cope with the increased demand 
and the complaints of many citizens. 

Beginning in 1 904 litigation and expense had continued in this 
water controversy. After the election of Mayor Rumsey in April 
1 919, the new Mayor wished to carry out former Mayor Adding- 
ton's suggestion that the city should purchase the waterworks and 
pay for them in certificates issued under the Act of 191 3 with 5% 
interest and constituting a charge against the earnings of the plant 
alone. He wished to complete this project himself before he 
stepped out of office, but the cloak fell upon Mayor Rumsey. The 
plan seemed fair enough; and all stockholders agreed to accept the 



plan, except George S. Holt, the President of the Company, who 
wanted $40,000 cash for his share. 

The controversy was kept very much alive when on May 6, 
1 91 9, due to the failure of electric power, the new electric pumps 
did not function properly and the water lines spewed heavy sedi- 
ment. The newspapers exaggerated and wrote humorous articles 
and headlines. One paper said a new game had been devised in 
Lake Forest. "It consists of drawing a tub of water for a bath, then 
drawing it off and seeing who finds the deepest sediment." It re- 
ported that John T. Pirie, Jr., drew six inches of water for a bath; 
couldn't see the bottom of the tub, and gave up the bath idea in 
disgust. James King, the City Clerk, drew a tubful, drained it off 
and wrote his initials on the sediment. 

The controversy came to a head again in connection with the 
election of Mayor when on April 12, 1 92 1 , the popular vote gave 
the city authority to buy the Water Company and re-elected 
Mayor Henry Rumsey (Regular Party) over his opponent, Van 
Wagenen Ailing (Independent Party). The plan which obtained 
was the payment of $250,000 to the Water Company. It had origi- 
nally cost $384,823. The Independent Party contended that no 
one knew the condition of the pipes underground, after thirty 
years of service, and stressed the idea of depreciation. The Regular 
party stressed the loyalty and generosity of these citizens who had 
furnished the city with 40,000,000 gallons of water per month for 
thirty years, and stressed the idea of replacement. It was said that 
it would cost the city twice as much to build a comparable plant 
by current cost of materials and labor. The clincher may have been 
the testimony of William E. Clow who claimed that cast iron pipes 
should last indefinitely. The Water Company was purchased. 

In 1 9 1 9 the City of Lake Forest received a gift of a stone gate 
for the Cemetery; the donor was Mrs. Finley Barrell, in memory 
of her twenty-four-year-old son who was drowned. 

President Harding's "Normalcy" meant heartache and loss to 
several prominent Lake Forest residents during the first postwar 
business depression of 1921. The story of J. Ogden Armour was 
one of the most distressing. During the war years Mr. Armour had 
built up his meat packing house of Armour and Company into a 
billion dollar a year business. He had also substantial interests in 
the wheat market and in the Milwaukee Railroad, and was known 


Prohibition, 19 19-1929 

as the second richest man in the world. A mild-mannered, quiet 
little man, he aspired to become the richest. 

During the period of post-war trade adjustments, Mr. Armour 
became involved in the purchase of more and more grain, to stem 
the tide of falling prices. As a result he is said to have lost "one 
million dollars per day during 200 days," losing nearly all his for- 
tune, including his beautiful home, Mellody Farms. Mr. Armour 
died in 1927, in London, England, at the age of 64 and his body 
was brought home on the Berengaria in August to be buried in 

The years following the war were difficult times for the police 
department. Five police officers were on the staff: Aubrey Warren 
(special), James Gordon, Albert Hopman, F. Berghorn, and James 
Watt. The increase of the number of automobiles and the increase 
of accidents greatly extended police responsibility. Mayor Rumsey 
expressed his ideas on speed limits in 1919: 6 m.p.h. around cor- 
ners and curves, 10 m.p.h. in the business district, 15 m.p.h. in 
close residential districts, 20 m.p.h. in open residential districts and 
30 m.p.h. on public highways. Sons and daughters of well known 
families were frequently fined for exceeding these limits, some 
repeatedly. It did not occur to anyone that automobile engines 
of those days could not operate smoothly under 1 5 m.p.h., nor was 
it possible to patrol all the circuitous thoroughfares of the fair city 
with four patrolmen even though they were on duty around the 
clock. Car thefts were continually in the police reports and in the 
local newspapers. On May 5, 1920, a Police car was stolen from 
the front of City Hall. This was considered a very humorous inci- 
dent. After two weeks, when no leads had been reported regarding 
the theft, the Police Department purchased a new squad car. 
Then, on June 17, the stolen car was recovered. It had been aban- 
doned in Peru, Indiana. 

In 1923 James Sage was killed in line of duty; Clyde M. 
Spralding had lost his life in 191 5. These have been the only 
casualties of the police department. 

Prohibition was necessitated by the food shortages during 
World War I. After the war, the 18th Amendment of the U.S. 
Constitution was ratified in January 191 9. Many problems arose 
as a result of this amendment, since some did not wish to obey the 
new law as they saw no excuse for it on the basis of shortages of 



grain. In Lake Forest the special headache for the police, resulting 
from prohibition, were the so-called Booze Robberies. Reports in- 
dicated that a syndicate was bringing Canadian whiskey through 
Valparaiso, Indiana, to the Chicago area. A moonshine still was 
located at the south end of Lake Forest, which was operating and 
doing a brisk business. Yeast and raisins became sold out in Lake 
Forest and impossible to buy. The police were confident that the 
stolen automobiles were the work of booze smugglers. 

A great number of houses were broken into. Apparently noth- 
ing was touched except alcoholic beverages. At the C. H. Acherts' 
only bourbon was taken. The police report showed "booze rob- 
beries" every night in a different home between December 1 1 and 
21, 1919. The total loss was estimated over $150,000. On January 
23, 1920, nine ex-convicts were arrested. Several others were 
picked up during the month. Two stills and five distilleries were 
seized in February. In April 1920, three cases were tried in the 
Waukegan courts in three weeks. Juries refused to convict anyone 
stealing liquor even though homes were broken into. They seemed 
to hold the view that it is against the law to possess liquor, there- 
fore they could not convict anyone for stealing it. No more Lake 
Forest "booze cases" were brought before the county courts. It 
went even beyond these particular cases, as there grew in Lake 
Forest a belief that it was impossible to get a judgment in favor 
of any Lake Forest citizen or organization. It was felt that all con- 
troversies should be settled out of court. 

One of the strange prohibition era incidents involved a saintly 
woman, a life-long resident within the shadow of the Lake Forest 
Presbyterian Church. Her funeral service was conducted in Lake 
Forest and she was to be interred in the Forest Home Cemetery 
in Milwaukee. Her coffin was placed in the hearse and the proces- 
sion formed behind. On the way north on Green Bay Road the 
hearse became separated from the rest of the procession and con- 
tinued north at a somewhat faster rate than the rest. In a half hour 
the hearse returned with a police escort, to the procession. The 
police had suspected that the coffin contained liquor and wanted 
permission from the nearest relative to open it. Their suspicion 
was based on the fact that the hearse had been exceeding the 
speed limit and they assumed that the driver himself was under 
the influence at the time. After opening the coffin the hearse 


Prohibition, 1919-1929 

turned north again to the final resting place in Milwaukee. The 
family chuckled over the incident knowing that the deceased 
would have enjoyed the joke herself as she had a good sense of 

In these days of law-breaking tendencies the Lake Forest Police 
department was busy with many and diverse infractions of the 
law. The reports show that people cut trees on properties not their 
own, many articles were lost without a trace, bad checks, robberies 
involving money, jewelry, bicycles, and cars; innumerable acci- 
dents including a car overrun by the Chicago North Shore line; 
family quarrels, drunkenness, street lamps damaged in great num- 
bers, assault and battery, hunting and shooting within the city 
limits, a car damaged by a horse, and several mistaken identity 
cases in which the "culprit" turned out to be a close friend of the 
family. Big-time safe crackers broke into the Lake Forest Laundry 
and did away with $3,100. The robbers were identified through 
fingerprints, but the money was never recovered. The Frank 
Farwell house was shelled. Several shells entered the house, one 
landed on the lawn. It turned out that soldiers at Fort Sheridan 
had been practicing with a one-pounder gun, but were poor marks- 
men. There were red faces at the Fort. All of this indicated the 
need for a much larger police force. This was gradually achieved 
by 1930, when the department numbered twenty officers. 

In 1 921-1922 Leon Bix Beiderbeck attended Lake Forest Acad- 
emy. He showed great talent as a musician, playing jazz arrange- 
ments on the campus. He helped form a dance orchestra composed 
of Academy boys, which played professionally in the Chicago area. 
He became one of the great trumpeters of all time. As a member 
of Paul Whiteman's orchestra he was the idol of many budding 
musicians, including Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong. His reputation 
is firmly established in European countries as the outstanding ex- 
ponent of American jazz. Some of his best known compositions are 
"Davenport Blues," "In a Mist," "Flashes," and "Candlelight." 

On November 9, 1923, a significant zoning ordinance was passed 
which has been a mainstay in regulating the expansion of the city. 
Five zones were described with detailed regulations for each. The 
first zone, east of the Northwestern railroad tracks and generally 



west of a line following Washington Road, required a lot area of 
7,500 square feet. The second zone, from Washington Road to 
the Lake required a lot area of 20,000 square feet. Also a duplex 
area, a retail business area and commercial districts were described, 
each to be governed by special regulations. 

During the 1920's there was a general prejudice in our school 
system against married teachers. The Board of Education passed 
a resolution in 1920: "Resolved that whereas the marriage of a 
woman teacher is inconsistent with the performance of her duties 
in jeopardizing that regularity and continuance of service which 
is essential thereto, now therefore the appointment of a woman 
teacher shall hereafter terminate upon her marriage." This same 
rule was also the practice at Ferry Hall. At the Academy, teachers 
were released at the end of a school year when it was discovered 
that they were married. 

The 1920's were noted for increased interest in sports and ath- 
letics in Lake Forest as well as over the country. George Lott, 
William Tilden and other national tennis champions appeared 
frequently at the Onwentsia Club. Charles Garland won the 
Davis Cup doubles championship at Wimbledon in the early 
twenties. Later in the decade, as an active member of the On- 
wentsia Club, he attracted nationally known tennis players to 
Lake Forest. Edith Cummings of Lake Forest won the U.S.G.A. 
women's championship in 1923, and the following year took the 
Women's Western Amateur title. Samuel T. Chase was a Western 
Golf champion. Robert A. Gardner was a two-time winner (1909, 
191 5) of the amateur golf championship. In an interesting On- 
wentsia exhibition in the early 1920's, "Bob" Gardner, "Bobby" 
Jones, Alexis Sterling, and Edith Cummings performed as hun- 
dreds of spectators followed each shot. 

Shoreacres Club, just south of Great Lakes Naval Training 
Station, was opened for play on July 28, 1921 . The Club had been 
incorporated in 1916, "To promote and encourage boating, swim- 
ming, tennis and such other sports as may be authorized by the 
Board of Directors or Governors." The original Governors were 
Messrs. O. E. Babcock, Hobart Chatfield-Taylor, Stanley Field, 
Frank Hibbard and E. L. Ryerson. Stanley Field was elected 


Prohibition, 19 19-1929 

president. Membership was not to exceed 225. The 191 6 pur- 
chase of land included 89 acres. 

The First World War stopped all progress; but estimates were 
secured in 19 19, and construction began in earnest with revised 
and simplified plans. The property was increased to 150 acres. 
Seth Raynor was secured to design the Golf course, completed in 
August 1922. At the time of completion the full membership of 
225 was achieved. The total cost exceeded $500,000. Two En- 
Tout-Cas tennis courts were added in 1923, as they were also at 
Onwentsia. The Clubhouse, designed by David Adler and lo- 
cated near the edge of the bluff, was finished in 1924. Shoreacres 
has concentrated on golf and has given up entirely the original 
dream of water sports as some of these were available next door 
at the Great Lakes Naval Training Station. 

Knollwood Club was started west of Waukegan Road on the 
site of the Granger Farwell and Dr. Alfred C. Haven farms, in 
1924. Knollwood, the name of the Farwell farm, was adopted for 
the name of the Club. The golf course was designed by Captain 
J. Allison. Thomas E. Wilson was the first president and Samuel 
Insull was a moving spirit in the project. The Club sponsored golf, 
tennis, swimming, and horseback riding with seventy-five miles of 
riding trails available in all directions. 

During the fall, football games at the Academy were popular 
events. Everybody came early enough to park his car on the fifty 
yard line, if possible. They watched the game; and, later in the 
decade, at the same time listened to a college game by the new 
car radios. There was no admission charge. Some of the best col- 
lege freshman teams played against the Academy teams coached 
by Ralph Jones, who left the Academy to become the first coach 
of the professional Chicago Bears. 

One memorable game was played against the Notre Dame 
Freshmen, who were defeated 22-0. This was on October 15, 
1 92 1. The Notre Dame team was known the following year for 
the famous backfield "The Four Horsemen," so called by Grant- 
land Rice, the New York sports writer. This team included Cap- 
tain Jim Crowley, left half, Elmer Layden, fullback, Don Miller, 
right half, and Harry Stuhldreher, the greatest quarterback of all 
time according to Knute Rockne, the famous Notre Dame coach. 

The Academy team composed of Allen, Coleman, Ferguson, 


Flues, Frump, Hastings, Howe, Kidd, Lipe, Pattison, Pearce, 
Perkins, Rohrback, Straight, Welge, and Whitehill put on a great 
exhibition of blocking, running, and tackling. Notre Dame seemed 
much less coordinated. The visiting stars were Vergara, guard, and 
Crowley, half back. Whitehill, Perkins and Coleman scored the 
touchdowns for the Academy. 

Fret, a Notre Dame guard, was given permission to go home. He 
cut across the 30-yard line with his suitcase which fell apart in the 
middle of the field and the game had to be stopped till he had 
gathered up his belongings. Engright, a fullback was also told to 
go home, since an easy game was anticipated; but when the sub- 
stitute fullback Rex got hurt, Engright was brought back from the 
station and entered the game half dressed. To cap the confusion, 
when the Notre Dame team took the train for Chicago, they sud- 
denly noticed with apprehension that the train was proceeding on 
the left track. Nothing went right that afternoon for "The Four 

The first parcel of land for the Deerpath Municipal Golf 
Course was received by Mayor Rumsey, from A. B. Dick, in the 
fall of 1922. It consisted of seventy acres. John Griffith then added 
44 lots. Mayor Rumsey and James Gordon then added other prop- 
erties. Property owners on the western edge of Green Bay Road 
made additional gifts of land. These donors included Walter S. 
Brewster, William E. Clow, Thomas E. Donnelley, Owen Jones 
and Noble Judah. Several acres were bought by the syndicate to 
round out the golf course property. The only restrictions were 
that the course would be used for park purposes only and that no 
trap-shooting would occur on it, and if it ever should cease to 
function as a park or a public benefit, it should revert to the donors 
of the property. Mayor Rumsey was interested in the project as a 
community effort for the benefit of all. 

The Deerpath Syndicate comprised contributors of $1,000 or 
more toward this project. The list included P. D. Armour III, 
Lester Armour, B. L. Behr, Walter S. Brewster, Edward F. Carry, 
Joseph M. Cudahy, Alfred T. Carton, Miss Helen Culver, David 
Dangler, J. V. Farwell, Jr., C. N. Goodwin, Byron H. Harvey, 
E. A. Hamill, Thomas D. Jones, William V. Kelley, Robert P. 
Lamont, Clifford M. Leonard, H. H. Martin, Cyrus H. Mc- 
Cormick, George A. McKinlock, Mrs. Edith Rockefeller Mc- 


Prohibition, 1919-1919 

Cormick, Mark Morton, Donald R. McLennan, Henry A. Rum- 
sey, Edmund A. Russell, Charles H. Schweppe (Secretary and 
Treasurer), Mrs. Charles H. Schweppe, Franklin P. Smith, Mrs. 
Byron L. Smith, Oliver T. Wilson, and Thomas E. Wilson. 

Other gifts were received from G. M. Collins, The American 
Realty Company, The American Legion, the Horticultural So- 
ciety, and the Lake Forest Garden Club. Alex Binnie, an expert 
gardener, donated one green and assumed the responsibility for 
several others. 

The 18-hole course was laid out by Alex Pirie of Old Elm. The 
first nine holes were opened on August 21, 1926, by Mayor Henry 
A. Rumsey, who made a short dedicatory speech. The remaining 
nine holes were finished the following year, when Alex Pirie (Old 
Elm) and Phil Gandin (Skokie), played against Willie Hunter 
(Onwentsia) and Austere Claeyssens (Glen Flora) in an exhibi- 
tion match. The first committee in charge of the course included 
John Griffith, C. T. Gunn, Carl L. Krafft and Frank W. Read. 
Resident membership was $18.00 a year. Terry McGovern was 
the first Deerpath professional, 1 937-1 941. He was followed by 
Charles Nordberg, Robert Ledger, Harry Peddle and William 
Cascarano, the incumbent, who has served since 1951. 

A spectacular fire occurred on Sunday May 23, 1924, when 
the Volney Foster home, on the corner of Washington and Rose- 
mary burned, in part, with damage estimated at $50,000. This 
was the original Granger Farwell house which had been moved 
from Sheridan Road to Washington Road in 191 5, blocking Rose- 
mary in the process for six months. A great crowd from all over 
town gathered to help or be entertained. Fire departments from 
Glencoe and North Chicago arrived. The heat could be felt far 
beyond the street. Crowds of people salvaged furniture. Mirrors 
and chairs were thrown out windows, while pillows were gingerly 
carried down to safety. In the center of the crowd on the lawn was 
Libby Chase with her pet bear. Contents of the basement were 
carried out and away by the visiting firemen. The top floor was 
completely burned out, the second floor was partially destroyed, 
the first floor was ruined by water. 

Several Lake Forest weddings in the 1 920's were lavish and ac- 



cented with unique features. Sarah Brewster Hodges was whisked 
off from her father's garden in her bridegroom's private plane. 
Claire Childs and Lloyd Laflin departed in a shower of rice over 
their horse-drawn sleigh one snowy afternoon. When Daisiana 
Smith married John Pirie on a warm October day, in her family's 
garden, ushers and bridesmaids proceeded from the house down 
to a terrace and across a bridge over the swimming pool, to a foun- 
tain surrounded by an iron filigree arbor covered with purple clus- 
ters of grapes. Because the orchestra was stationed far back by the 
pool and could not see what was going on during the service, one 
member was stationed along the way to give the signal for the 
recessional. On his knees, he peered through a mass of legs and 
missed the proper moment for the recessional to begin. The recep- 
tion was held under a large tree hung with Spanish moss, trans- 
ported from Florida for the occasion. Another impressive outdoor 
wedding was Ellen Thorne Smith's on the lawn of her grand- 
mother's home, Mrs. George R. Thorne. A three-course dinner 
was served, after the ceremony, at tables under the trees. This was 
customary at many weddings in the twenties. 

The Prince of Wales (Edward VIII) visited Lake Forest on a 
beautiful Monday morning, on October 17, 1924. A large crowd 
of curious had gathered at the station from miles around for a 
glimpse of the popular World War I figure. He came as a guest 
of Louis F. Swift, to show the appreciation of the British govern- 
ment for the enormous quantities of meat products sent to the 
British Empire throughout the war by the Chicago Stock Yards. 

At 8:20 the special train came to a screeching halt: a North- 
western locomotive with eight Canadian National coaches. There 
was cheering and handclapping as the English Prince appeared on 
the rear platform, where he was greeted by his host. He was ac- 
companied by Brigadier General Cotter and Major Metcalf of the 
British Army, Captain Allen Lascelles, brother-in-law of Princess 
Mary, Sir Walter Peacock and Inspector Burt of Scotland Yard, 
and two Americans, Major Oscar Solbert of the U.S. Army and 
Mr. Oliver Sawyer of the State Department, representing Presi- 
dent Calvin Coolidge. 

The Prince got into Louis Swift's limousine looking shy and 
bored. The rest of the party got into three Buicks driven by George 


Prohibition, 1 919-1929 

Wenban, Henry Rose, and Maurice Fitzgerald. There was a brief 
conducted tour of a few Lake Forest streets. The party stopped in 
front of Ferry Hall, a special interest of Mr. Swift, where the stu- 
dents had gathered on the porch to greet the Prince. The party 
lingered long enough to hear the singing of "Prince of Wales, we 
are true to you," then moved on to the Swift estate on Green Bay 

Breakfast was served soon after 8:30 with Countess Minotto, 
daughter of Louis Swift, as hostess. The Prince seemed worn 
out with the thought of the day ahead and asked plaintively 
about the proposed visit to the Chicago Stock Yards: "Will there 
be much killing?" "Oh yes," was the reply, "A great deal— in your 
honor!" After breakfast the Prince viewed the Swift property and 
greenhouses and departed by automobile for his Stock Yards ap- 
pointment by 10:30. 

Peter Kelley, local blacksmith, had a special interest in this 
royal visit. Several years previously he had served as a guard at the 
coronation of King George V, and at the christening of the Prince. 
It should also be mentioned that the Prince's future wife was 
living in Lake Forest on Oakwood Avenue at the time, the wife 
of a Great Lakes naval officer. 

Another state visit was made on June 25, 1926, when Crown 
Prince Gustavus Adolphus and Princess Louise of Sweden came 
to Lake Forest as guests of Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Schweppe 
of Mayflower Road. The Princess, the former Lady Louise Mount- 
batten, was a great granddaughter of Queen Victoria of England, 
and a daughter of Prince Louis of Battenberg and Princess Vic- 
toria of Hesse. 

The party arrived at Great Lakes by motor yacht from Chicago 
and made a tour of the Naval Station. It was a rainy day. They 
were then entertained at the Onwentsia Club where the Prince 
played golf. At the Schweppes', a large reception was held in the 

The gate of the Schweppe grounds was gaily decorated with 
American and Swedish flags; yellow roses and larkspur carried out 
the Swedish national colors everywhere. Thousands of electric 
light bulbs illumined the grounds. The Princess was dressed sim- 
ply for the occasion. Among those present at dinner that evening 
were Cyrus Hall McCormick, Edward T. Blair, the John G. 



Shedds, the Kersey Coates Reids, the John J. Mitchells, the 
Samuel Insulls, the Swedish Consul in Chicago, Carol and Mrs. 
de Dardel, also the Hon. Bostron, Swedish Minister to the United 

Ruth Page, premiere danseuse of the Chicago Opera Company, 
danced on a little pavilion close to the terrace balustrade, with lights 
playing on her and her leading man, the gray lake for a background, 
and a huge moon, sailing in and through threatening clouds. It was 
an exquisite sight, and one that the Prince and Princess enjoyed. 

A dance pavilion east of the house, overlooking the lake, was 
covered with a green and white marquee, lending a picturesque 
effect to the grounds. Over 300 guests attended the dance, for 
which three orchestras played inside and out. 

On the return trip to Chicago the Prince and Princess were 
entertained by Vice President and Mrs. Charles G. Dawes in their 
Evanston home. In Chicago a luncheon was held at the home of 
the Swedish Consul, Carol O. de Dardel, and a reception at the 
Casino Club given by the Hon. and Mrs. Ira Nelson Morris, 
followed by a banquet at the Palmer House. 

Perhaps the Princess enjoyed most of all the trip to Marshall 
Field's escorted by Mrs. Schweppe, whose father, John G. Shedd, 
was president of the firm for many years. Here the Princess ad- 
mired a Tiffany desk and dressing table, which were soon packed 
to accompany the Prince and Princess on their return trip to 
Sweden. The Princess' parting words were: It was "a delightful 

In the annals of Lake Forest education, 1925 was an important 
year. The Academy, Ferry Hall, and the College had been char- 
tered originally as Lind University, in 1857, then as Lake Forest 
University, in 1865. For sixty-eight years there had been only 
one Board of Trustees presiding over whatever institutions were 
embraced by the University. The finances of these institutions had 
been pooled, so that the profits from one went to make up the 
deficits of another. During World War I the College enrollment 
had naturally suffered, whereas the Academy and Ferry Hall had 
had prosperous years. The juggling of finances became an emo- 
tional instead of a financial problem. 


Prohibition, 1919-1929 

Mr. Clayton Mark, president of the Board of Trustees of Lake 
Forest University in 1925, acquired the impossible task of legally 
separating the three institutions, at the same time keeping each 
organization happy. Each institution was therefore chartered sepa- 
rately with the provision that the College was to receive $200,000 
from each of the two other institutions, over a period of twenty 
years. Mr. Mark thought the plan was a fair decision, and suited 
to the best interests of all three institutions. The plan and its ex- 
ecution became a source of irritation and strife during the depres- 
sion years through the 1930's. However, Mr. Mark's plan has 
proved its wisdom and each institution enjoys its present inde- 

On November 13, 1926, Lake Forest College observed the 50th 
anniversary of the matriculation of the first class of Lake Forest 
College. Anna Farwell De Koven, a member of the original class 
arrived from Florence, Italy, and received an honorary degree. 

Also in 1926, the League of Women Voters of Lake Forest was 
started under the aegis of Mrs. Frank Hixon who has continued 
active as the League has grown in membership and in importance 
as an integral part of the city. In i960, the League received the 
World Understanding award from the Chicago Council on For- 
eign Relations for its work on foreign policy within its own mem- 
bership, and within the community as well. 

In the twenties business houses had to make adjustments and 
changes. The Post Office now occupied space in Market Square. 
New businesses and names appeared in the marketplace. Joe 
O'Neill built a new hardware store on Westminster, since his store 
had been destroyed to make room for Market Square. The new 
O'Neill store contained a movie house, The De Luxe Theater, 
which became a very popular spot. At first Joseph O'Neill man- 
aged the theatre and attempted to introduce Sunday movies with 
"clean, quiet, educating amusement." It was later operated 
by Vincent Quarta. Here William S. Hart played in "The Silent 
Man," Billie Burke starred in "The Land of Promise," and "East 
Lynne" was featured in 1921. 

Based on an Illinois statute of 1889, Green Bay Road was de- 
clared a "pleasure driveway" in 1 925 by a city ordinance, making 
it illegal to operate burden carrying vehicles on that road. 



Following a series of petitions signed by several hundred Lake 
Forest residents, a special city election was held on May 1 1, 1926, 
at the headquarters of the American Legion on Forest Avenue, 
for the purpose of voting whether to annex the area west of the 
Skokie to the City of Lake Forest. The area under consideration 
comprised about ten square miles of territory. 302 votes were cast 
for annexation, 5 against. This was the largest area ever added to 
the City of Lake Forest during the first hundred years. 

The Deerpath Theatre and other adjoining units were planned 
in 1926 and finished in 1928 on Deer Path between Western 
Avenue and Bank Lane. Joseph C. Emma, a friend of the famous 
movie actor Rudolph Valentino, has been the manager almost 
continuously. Before coming to Lake Forest, Mr. Emma had di- 
rected a successful silent picture in Hollywood, The Iron Horse. 
Mrs. Emma ran a successful dancing school for several years. 
Their daughter, Rosemary, is a well-known musical comedy and 
television actress, under the name of Joan Taylor. 

Until 1927 the center of Lake Forest was determined by the 
intersection of Deer Path and the Northwestern Railroad tracks, 
and street addresses were numbered accordingly. The present 
numbering system, established in March, 1927, is based nearer 
the actual center of the expanded City of Lake Forest. The north- 
south zero line is along south Ridge Road northward through the 
Deer Path School. The east-west line corresponds with the south 
line of Shields Township. The center of town is brought to an 
imaginary point near the Onwentsia Club stables. In October of 
the same year a city ordinance changed twenty-nine more street 
names. The greatest achievement was in changing Jessamine Road 
to Westleigh Road. The Deerpath Golf Club was named in April 
of that year. At this time the city reported 69 miles of paved streets 
in Lake Forest. 

Also in 1 927, Vilasco Chandler, the only living member of the 
first graduating class of Lake Forest Academy in 1 86 1 attended the 
June Commencement. 

In the 1920^ several accidents occurred at the railroad inter- 
section at Deer Path. Drivers and pedestrians were often confused 
by the left hand drive of the Northwestern; and often when one 
train went by they did not anticipate another from the opposite 
direction. After several tragedies, the railroad company was pre- 


Prohibition, 19 19— 1929 

vailed upon to install a gate-house and a gate-keeper who held a 
stop sign until the train or trains had passed. In January 1927, 
Henry F. Williams became the gate-keeper. He was a long-time 
Lake Forester who had herded cows in the 1880's as a young boy. 
He served for twenty years as a gate-keeper until automatic elec- 
tric signals were installed in 1946. The older generations remem- 
ber him as a jovial conversationalist and friendly protector of 
children and pet dogs. 

Cyrus H. Adams, President of the Onwentsia Club, announced 
plans for a new clubhouse in May 1927, a $500,000 structure. 
The architect, Swedish-born Harris T. Lindeberg, finished the 
building in 1928. The building committee included James O. 
Heyworth, Albert B. Dick, Jr., William E. Clow, Jr., and Farwell 

Through the many changes and improvements in Lake Forest, 
it seemed that the unifying spirit fostered by the war effort had 
dwindled and would have suffered except for a strong program 
afforded by the Young Women's Christian Association. In the 
hospitable rooms over the First National Bank and the Public 
Service Company, now the Marshall Field building, men and 
women joined with young people at annual dinners when club 
groups gave presentations of their activities and all listened to 
some outstanding speaker. Often the Kiwanis Club was present 
lending their collective voices to community singing. 

Another unifying influence was the series of baseball games be- 
tween the Eight o'clock young Chicago business men and the 
Market Square team, town boys who held local jobs. Everyone 
enjoyed these games, especially when former Mayor Henry A. 
Rumsey, President of the Chicago Board of Trade, was the 

Added to the activities of the country clubs, many Lake For- 
esters were busy with garden weddings, beach parties, baseball 
games on the lawn, and for those recently out of college, the an- 
nual Barn Dance held at the "Gus" Carpenter's Garage. At these 
Barn Dances the high point was a surprise entertainment written 
and directed by Louis E. Laflin, Jr. From a modest beginning of 
barber-shop singing, the entertainment developed into operettas 
that were repeated in Chicago at the new Goodman Theatre for 
the Fortnightly Club. La lllinoisa was a take-off of grand opera 



and the rivalry between Chicago and Ravinia Park, and the Young 
Marrieds was a parody on life in the suburbs. 

Opera was in the forefront of Chicago's cultural life during the 
twenties. One of the most glittering moments was the appearance 
of Queen Marie of Roumania at a gala performance of Aida in the 
old Chicago Auditorium. For many Lake Forest people, opera was 
at its best at Ravinia, where great artists from New York's Metro- 
politan performed shortened versions of the favorite works of 
Verdi, Gounod, Wagner and others in the open-air pavilion. No 
one who heard him that night will ever forget the voice of Marti- 
nelli soaring out into the darkness as he continued his aria without 
benefit of lights or orchestral accompaniment, due to a momentary 
electrical storm. 

Those were days when celebrities were lionized in Lake Forest 
homes. James Stephens, the Irish poet, gave readings one evening 
at the newly completed home of the Robert P. Lamonts on Ridge 
Road. Donald Ogden Stuart gave a hilarious lecture at the Louis 
E. Laflin home on "Having a book," as if it were a baby. The 
Samuel Insulls opened their Libertyville home to winter skating 
parties, with nearly all the guests coming from Lake Forest. 
Samuel Insull, Jr., appeared in Tyrolean costume and boasted of 
the electrical power created for the new Skokie line, power which 
could melt any possible glacier, even the north pole, and could 
prevent a future ice age. There was great confidence in those days 
and the word impossible became an archaic word in the dic- 

When Samuel Insull's electric trolley cars to Chicago, known 
as the Skokie line, was just finished, it carried endless trains 
packed with pilgrims and delegates to the Eucharistic Congress 
held at the newly finished St. Mary's on the Lake at nearby 
Mundelein. Three horse riders, Count Tolstoi, Janet Chase, and 
Mrs. Lowell Chapin, celebrated the occasion in Crusader style by 
attending Mass while mounted. 

That same summer of 1926 saw the last cavalry horse show at 
Fort Sheridan, when officers daringly jumped through hoops of 
fire. At the Onwentsia, polo was still being played and the most 
dangerous riding of all took place there in October, during the 
International Steeple Chase. Onwentsia was well established as a 
mecca for the most daring sports. 


Prohibition, 1919-1929 

Throughout the twenties the Library had too many books and 
too many users. Space on the second floor of the City Hall could 
not cope adequately with the growing demand. Everyone sug- 
gested an "angel." Alfred Hamill, then Horace Martin, Presidents 
of the Library Board, worked hard to improve the facilities and 
provide efficient service. 

The decade of the twenties started with a population of 3,600 
and ended with 6,500, nearly doubling in ten years. In the interim, 
people had suffered a severe reaction after the brief shock of the 
year and seven months of war. It was hard to realize that Lake 
Forest was no longer a friendly small town. Diverse interests sepa- 
rated the town into many cliques. Perhaps the city, for the time, 
had grown too rapidly. Now intricate social relationships with a 
certain rigidity became apparent to all. Existing institutions no 
longer cut across all peoples as formerly. New families living in 
or near Lake Forest had no special interest in the educational in- 
stitutions, nor did the churches afford them any knowledge of the 
interests or problems of a cross section of the town. More and more, 
the private clubs seemed to offer all that many families wanted. 

There was still a core of old timers who valued Lake Forest's 
private institutions. The McCormicks were one of these. Cyrus 
McCormick said that he was especially proud to serve as a trustee 
of Ferry Hall and Lake Forest Academy. With the increased en- 
rollment during the war and post-war years in these institutions, 
additional facilities were indicated. It was deemed that Ferry Hall 
should receive the next substantial gift; so a gift of Mrs. Cyrus 
McCormick made two new dormitories possible in 1928. These 
have remained the distinctive landmarks of the institution. 

That year a syndicate of 26 Chicago executives, headed by 
Samuel Insull, the English born public utilities czar and former 
secretary to inventor Thomas Alva Edison, bought Mellody Farms, 
for a reported $2,500,000, to convert it into an Aviation Golf Club. 
He completed an eighteen hole golf course, and laid out an air- 
port. He expanded the house by the addition of a sizable wing for 
a locker room. On October 29, 1929, workmen left the half- 
finished interior of the locker building, never to return to finish 
the project. The business depression of 1929 had begun. 




i 930-1 94 i 

By 1930 Al Capone was an international figure. He drove around 
in an armored car and was accompanied by a bodyguard of eigh- 
teen men. Applying the methods of big business to organized law- 
breaking, he was said to control the distribution of liquor over 
the entire country. His and other gangs were involved in rackets. 
Labor unions were taken over, illicit businesses mushroomed, in- 
volving cleaning and dyeing associations, window-washing associa- 
tions, wholesale florists and others. Even Europeans linked Chi- 
cago with gangsterism. 

As the rolls of the unemployed increased from one million in 
1929 to thirteen million by 1933, there were reports of bank- 
ruptcy, losses of fortunes, and suicides. Reports of violence oc- 
curred in the daily press, and several families in Lake Forest were 
under threats of kidnapping. Some families even moved away in 
order to be able to escape the cloud of threats and fear. Others 
suffered the constant tortures of having their every move super- 
vised by the police and plainclothesmen. One teen-age boy in 
Lake Forest could not go out at all until he called the Police De- 
partment and was escorted in a squad car with an officer on each 
side, even to buy a chocolate bar uptown. 

Another new phenomenon appeared at this time. Families 
moved into homes for brief stays; after which pictures and articles 


The New Deal, 1930-194 1 

in the Chicago newspapers gave accounts of fabulously elaborate 
weddings and parties. Residents were often amazed to read such 
accounts, as nobody knew the families existed. This reputation 
made Lake Forest a special target of lawlessness, pointing to an 
expanded police department. 

In the 1 930^ Frank Tiffany was Chief of Police. During his 
regime, the first two-way radio police communication in the coun- 
try was established, the department was enlarged, and by 1937, 
eight hour shifts became the rule. Bullet-proof glass was installed 
in the police headquarters. During the same period, the base of 
tax assessment dropped from a $60,000,000 figure to $10,000,000, 
making it difficult to operate the various city departments. The 
police now underwent more rigid training, involving fingerprint- 
ing, photographing, use of arms, first aid, and other services. Some 
of this training was under the supervision of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation. 

November 22, 1931, was a rainy night. The William Mitchells 
of Rosemary Road were having a small party for a few friends 
when two gunmen appeared at the cottage of "Bill" Matheson, 
the Mitchell's chauffeur, at 10:30 p.m. The Mathesons, and 
Arthur Metzger and the night watchman, were corralled by three 
gunmen, who marched them into the main house where the party 
was in progress, and a holdup was announced to all assembled. 

At first the guests thought it might be a big joke, a special en- 
tertainment for the evening, but soon all were on their knees 
against the wall, as they were ordered. The guests were Mrs. E. A. 
Cudahy, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Leslie Wheeler, Mr. and Mrs. Mc- 
Cormick Blair, all of Lake Forest, also Mrs. Louise DeKoven 
Bowen Phelps of Chicago, and Mr. Ralph J. Hines of Evanston. 

In a few minutes four servants were also brought into the living 
room: the butler, a nurse, the cook and a maid. Amid threats, cash 
was removed from the men's pockets and placed on the table. 
Then the women surrendered their jewelry, which was also de- 
posited on the same table. During this collection "Bill" Matheson 
slipped quietly out the door, unnoticed, as one of the gunmen 
who was supposed to cover him, became overly interested in the 
jewelry on the table. Matheson went to Mrs. Mitchell's bedroom 
and to the telephone. He got Sergeant Frank Whalen on the wire 
and whispered: "There's a holdup at Mitchell's." The Sergeant 



couldn't understand the message, but the operator cut in and re- 
layed it. Matheson crawled under the bed. 

The gang leader opened the bedroom door and entered with 
Mrs. Mitchell to search for the rest of her jewels while a radio 
patrol car was speeding toward the Mitchell house. The leader 
searched the room for the missing chauffeur, but was too fat to 
bend over and peek under the bed where Bill Matheson lay. 

Soon there was a knock at the front door, interrupting the search 
for the chauffeur. The butler was ordered to open the door when 
Policeman Earl Dunn walked in. 

The leader now scooped all the jewels and the money from the 
table and announced: "Come on, we gotta scram." Dunn fired 
after them. Policeman Peter Jackson got out of the squad car and 
joined in the firing. The gunmen fled in all directions into the 
woods and ravines. The entire north shore, Chicago, Milwaukee 
area was immediately alerted by police radio. Next day two over- 
coats found on the Mitchell property yielded all but two of the 
stolen jewels. 

The first capture was made at 4:30 next morning in Highland 
Park. Later in the day two more of the thieves were captured and 
identified. Three nights later the fourth was captured. In July 
1934, the last and leader of the gang was picked up in a Chicago 
rooming house. He had escaped to another city, but had made the 
mistake of returning to Chicago. 

Bill Matheson and Earl Dunn became the town heroes. 

In 1 93 1 the First National Bank of Lake Forest moved for the 
third time, to the new building especially built for the Bank, on 
the corner of Deer Path and Bank Lane. Stanley Anderson was the 
architect. Two years passed. Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugu- 
rated as President of the United States on March 4, 1933. His 
official first act, upon assuming office, was to declare a bank holi- 
day, or moratorium, closing all the banks in the country, including 
the First National Bank of Lake Forest, until they could be ex- 
amined and the soundness of each could be determined. Fortu- 
nately, the First National Bank of Lake Forest had just been 
examined in February, only a few days before the President's 
order. Congress then passed a series of banking laws at a special 
session beginning on March 9. 


The New Deal, 1930-1941 

City Clerk A. Duane Jackman wrote in his diary: 

An arm of steel shot out from the White House and closed every 
bank in the country except one. A small bank in the remote regions 
of Kentucky never heard of the order closing all banks and conse- 
quently never closed. People are depending on the government for all 
and ceasing to do aught for themselves. A levelling process continues. 
The weak and inefficient are exalted, the strong and able are brought 

For ten days, the staff of the Lake Forest Bank gathered merely 
to: "look at each other," not knowing what else to do. On March 
13, the large Chicago banks opened their doors. The next day the 
Lake Forest bank received a telegram from Washington author- 
izing it to open immediately, unrestricted, indicating that the 
Treasury Department considered this bank thoroughly sound. It 
was one of three banks in the Chicago area to receive the word 
Unrestricted. Two of the three were operated by Lake Foresters, 
the second being the Northern Trust Company of Chicago, with 
Solomon A. Smith as President. The Lake Forest Bank opened its 
doors on the 15th. 

The First National Bank of Lake Forest has grown to be the 
largest bank in the county, priding itself on personalized service, 
and a clientele which receives monthly statements in all parts of 
the world. Great credit is due to Frank W. Read, President at the 
time, and an officer for forty years, and to Vice-President Philip L. 
Speidel, who have understood the needs of the community and 
rendered the necessary services. During World War II banking 
services were extended to the Great Lakes Naval Training Center, 
where a large volume of business was carried on by five full-time 
Lake Forest bank officials. This service has been a continuing one. 

That Lake Forest had outgrown its Library facilities was obvious 
to all after World War I. It continued in the cramped quarters in 
the City Hall for another dozen years, when the city received a 
generous gift of $250,000 for a municipal library, in 1931. It was 
given by Mrs. Charles H. Schweppe and her sister, Mrs. Stanley 
Keith, daughters of the late John G. Shedd, President of Marshall 
Field & Company, in memory of Mrs. Keith's first husband, Kersey 
Coates Reed. The city bought the property on Deer Path just east 



of the railroad tracks, and landscaped it beautifully. The building 
was designed by Edwin H. Clark of Chicago, in a modernized 
Georgian style with imported Holland brick and Bedford lime- 
stone trim. The dome has a lead roof. The murals were painted 
by the Russian artist, Alexander Remisoff. It received the 1931 
architectural award of the Craftsmanship Club of Chicago. 

The Library was moved on June 1 , 1 93 1 , from City Hall to its 
new home with 37,000 volumes which had been collected under 
two presidents of the Library Board, Horace Martin and Alfred 
Hamill. Today it contains nearly 60,000 volumes, and reports an 
annual circulation of 85,000 volumes. A formal opening occurred 
on June 7, with 2,000 guests examining the new building. Miss 
Nell Steele served as Librarian from 1945 to 1962. 

The economic instability of the period was evident in Lake Forest. 
Some manufacturers put new products on the market to stimulate 
sales. The sudden influx to Lake Forest of oil burners occurred in 
1932 when in February alone forty-six permits for fuel tanks were 
issued. Everyone was urged to convert from coal and shovel to 
automatic oil heat. An attempt was made to balance budgets by 
means of a general reduction in the salaries of city employees and 
public and private faculties and maintenance forces. Among citi- 
zens as a whole, many who were wealthy suddenly had little. A 
very few who had little, found themselves much better off. 

Another public building constructed in this period was the 
Post Office, begun in 1932. This was the first government-owned 
Post Office building in Lake Forest. The new structure was in 
keeping with the Market Square development and cost $60,000. 
The architects were Ralph Milman and A. S. Morphett. Walter 
Smith was the first Postmaster in the new building which was 
completed in 1933. Since that date, Albert G. Lucas and Leroy 
Moore have been the only other Postmasters. The latter has served 
since March 1952, weathering probably the greatest changes in 
Post Office procedure since the origin of the postal service. 

The unusual problems confronting this organization have 
stemmed essentially from the fact that Lake Forest occupies an 
area of 15.2 square miles with a population of 10,658 as of i960. 
It began with 3.25 square miles at the time of the city charter in 
1 86 1. The department was strained to the utmost when nine 


The New Deal, 1 930-1 9 41 

square miles were added to Lake Forest in May, 1926, containing 
no sidewalks or street lights and without homes built close enough 
to one another to qualify for foot routes. Today the Lake Forest 
Post Office delivers mail even outside of the city limits. The result 
has been a maze of foot and motor routes, the latter an outgrowth 
of rural delivery. 

Prior to 1933, when the Post Office was in the present location 
of Helander's, three clerks were employed. Today there are ten 
clerks and four substitutes, eleven regular carriers and five sub- 
stitutes. The department began with only one employee in July 
1859, Samuel Fisher Miller, the Principal of Lake Forest Acad- 
emy. He was followed by Luther Rossiter in 1861, Joel H. Hul- 
bert in 1865, William M. Loughlin in 1866, Francis N. Pratt in 
1869, and Gilbert Rossiter in 1875. When in 1879 the office was 
made a presidential appointment, Miss Mary McLaughlin became 
the first appointee. All these early postmasters operated a one-man 
post office with occasional and often volunteer help. Today there 
are thirty-two regular employees. 

Helicopter service was instituted on October 1, 1946, when 
Postmaster Lucas decided to receive and dispatch mail by this 
method. The service has continued. Until around 1950 all out- 
of-town mail was transported by rail. Today it is carried by truck. 
Chicago was the clearing house for this service; today it is routed 
through Desplaines. New York was the point of departure for 
European mail service; today New Orleans has become equally 
important. The 1 960 gross revenues of the department were $207,- 
990.75, very substantial, considering that Lake Forest is a resi- 
dential suburb without industry. Industrial towns such as North 
Chicago frequently handle five times this volume without having 
to cope with the distances and other perplexing conditions which 
obtain here. 

Several important events marked 1933. After leaving Lake Forest 
and the Great Lakes Naval Training Center, Captain W. A. Mof- 
fett was appointed the first Chief of the newly organized Bureau 
of Aeronautics, and commissioned Rear Admiral. In this capacity 
Admiral MofFett had the longest term of service of any Chief of 
this Bureau. On the night of April 3-4, 1933, he was on board the 
dirigible Akron when at 2:30 a.m., the telephone rang at the 



Washington home of the Moffetts. It was the Navy Department 
saying: "The Akron has just crashed. Will you notify the Ad- 

Mrs. Moffett replied: "The Admiral is on the Akron" 
Admiral Moffett, together with 71 others, lost his life in the 
greatest air disaster up to that date. The Akron went down about 
20 miles southeast of Barnegat Inlet Light, 1 5 miles from shore, 
off the coast of New Jersey. In reconstructing the log of the Akron 
one writer has pointed out that the course of the Akron was 
"changed nine times during this last flight, and if any one change 
had been different, the ship might not have met disaster." 

In 1933 the Century of Progress Exposition opened in Chicago 
on May 27 attracting many Lake Foresters and thousands of visi- 
tors from all over the country to its Hall of Science, its Belgian 
and a dozen other villages, its Midway, and its sports arenas, as did 
the World's Fair in 1893. All types of dining facilities were of- 
fered by the finest staffs of the downtown hotels and restaurants. 
The Columbian Exposition in 1893 covered 666 acres. This Fair 
covered only 424 acres and extended 3V2 miles from 12th to 36th 
Streets along the lake front. 

Though many disliked the angular architecture of the Fair 
with its flamboyant colors, all were thrilled by the thought that a 
signal from the distant star Arcturus automatically turned on the 
lights on the exposition grounds each evening. A Sky Ride be- 
tween two steel towers, each 628 feet high, gave an excellent view 
of the whole fair grounds. Other transportation was by rickshaw 
or motorized wheel chairs. There was a replica of old Fort Dear- 
born; and Admiral Richard E. Byrd's south pole ship, the City of 
New York, lay at anchor for all to see. Italy's air armada under 
General Italo Balbo arrived over the Fair on July 1 5th after a mass 
flight across the Atlantic. 

All types of modern design in architecture were displayed. The 
Dymaxion house, circular and all glass, could be revolved on a 
turntable so that any desired room could face the sun. The inside 
arrangements of rooms was capable of rearrangement so that 
rooms could be enlarged quickly or made smaller to suit the oc- 
casion. The tendency of the architecture displayed was to jar the 
people of the Mid- West from their static and conventional ideas 


The New Deal, 1930-1941 

toward the daring and trie practical. There were industrial build- 
ings with complete exhibits in assembly line techniques for vari- 
ous products. 

One of the unusual exhibits was the Dymaxion car, which was 
years ahead of the market in its promoting of the engine at the 
rear of the car, its doing away with the conventional transmission 
system, and eliminating the system of muffler, resonator and pipe, 
as well as the possibility of exhaust fumes inside the car. All this 
permitted much more room for passengers and made it possible to 
have movable seats. Its three wheels were less practical than the 
conventional four. Leland Atwood of the Lake Forest Academy 
faculty and Buckminster Fuller were the designers of the Dy- 
maxion car. 

Entertainment at the Fair included the daring fan and balloon 
dancing of Sally Rand at one extreme, and the presentation of 
Shakespearean plays by well-known British professionals at the 
other. The latter plays were presented in a replica of London's 
ancient Globe Theatre. Wings of a Century was a pageant de- 
picting the progress of transportation from the pioneer to the 
aviator. It was a thrilling outdoor event, which large crowds 
watched with the blue waters of Lake Michigan for a backdrop. 
Chicago's own Helen Tieken was the inspired director. There 
were also exhibitions of all types of sports, including aquatics 
and skating. To many, The Chicago Symphony Orchestra's daily 
outdoor concerts, during the afternoon and evening, were the 
highlights of the entire Fair. These were led by some of the great 
conductors of the day: Eric de Lamarter, Frederick Stock, and 

The Fair was so successful it was revived in 1934, the following 

On January 26, 1936, one of the coldest days ever recorded in 
Lake Forest, 25 below zero, when Lake Michigan was frozen 
across to Michigan City, fire broke out at the home of Mrs. Abby 
Farwell Ferry on Lake Road. The fire chief, George Bauman, re- 

The water froze as soon as it hit anything solid. The call came at 
8:00 a.m. and we were out until 5:00 p.m. Those were the worst 
weather conditions for fighting a fire that I have ever experienced. We 



had to keep the water running constantly to keep the nozzles open. 
When we finally pulled in, the men had to drag lengths of 50-foot 
hose. They wouldn't roll in the cold. Our clothes were cakes of ice, 
frozen stiff. We had to have help to strip them off. Between thawing 
and scrubbing our clothes and the hose, it was three days before the 
department was back in step. 

They saved the house. 

The year 1936 marked the retirement of two universally loved 
public servants of Lake Forest— Dr. George Roberts and Superin- 
tendent John E. Baggett. 

Dr. Roberts was pastor of the Presbyterian Church 1 916-1936. 
He was beloved by children and teen-agers as head of the Presby- 
terian Sunday School, which was attended by the children of 
several denominations. He was the leader of the Boy Rangers, 
antedating the Boy Scouts, and helped organize the Boy Scouts 
in 1924 as chairman of the committee. As a preacher of rare chil- 
dren's sermons, which grown-ups enjoyed even more, he had no 
peer. These children's sermons were published in two volumes. 
He visited every member of his congregation once a year, and en- 
joyed the hospitality of many and various homes at dinner; but no 
longer than 9:00 p.m. sharp, when he stood up and took his leave. 
He was a preacher of concise and practical sermons, a crusader 
for democracy and a connoisseur of bird life and the Adirondack 

John E. Baggett was a character out of the past, rooted and 
grounded in Lake Forest. He was born in Highland Park during 
the Civil War and taught for sixty years, nearly all in Lake 
County. He was the Superintendent of the Lake Forest Grade 
School system for thirty- two years. Experienced in all hardships 
of the post Civil War era, he was essentially self taught. He began 
his teaching career with a salary of $24 per month in Iowa. When 
Lake Forest discovered him, he was at first teacher, then Principal 
of the North School in Waukegan. Here he had the reputation 
of being able to handle boys who were exceptionally "tough," and 
making learning enjoyable to all. 

He came to Lake Forest in 1904 bringing with him a wealth of 
teaching experience, the ability to impart knowledge in an in- 
teresting way, to inspire his pupils with ideals of good workman- 


The New Deal, i 930-1 941 

ship, beauty, taste, and noble thought and living. His pupils al- 
ways had good handwriting and were well acquainted with the 
finest classical art and music. He filled the Lake Forest School 
buildings with fine prints of the masterpieces of art, often paying 
for them with his own money. He was a pioneer in establishing 
good communications between parents and faculty; parents were 
asked to conduct cake sales to buy pictures or curtains for the 
schools. The real purpose was for the faculty to meet parents in a 
natural way. He brought the first visiting nurse to Lake Forest, 
Miss Gertrude Barker, who served for 26 years. Though quiet and 
unobtrusive, everyone in Lake Forest knew and loved Mr. Bag- 
gett. He retired in 1936. 

Prior to 1900 the great majority of high school students at- 
tended the Academy or Ferry Hall. Because of the increase in 
population after that date, a beginning was made toward the 
establishment of a high school in Lake Forest. Classes were held 
in the Old South School, then in the Library of the City Hall. 
After a few years, high school students began to attend the Deer- 
field-Shields Township High School in Highland Park. From 
1 910 to 1935 an increasing number of students attended the 
Township High School; but after World War I, with another 
population increase in Lake Forest, the inconvenience of daily 
travel to Highland Park for so many became more noticeable and 
the need for a Lake Forest high school became pronounced. 

In the middle of the 1 920^ the site of Lake Forest High School 
was purchased. Ground was broken; and in 1935 the school was 
ready for the first fall term. It was erected at the north end of 
Lake Forest, since the new center of high school population was 
there, embracing Lake Forest, Lake Bluff and communities just 
west of the track. The building was designed by Anderson and 
Tichnor, architects, in Georgian Colonial style, using brick and 
stone, and giving the appearance of a large mansion. 

From 1935 to 1949 Lake Forest High School was still a part 
of the Deerfield-Shields Township High School, the northern 
section, District 113. During this period Lake Forest High School 
averaged 380 pupils as Highland Park increased its enrollment 
to approximately 1,100. Lake Forest had 18% of the pupils but 
was paying about 43% of the taxes required. When this was real- 



ized, the citizens of Lake Forest and Lake Bluff became concerned 
over the disproportionately high taxes paid by them, and the pos- 
sibility that with more rapid population growth in Highland Park 
the Lake Forest-Lake Bluff taxes would become even more dis- 

A citizens' committee prepared a separation petition, which was 
approved by the Lake County Superintendent of Schools and a 
new high school district 1 1 5 was formed. This was followed by 
litigation in the Illinois Supreme Court, People vs. Wood et al, 
in which the court ruled, on March 20, 1952, that the separation 
was valid and that District 1 1 5 was fully constituted. Lake Forest 
now promised to pay $227,000 to Highland Park in three install- 
ments. These payments were completed in 1955. This decision 
enabled Lake Forest-Lake Bluff to have their own school and has 
saved the residents of the district large sums in tax assessments. 
The first Lake Forest Board of Education was elected for District 
115 on June 30, 1949, including J. Howard Wood, President, 
Philip Speidel, John C. Trussell, Elmer Vliet, Unity Tomlinson, 
D. Robert Pierson, and Ethel Jenkins. 

In 1959 a new $2,000,000 addition to the High School was 
completed, providing for a total of 1,200 students. The addition, 
including two wings and an auditorium, increased the school to 
a total of 58 rooms, completely furnished, including two gym- 
nasiums, a swimming pool, six science rooms, five industrial arts 
rooms, two music rooms, tw T o rooms devoted to physical education, 
two rooms for home economics and others. A cafeteria in the 
basement is operated during three lunch periods for faculty and 
students. The Library on the third floor contains over 5,000 books. 
An electronic communication system connects all the departments. 
The grounds include two football fields, a running track, and 
tennis courts. During the first decade there were three football 
championships in 1937, 1941, and 1944. The track team has 
won championships in 1938, 1942, and 1945. Coach Edgar Lin- 
denmeyer was the head coach during the first twenty years of the 
school's operation. Thomas Short is the present coach. 

Fifty-eight teachers and administrators preside over 834 stu- 
dents. There are nine in the office personnel, seven in the opera- 
tion of the cafeteria, and fourteen in the maintenance force of 
the grounds and buildings. The school enjoys a high scholastic 


The New Deal, 1 930-1 941 

rating among colleges throughout the country. Eighty per cent of 
the graduates go to college. The first Principal and Superintendent 
was Dr. Raymond Moore, who served from 1935 until his retire- 
ment in 1959. He was succeeded by Dr. Clyde N. Carter. 

By the end of World War I it became apparent that Alice Home 
Hospital, which was built when the population of Lake Forest 
was 1,750, was no longer adequate. To use the Highland Park 
Hospital or the Chicago Hospitals was frequently more than in- 
convenient; therefore plans were discussed for the erection of an 
independent and publicly supported Lake Forest Hospital. The 
Hospital Association of Lake Forest was organized in 19 18 and 
incorporated as a non-profit organization, independent of Lake 
Forest University. The directors at this time were Delevan Smith, 
Clayton Mark, Dr. Arthur Dean Bevan, John T. Pirie, and Ezra 
J. Warner, Jr. Partial support for the Hospital came from the 
Onwentsia Club Annual Horse Show and from municipal tax 

In 1 94 1 the 19 1 8 plans were consummated, after a committee 
of the Association, headed by A. B. Dick, Jr., negotiated with Lake 
Forest College, and Alice Home was transformed into a college 
dormitory and the cornerstone for the new Lake Forest Hospital 
was laid, west of the Skokie, off Deer Path, on twenty-four acres 
donated by Mrs. A. B. Dick, Sr. A. B. Dick, Jr., raised the money. 
Mrs. W. Press Hodgkins, daughter of Ezra Warner, Jr., served as 
President of the Women's Board and organized the Auxiliary. 
621 contributions totalled $800,000, ensured the construction of 
the proposed building. The first patient, Mrs. Scott Durand, re- 
ceived in November, 1942, was a niece of Henry C. Durand, 
donor of the first hospital. 

Dr. Theodore S. Proxmire and Dr. Paul H. Burgert, made 
significant contributions in organizing the new institution. The 
first President of the Hospital Board of Directors, A. B. Dick, Jr., 
worked untiringly, giving substantial contributions himself, in- 
cluding the gift of the surgical suite, to make the institution well 
organized and at the same time affording personal service. In 1 946 
the Women's Auxiliary began to operate a series of special services 
for patients, including hospital shops and three stores in the busi- 
ness section, the Trading Post Gift Shop, the Toy Shop and the 



Rummage Shop, to provide additional funds for the Hospital. 
That same year a nurses' home was erected, thereby increasing the 
number of available beds for hospital uses. In 1958 the main 
building was enlarged as a result of a successful $1,463,857 drive. 
New services and mechanical aids are continually added. 

In 1942 the hospital began with 40 beds. There were 1,083 ad- 
missions, and a 12 member medical staff. In i960 there were 101 
beds, 3,839 admissions, and a medical staff of sixty. The i960 
President of the Board was Frank A. Priebe, presiding over 26 
members. The Women's Board President was Mrs. John C. 
Christie with 25 members. The Auxiliary embraces 800 members. 

The i960 report mentioned four fully equipped operating 
rooms, X-ray, Radiology, Pharmacy, air conditioning, and an 
intercom system. 322,421 pounds of laundry were serviced, 100 
pieces of laundry for each baby each day. There were 3,839 adult 
admissions and 642 infant. 8,46 1 outpatients and 903 emergency 
patients were served. The average stay of patients was jVi days. 
250 volunteers and 164 full-time employees staffed the Hospital. 
There were also 70 part-time employees. 

The grounds, buildings and parking facilities are adequate for 
i960 Lake Forest. The building is in the late Georgian architec- 
ture, with Williamsburg brick, creating a homelike atmosphere 
throughout. Anderson and Tichnor of Lake Forest were the archi- 
tects. Other buildings include adequate dormitory space for nurses, 
service buildings, garage, and quarters for the caretakers. All these 
facts give little idea of the attractive and cheerful quality of the 
institution which is a source of pride to Lake Foresters. It has been 
called the finest small hospital in the United States. 

While these public buildings were being constructed in the 
i93o's with tax moneys and private contributions, many private 
dwellings were torn down, or in a few instances, were converted 
into religious, educational or business uses. Owners of certain 
spacious homes were caught between the sudden and expanding 
real-estate and income taxes. For a while these homes became a 
drug on the market, as no one seemed to want to purchase prop- 
erty involving so much of a tax load. Wrecking crews were busy 
dismantelling a number of beautiful homes which had cost large 
sums of money to build, many of them architectural gems. This 


The New Deal, 1 930-1 941 

was especially tragic in view of the great need of living space dur- 
ing the following decades. 

The thirties were trying times for large and small businesses. 
Gasoline prices dropped to 12^ per gallon and eggs were 12^ per 
dozen. Debts were difficult to collect with the general sluggishness 
of business. Reports of bank failures in other parts of the country 
helped to create a general conservatism. Lake Forest residents, who 
were Chicago executives, faced the problem of meeting payrolls 
and keeping their organizations alive, though their businesses did 
not show enough returns to keep going. The moral problem of 
providing work and maintaining as high a level of employment 
as possible was of deep concern to many who continued to take 
the eight o'clock train to Chicago and the five-ten back home, 
always hoping for a turn in the tide. Some provided work as a 
patriotic duty. 

On the international scene there were disturbing news reports 
that an Austrian paper hanger named Adolf Hitler had come into 
power in Germany and that an Italian tyrant named Mussolini 
was conducting a war of conquest against Ethiopia. Soon Lake 
Forest and the country became accustomed to the hardships of 
the depression period and developed an increased interest in in- 
ternational affairs. Clifton Utley conducted a class in Lake Forest 
reviewing the fast moving current events. On the radio, he and 
several other popular commentators carried accounts of disagree- 
ments and aggressions which finally grew, step by step, into a 
European conflict. Czechoslovakia was invaded, then Poland, 
Norway, the low countries, and France. 

A popular newscaster named Allen Scott broadcast that Japan 
would soon attack the United States or some possession. This was 
in early November, 1941. On the evening of December 6, he an- 
nounced that Japan would attack during the next twenty-four 
hours. The following day, Sunday, December 7, 1 94 1 , the actual 
attack on Pearl Harbor took place. 





World War II brought about a noticeable change in Lake Forest 
by draining the city of its pride and joy— the great percentage 
of young men and women. Drafts and the calls to service enlisted 
all except the physically unfit, or those considered indispensable 
for home front essential activities. 1,200 men and women served 
in the armed forces from Lake Forest proper, also 800 graduates 
of Lake Forest College, and 400 Academy graduates. Many of 
these served in positions of national leadership. 

The Hon. Frank Knox, publisher of the Chicago Daily News, 
who had lived in Lake Forest a short while, was now the Secretary 
of the Navy, having promoted a two-ocean Navy from the time 
he took office in 1940. Ralph Bard of Lake Road served as assistant 
Secretary and then as Under Secretary of the Navy during the 

Lieutenant General William H. Arnold served in the Pacific 
theatre. As chief of staff of the Fourteenth Corps he took part in 
the Guadalcanal, New Georgia, and Bougainville campaigns. He 
took command of the American Infantry Division at Bougainville 
in November, 1944, and was promoted to Major General one 
month later. During the time of his command of this division, they 
were engaged in operations on Leyte, Cebu, Negros, and other 
islands in the Philippines. He received the first large-scale sur- 


World War 11, 1 941-1945 

render of Japanese forces in the field when more than 1 0,000 sol- 
diers surrendered at Cebu Island. 

In 1950 General Arnold was assigned as chief of the joint mili- 
tary mission for aid to Turkey, and held this post until 1953. He 
was then assigned to Austria, on May 1, 1953. He was promoted 
to Lieutenant General in 1953. He became the commanding 
General of the Fifth Army, serving 195 5-1 961. He and his family 
built their new home in 1 96 1 , in * Walden" on the original site 
of the Cyrus H. McCormick house. He has named it "The Gen- 
eral's Bluff." 

Captain Thomas G. Cassady, U.S.N., served in the American 
Field Service, Lafayette Flying Corps and the U.S. Air Force, 
1 9 16-19 1 9. World War II found him an assistant U.S. Naval 
Attache in the Embassy in Vichy, France. In 1 943 he was interned 
in Germany. After his release, following the liberation of France, 
he became Chief of Secret Intelligence (O.S.S.) for France and 

Admiral Richard L. Conolly, a three-year student at Lake For- 
est Academy, graduating in 1909, is credited with turning the 
tide in the southwest Pacific during the war. He directed the 
landing of Marines at Guadalcanal which stopped the Japanese 
drive southward. The first Army Air Force planes to bomb Japan 
took off from the aircraft carriers of Admiral Conolly 's fleet. He 
was the first naval officer to become a full Admiral at the age of 
fifty-five. Throughout his life Admiral Conolly has been an ex- 
ponent of the closest possible cooperation between the armed 
forces of the nation. He has continually expressed his affection 
for Lake Forest. 

Major General Charles Christian Haffner, Jr., "Red" to his 
intimate friends, served as Captain of Field Artillery in France 
during World War I. He continued his interest in national de- 
fense, taking command of the 1 24th Field Artillery of the Illinois 
National Guard in 1 93 1 . The new 1 24th Field Artillery Armory 
had just been completed, the largest in the country, and Colonel 
Haffner decided to capitalize on the new plant and to build the 
best regiment by attracting the highest type of men to the Guard. 
He built up its efficiency through a series of activities including 
indoor polo, boxing, football, basketball and track. He developed 
the "Red Devil" drill battery and the Lancer Troop, which gave 

2 3 J 


great exhibitions of horsemanship at the Armory, during the 
i93o's. The jumping team, beautifully mounted and coached by 
Captain Aro, Olympic jumping champion, appeared at horse 
shows around the country, and defeated several Army teams. 

On December i , 1 942, Colonel Haffner was promoted to Major 
General, and assigned to command the new 1 03rd Division which 
he organized, trained and led into combat. He was the only non- 
professional officer in the war to organize his own division and 
command it on the battlefield. His was one of the best trained and 
equipped units to leave for France. It landed in southern France, 
in October, 1 944, as a part of General Patch's Seventh Army, and 
in its first campaign broke through the Sayles Pass in the Vosges 
mountains to the Rhine— the first time the Pass had been pene- 
trated in warfare— and then was selected for the drive north into 
Germany. The 1 03rd was the first unit of the 7th Army to cross 
the German border. 

The citation for the Distinguished Service Medal awarded Gen- 
eral Haffner in May, 1945, states in part: "As Commanding Gen- 
eral of the 103rd Infantry Division, General Haffner built the 
Division into a formidable combat organization ... In its first 
field test the 103rd Division made an excellent showing due to 
the painstaking planning and superior leadership of General Haff- 
ner . . . The Division went into combat seven kilometers west of 
St. Die. Two weeks later it had advanced through the Vosges 
Mountains to the Rhine plain. French civilians and captured Ger- 
man officers predicted penetration of the Vosges was impossible, 
but under the leadership of General Haffner this was accom- 
plished in 1 4 days . . . Throughout his command, General Haffner 
demonstrated exceptional ability in overcoming great difficulties 
of weather and terrain . . . His superior handling of his forces 
manifested itself in a successful offensive drive and contributed 
materially to the 7th Army's successful record." 

General Haffner has been a Lake Forest resident for nearly 35 
years, having married Miss Clarissa Donnelley of this city and 
raised his family of four children. In spite of his heavy duties as 
President and Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Of- 
ficer of R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company, he maintains a con- 
tinued interest in national defense. One of his pet hobbies is the 
study of Civil War weapons, especially artillery. 


World War II, 1941-1945 

One of the unusual experiences of the war belonged to Cor- 
poral Robert T. Isham, Battery B, 693rd Field Artillery Battalion. 
His unit landed at Utah Beach on July 14, 1944, as a part of 
General Patron's 3rd Army. After the breakthrough at Avranches, 
the unit advanced south of Paris toward the German border. Cross- 
ing the Marne, the 693rd became a part of General Patch's 7th 
Army and experienced its heaviest fighting at the Siegfried Line, 
near the border. The Rhine was crossed near Worms. Continuing 
east and north to Schonau, they received orders to turn south and 
take part in the reduction of Nurenburg, the shrine of Naziism. 
Crossing the headwaters of the Danube, they sped south and east 
on the superhighway to Salzburg, then to Berchtesgaden, a Hitler 

Corporal Isham and his comrades were among the first to arrive 
at the Fuhrer's home and to find it practically destroyed. Most of 
the section above ground was all but levelled. The big room which 
has been pictured so many times was completely gutted by fire, 
but the big window still framed a magnificent view of the Alps. 
However, 50 yards underground was a luxurious suite of rooms 
completely untouched. Some of these were under guard, but the 
rest seemed fair game. 

Entering the unguarded portion, Corporal Isham found two 
silver serving dishes marked with the German crest and the initials 
"A. H." (Adolf Hitler), various pieces of flat silver, silver pitch- 
ers, silver coasters, two German medals, an arm band, napkins, 
towels, table cloth, a Berchtesgaden telephone directory, Christ- 
mas and New Year's greeting cards, and a roll of toilet paper. The 
silver and many other pieces were initialed. These items were 
shipped to Corporal Isham's family and have been repeatedly ex- 
hibited in Chicago and Lake Forest. 

Corporal Isham was awarded the Bronze Star Medal 'Tor mer- 
itorious service in action in eastern France, from October 1, 1944, 
to March 1, 1945. As the non-commissioned officer in charge of 
an Artillery Forward Observer's Party, during this period, Cor- 
poral Isham has performed his duties in a highly commendable 
manner. He has consistently displayed great initiative, courage 
and ingenuity in assisting the officer in charge of the party. Cor- 
poral Isham's devotion to duty and coolness under fire merit great 

2 33 


Vice Admiral Francis Paxton Old, who took up his Green Bay 
Road residence soon after the war, served throughout the war in 
all theatres. He is known as "Pop" by many Lake Foresters. He 
served in the North Atlantic Patrol with Norwegians, Poles, Ca- 
nadians and British. He took part in the assault and occupation 
of Sicily. Salerno was his most harrowing experience. One guided 
missile exploded ioo yards from where he stood on the bridge of 
his ship. He was Chief-of-Staff of the attack force at Anzio, 25 
miles south of Rome, when the 5th Army was landed behind the 
German Army, in a swift surprise attack. Not a single man was 
lost in the landings, though hell broke loose five days later. He 
then took part in the assault and landings in southern France 
which were coordinated with the invasion of northern France. 
This has been called "the most perfect amphibious operation of the 
war/' After the fall of Berlin, Admiral Old commanded the L7SS 
Indiana j one of the largest battleships of the U.S. Navy, in the 
Okinawa campaign in the Pacific. For 67 consecutive days he 
was on the bridge, during this campaign, getting what sleep he 
could without going below. The Indiana was the 3rd ship in the 
first fleet to bombard the homeland of Japan. She was present in 
Tokyo Bay as part of the covering force during the Japanese sur- 
render in 1945. 

Admiral Old's decorations include the Legion of Merit, the 
Distinguished Service Medal, the Legion of Honor, all from the 
United States; the Croix de Guerre, with palm, from France; the 
Distinguished Service Order signed by his Majesty King George 
VI of Great Britain, and Bau Dai, a most colorful decoration, 
which no one in Lake Forest seems able to read, for his services to 
China as advisor to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek. 

The Distinguished Service Medal citation says: "Captain Old 
capably assisted in the actual assault and in the critical phase of 
the operations incident to the maintenance of the invasion forces 
at Salerno and their advance inland, despite strong enemy op- 
position." The citation on Anzio calls him a "Brilliant adminis- 
trator, exercising expert professional skill and sound judgment. 
He rendered invaluable assistance to the Force Commander in 
the development of organizational and tactical plans for the 
amphibious assault. He coordinated the plans with other services 
and Allied units, despite repeated hostile aerial attacks." The 

2 34 

World War 11, 1 941-1945 

D.S.O. citation mentions that: "During the invasion of the South 
of France, Captain Old displayed exceptional zeal and ability. 
His professional skill materially contributed to the operations 
culminating in the successful assault while his gallantry and in- 
spired leadership in action was outstanding." His citation involv- 
ing the Pacific reads: "Captain Old directed accurate anti-aircraft 
fire to aid in the destruction of numerous enemy planes. He fought 
his ship aggressively to inflict considerable damage on enemy in- 
dustrial installations, contributing materially to the success of our 
forces in the Pacific, upholding the highest traditions of the U.S. 
Naval service." 

From March, 1949, to June, 195 1, he was attached to the Phil- 
ippine Navy, which awarded him the Philippine Legion of 
Honor with this citation: "Outstanding service to the people and 
government of the Philippines in general and to the Philippine 
Navy in particular. He took the sincerest interest in and showed 
profoundest friendship for the Filipino people. By his personal 
example and consummate tact he promoted and maintained the 
closest cooperation and the most cordial relationships." 

Colonel Jeffery F. R. Seitz was at Pearl Harbor when the Japa- 
nese surprise visit was made on December 7, 1941. His family 
arrived in Lake Forest soon after the beginning of the war, the 
young Seitzs attending Lake Forest schools until well after the 
conclusion of the war. If there is such a thing as home for the 
family of a career officer, Lake Forest would be that place. Colonel 
Seitz became attached to the First Division, 26th Infantry Regi- 
ment, and his career in Europe is nearly the story of the war in 
Europe. He took part in the North African campaigns, the Sicil- 
ian, then in the first attack on Omaha beach. He took part in the 
battles of Aachen, Hurtgen Forest, the Belgian Bulge, and waited 
for days at the river Elbe for the arrival of the Russians. "Jeff" 
Seitz came home a Brigadier General, one of the most decorated 
officers in the United States Army. 

Lieutenant Colonel Marshall C. Strenger, "Marsh" to all his 
friends, a member of the pioneer Pratt family of Lake Forest, flew 
72 missions with the 1 2th Air Force. 

His most difficult assignment was at Anzio when the squadron 
under his command flew two missions on January 19, 1944, and 
two on the 20th, against German troop concentrations. Heavy 



casualties were sustained by the Army Air Force, from enemy 
flak and fighter opposition. For three weeks after this mission, his 
squadron was assigned as Air Force Observer for the 3rd Division. 
Other actions included bombing of targets in Albania, Austria, 
the Brenner Pass, Bulgaria, Corsica, Greece, Italy, Sardinia, 
Southern France, and Yugoslavia. His squadron was the first to 
bomb Sophia, Bulgaria. 

The most publicized mission, which he considers routine, was 
his 43rd mission on his birthday, February 15, 1944, when his 
squadron of 24 B-25's took off on a two hour mission from its base 
in Foggia. It flew north and east of the Abbey di Monte Cassino, 
then turned west under a high cloud cover. The American ground 
troops were pulled back as the entire 12th and 15 th Air Force 
came on target, the pivot of the German Army. There was some 
flak, but it was not very accurate. After some difficulty in identi- 
fying the target, bombs were released very near our own troops 
in the early afternoon. His squadron suffered no losses. 

Lt. Colonel Strenger's decorations include the Silver Star, the 
Distinguished Flying Cross with Oak Leaf Cluster, an Air Medal 
with 7 clusters, an Air Force Citation, Four battle stars, and two 
distinguished unit badges, as well as the Croix de Guerre. These 
are usually displayed by his 9 year old son. 

Neither time nor space will permit a complete review of the 
service records of all our native leadership, nor the remarkable 
experiences of our officers and enlisted men and women who 
served beyond the call of duty. Many served in special capacities. 
John L. Clarkson was the chief Navy procurement officer in Chi- 
cago. Robert Newberry McCreary was the Army procurement 
officer in Milwaukee. Donald Phelps Welles served as the head 
procurement officer in Detroit and Washington. Edison Dick 
served in the same capacity in St. Louis. 

There were many happy and accidental reunions in far off 
places, some of which ought to be mentioned. Major Gordon L. 
Kelley and Lieutenant E. A. Archer, USNR, met at Guadalcanal 
in 1943. They had not seen each other in three years. The Mac- 
Millan brothers, three in all, met in New Guinea, for the first 
time in three years. Frank D'Hulst and Malcolm Gyllenberg met 
on board ship, in Iceland, in 1941, and a year later D'Hulst met 
Eric Glasel at Pearl Harbor. 


World War 11, 1941-1945 

Lake Forest had a look of grim determination, during the war 
years. Everything was so much bigger and better organized than 
during World War I. Year after year Victory Loan campaigns 
were over subscribed, way out of proportion to the Lake Forest 
population. Knight C. Cowles was chairman of one of these drives. 
Great Lakes could hardly be comprehended with the feverish 
activity going on there, thousands being graduated each week. 
Contrary to World War I, civilians were not permitted within the 
gates. The station housed as many as 125,000 at one time. Com- 
mander Randolph G. Owsley of Lake Forest, as head of the 31st 
Regiment, trained a total of 42,500 men during his two years of 
duty at Great Lakes. Basic training for some was as little as three 
weeks, for others as long as twelve weeks. The 31st Regiment be- 
came a model unit and was used for the making of a professional 
movie, The Navy Way, for the promotion of Navy recruiting. 
Many Lake Forest women served as hostesses, in volunteer and 
professional services on the base. Flower collections from Lake 
Forest gardens and greenhouses decorated various public build- 
ings. Several Christmas parties were given for service personnel 
by Lake Forest women. 

Fort Sheridan was likewise a mobilization and separation center, 
with thousands arriving and departing, and hardly any time for 
more than formal contacts with our citizens. There was no Of- 
ficer's Training Camp (as during World War I), through which 
Lake Foresters might develop a personal interest in the activities 
of the post. Many women did join the Fort Sheridan Volunteers, 
promoting several parties. 

All cities, situated near military and naval bases, established a 
chapter of the U.S.O. for the comfort and entertainment of the 
service men. In Lake Forest a Service Men's Center was estab- 
lished on McKinley Avenue, doing the same things as the U.S.O 
in a home-like setting with large sums of money expended and 
hundreds of volunteers serving. Mrs. McKinley Gray was in 
charge of this operation. The Red Cross conducted an effective 
blood-donor service, produced several hundred thousand surgical 
dressings, knitted articles and army kits. Mrs. Charles De Long, 
who had served overseas during World War I, and Mrs. Russell 
Lord were efficient executives in Red Cross activities. The Red 
Cross also conducted classes in first aid. 



Thousands of service men flooded the North Shore area seeking 
a place to live during their training at Great Lakes and Fort 
Sheridan. Mayor Charles F. Clarke quickly organized The Office 
of Civilian Defense, as a clearing house for quarters for Officers 
of the Great Lakes Naval Training Center, with offices at 286 
E. Deer Path. The complications were great, as Lake Forest is a 
town of homes, having very few apartments and boarding houses. 
Lake Foresters made a thrilling response. Zoning was forgotten; 
people gave up rooms and wings of their houses; they converted 
servant's quarters, gardener's cottages and garage apartments into 
family units. 

Mrs. Frank P. Hixon was chairman of the Women's Division 
of the O.C.D. Mrs. George Chappell, Jr. and Mrs. Howard Linn 
were co-chairmen of the Housing Committee. Mrs. Chappell's 
office force turned into a veritable real estate office. Mrs. Howard 
Linn found houses and apartments which necessarily had to be 
prepared for occupancy. She took care of papering, painting, clean- 
ing and furnishing these abodes. The Mechem, Rumsey, Chat- 
field-Taylor, R. H. McElwee, James E. Baum, Swift, Taylor 
Strawn (the old J. V. Farwell house), and Hopkins houses were 
among those larger homes which were prepared for this use. The 
Contagious Hospital at South Park was made presentable for the 
same purpose. Ensign Joseph Barr assisted as advisor in establish- 
ing fair rentals suitable to Navy personnel. 

A furniture depot was established, collecting gifts and loans. 
Furniture was repaired and stored ready to go where it was most 
needed. The home of Mr. and Mrs. James Hopkins was one of the 
first to be occupied, serving as a model for many others. The Henry 
Rumsey home, whose furnishings were chosen and assembled by 
Mrs. James Ward Thorne, served several families at one time. 
The Baum home, the last one to be opened, received twenty-three 

The O.C.D. became the collecting agency for salvaging metals, 
paper, rags, rubber and grease. Two car loads of paper collections 
per week were not unusual. In one shipment 12,000 pounds of 
clothing were collected for people in the war devastated areas. Bins 
in Market Square held these collections. 

Among the most active workers in these projects were Miss Jane 
Morton, chairman of Officer's housing committee in 1945, Mrs. 


World War 11, 1941-1945 

Milton Morse, Mrs. Alan Donald, Mrs. J. Beach Clow, Mrs. Wil- 
liam P. Martin, Jr., Mrs. William Osborne, Miss Ann Carpenter, 
Mrs. Sewell Gardner and Mrs. Robert Buckley. These and many 
others spread the Lake Forest reputation for efficiency and friendly 
cooperation from coast to coast. 

In addition, there was an informal group which provided ex- 
tensive parties for the entertainment of service men. It is said to 
have begun early in the war when a naval officer from Great 
Lakes telephoned Dr. Herbert W. Prince, Rector of the Church of 
the Holy Spirit, and explained the need. Dr. Prince consulted 
Mrs. Edward L. Hasler, and soon parties were given for large 
groups of officers and enlisted men. Miss Gwethlyn Jones, Mrs. 
William Roy Carney, Mrs. Albert Farwell and many others 
opened their homes and rendered invaluable services. 

Miss Jones was at first reluctant to take part; but her attractive 
home became the mecca of many officers and their wives. One 
night, in preparing a large dinner party, she studied the Blue- 
jacket's Manual, and, securing small flags, spelled out the names 
of all her guests according to signal code, instead of writing them 
on place-cards. When the officers arrived at the table, not one of 
them was able to read his own name, and Miss Jones had to seat 
them by reading their names. 

Mrs. Albert Farwell became famous for her "Navy Waffle 
Parties." Throughout the war once a week, convalescent boys 
from the Naval Hospital at Great Lakes came to her house for a 
day's outing. A Navy bus would arrive and 25 or 30 boys would 
jump out, all smiling and eager for the holiday. They came under 
the auspices of the Red Cross. A total of four thousand boys were 
so entertained. Some of these boys had not been off the hospital 
grounds for months, and they considered this a great privilege. 
They came from all over the United States, and from every walk 
of life. Most of them had seen service abroad. 

Mrs. Farwell's friends and workers from the Red Cross Rec- 
reational Center were very helpful in making these parties a suc- 
cess. All played games, and made and consumed waffles by the 
thousands. Mrs. Farwell wrote the following account: 

The first group we had were orthopedic cases. They were a jolly lot. 
In spite of crutches and braces many of them hobbled down to the 
beach where they basked in the sun, some even went swimming. 



Our house was an old-fashioned red brick house, situated on the 
bluff overlooking Lake Michigan. A good sized lawn space in front, 
bordered by large elms, lent itself to croquet, baseball, horse-shoe 
pitching, and many other out-of-door games. Wooded ravines were at 
the back of the house, and a walk through the woods led to the garden. 
The rooms of the house were large with high ceilings; a spacious hall 
led to the sun porch, where there was a ping-pong table. Throughout 
the house were old pieces of furniture, some of which had been handed 
down from three and four generations in the family. The fact that it 
was a home, was what appealed to these boys. One boy said he had 
not been inside a home in two years. 

When the bus arrived, Betsy, our German Shepherd dog would 
rush for the front door, continue jumping until it was opened, then 
rush out to the bus and into it. It was a fine welcome for the boys. As 
the boys filed out they would first throng to the edge of the bluff to 
look at the lake. It was always a beautiful sight on a clear day. The 
boys from the East could not understand why one could not see across 
the lake to the Michigan shore, and wanted to know why there was 
no tide. 

Those who were interested were taken to the gardens, where we 
visited the beehives. One boy carried an eight pound chunk of honey- 
comb into the dining-room, dripping all the way. Every boy wanted 
honey to take back with him. We scraped together every kind of re- 
ceptacle we could find: jars, cracker cans, tin cans, and others. That 
night Ward 28 had a honey feast at the hospital. 

Next stop was the herb garden. Here they were introduced to the 
mint bed, many varieties. They tasted the peppermint, they sniffed 
the orange mints, the spearmints, the curly mints, the pineapple mints. 
Then we passed on to the costmary, the plant that is used to flavor ale. 
This had a special interest for them. Each boy took a sprig of rosemary 
to send to his best girl. The fragrant herbs had the greatest appeal. 
They could not understand why one geranium plant smelled of apples, 
another of lemons, another of peppermint, and so on. One boy, who 
had been an unsuccessful suitor, went through the garden and selected 
rose geranium, sweet marjoram and lemon verbena as being the most 
irresistible fragrances, and sent them to his girl. A few weeks later the 
boy returned with the remark : "Remember them weeds you gave me? 
Well, they sure did the trick. I can't keep her away from me now." 

We passed on to the vegetable garden in which the farm boys were 
in their element. Some went for broccoli, others for melons and pea- 
nuts. The novelties were of special interest, the red spinach imported 
from England, the strawberry corn and the Welsh onions. Each boy 


World War 11, 1 941-1 945 

was given seed of whatever he wanted. I often wonder if red spinach 
is not growing from Atlantic to Pacific which originated in my garden. 

When it began to get cool we came into the house. At such times 
household objects became a source of great interest. One boy was in- 
terested in the oriental rugs. Another liked old furniture. The Grand- 
father Clock in the hall had an appeal to all. They stroked it to feel 
the carving and listened for its strike. The date 1643, carved at the 
base, was discovered by one of the boys, the first we ever knew of it. 
Unfortunately after research we concluded that the date was fake. 
One boy looking at the portrait of grandfather Farwell said: "Is that 
the old guy who made all the dough?'' 

At about 2:30 we started making waffles, four irons going at once, 
one in the dining room, one in the pantry and two in the kitchen. We 
all felt most at home in the kitchen. A Marine and a sailor had a con- 
test as to who could eat the greatest number of waffles. They would 
eat a batch, then run around the house so that they would have room 
for more. They finally stopped at 32. One youngster had a struggle, 
he retorted : "When I was in the Marianas I had teeth but no decent 
food. Now I have decent food but no teeth!" An Italian boy found a 
guitar, under the piano, and with one foot on the kitchen chair, sere- 
naded us in the kitchen. Song after song rang out in the most beauti- 
ful tenor. Many a Metropolitan opera audience would have been 
thrilled to hear him. One ex-policeman was made so happy with the 
visit that he said : "Lady, if you ever come to Oshkosh I'll let you go 
through every red light in town." The Library was a busy and quiet 
place. All types of books were delved into, Sad Sack being the most 

Each boy wrote his name and address in the guest book— they called 
it "The Log." We had a boy from every state in the union, two from 
Shanghai, one from Liverpool and one from New Zealand. It was fun 
for them to read through the guest book, for often they found friends 
from their own home towns who had been here. At about four-thirty 
the big Navy bus returned. There was a call : 'All hands on deck/ and 
in they piled. With a waving of hands, calls of good-bye, and happy 
laughter, off they went. 

Lake Forest, together with the rest of the country, coped with 
the complicated rationing system involving meat, sugar, gasoline 
and other commodities. Victory gardens were common. There was 
hardship at home, connected with shortages and restrictions, but 
all were borne philosophically. D-day, landings, break-throughs, 
Belgian Bulge, were eagerly followed by the home front. Soon the 



Allies were racing for the Elbe, from the west, and toward Berlin, 
from the east. On May 7, 1945, General Jodl signed an uncondi- 
tional surrender, at Allied Headquarters in Rheims, and the war 
in Europe was over. 

In the Pacific, the tide had turned with the invasion of Guadal- 
canal, when the enemy gradually fought a massive retreat, giving 
up islands and other possessions until it withdrew into its home- 
land. Then came the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, on August 
6, followed by the second bomb on Nagasaki on August 9. The 
Pacific Fleet entered Tokyo Bay on August 27. On September 2, 
1945, the Japanese foreign minister signed the surrender docu- 
ments on the deck of the Missouri. The Pacific war was over. 

There were no demonstrations or rejoicings to mark the end of 
hostilities as at the end of World War I in Lake Forest. Forty Lake 
Foresters had lost their lives in the far flung battle line. Many 
Lake Forest boys were now released from German and Japanese 
prison camps including Charles Cascarano, Henry Dangler, 
Myron Dare, Jack Hemingway, Alexander MacArthur, Cyrus 
Manierre, William R. Manierre, and Vincent Yore. 

Major Cyrus E. Manierre dropped into France with the O.S.S., 
in 1943. He worked with the Maquis, the French Underground, 
and was captured in 1944 by the Mili and turned over to the 
Gestapo. After several weeks, he was tried by the German People's 
Court and condemned to death. Fortunately, at this time an im- 
portant uprising of the Maquis occurred, the military files were 
destroyed, and the Gestapo fled. The prisoners were then turned 
over to the regular German Army. Cy was now sent to a P.O.W. 
Camp, Stalag Luft 3, a large center in which final interrogations 
were made. It was in a mess hall of hundreds of men, in this 
camp, that he recognized his younger brother, Lieut. William R. 
Manierre. Brother Bill as a co-pilot on a Liberator had been shot 
down during his 36th mission and landed on top of a German 
army barrack. 

The two brothers had at first been assigned to different prison 
camps, but the commanding officer reassigned them together to 
Stalag Luft 1, on the Baltic. The officer in this latter camp per- 
mitted them to send a short-wave message to their mother, Mrs. 
Edith Harrison Manierre 01 Lake Forest. They gave their rank 
and serial numbers and added that they were to be together for 


World War 11, 1 941-1945 

the duration of the war. Forty of these messages were intercepted 
and relayed to their mother by ham radio operators. 

V.E. Day was on May 7, 1945, yet, the Russians, though they 
were our allies, did not permit any messages to be sent from this 
camp until May 26, 1945. On that date, the prisoners were 
marched to planes and flown to France, then to England, and on 
to the United States. 

2 43 


i 946-1 96 i 

During the last half of World War II, as parents became more 
and more involved in the war effort, the problem of juvenile de- 
linquency suddenly reached major proportions for the police de- 
partment and the city government. Unoccupied homes of families 
who were in Washington or wherever duty called, were broken 
into, cars were stolen, vandalism and general undisciplined be- 
haviour became a problem never before encountered to such an 
extent nor among children of such earnest and respectable parents. 

Mayor Charles F. Clarke was frequently called to the Police 
Department, at all times of day and night, to interview groups of 
delinquents apprehended in misdemeanors often of a serious na- 
ture. Heads of various schools cooperated with the Mayor and the 
Police to determine punishments, to provide payment for damages 
incurred, and to give fatherly counsel and direction. 

When the war ended, Mayor Clarke wished to do something 
even more constructive for the youth of the city. He called a dinner 
meeting, at the Onwentsia Club, including 150 leading citizens 
representing many organizations in the city. He explained to them 
the youth problem, which occupied the city government, and ex- 
pressed his hopes for an organized plan to provide for supervised 
activities for boys and girls during the times of day and week when 
they were free from school discipline. 


Youth Programs, 1946-1961 

A citizens' committee was formed, and the problem and possible 
solutions were explored. The committee came up with two salient 
ideas : that a building should be secured, primarily for recreation 
for the youth of Lake Forest, dedicated as a war memorial to the 
dead of World War II. It was hoped that the project would permit 
the continuance of the Young Men's Club program, the Y.W.C.A. 
program, and permit a broadened scope for all youth activities con- 
centrated in one Community Center. 

The reaction of a dozen organizations in Lake Forest was im- 
mediately favorable. School children wrote essays praising the 
idea. There was every indication that people wanted to conform 
with the basic ideas expressed. The American Legion, the 
Churches, the schools, and The Lake Forester, joined in this com- 
mon interest. Many suggestions were received. A lake front har- 
bor, to promote youth activities, was suggested, also a city airport, 
to encourage flying among the young people, as a timely hobby 
or career. Those interested in art, recommended facilities for their 
special interest in the proposed Center. 

Caroll H. Sudler was appointed chairman of a committee to ex- 
plore all the possibilities as to location of grounds, buildings, and 
their proposed uses. The architect, John Lord King, was asked to 
draw up plans for a Community Center. It was to contain a gym- 
nasium, locker rooms, showers, canteen, kitchens, and meeting 
rooms for large and small, civic, educational and cultural organiza- 
tions. The building was to be run by a staff of five, and upkeep was 
to be provided by taxation. The services were to be available to all 
Lake Foresters. It was to be located in West Park. 

When the blueprints were finished and bids were received, it 
became apparent that the proposed building would cost $350,000, 
a great deal more than the committee had anticipated. At this 
point, the committee cast about to find an existing building which 
might be capable of conversion to the desired uses, yet costing sub- 
stantially less. 

The Bevan estate, on Green Bay Road, was considered in 1947. 
This beautiful home had been built originally for Noble Brandon 
Judah, a Chicago lawyer and one time Ambassador to Cuba. The 
building had been finished in the early twenties, being four years 
in construction. It had cost %iVi million. The French Norman 
house contained thirty-one rooms, transplanted piece by piece, 



from show places of former years in France. No metal nails were 
used in construction. The gates were brought from Cuba on a 
special ship. The cobblestone courtyard was brought from France 
and set over six feet of reinforced concrete. It contained two wells 
to insure water in case the city supply failed. The location, so con- 
venient for a Community Center, was between West Park and the 
Deerpath Golf Club. There were outdoor, and one indoor swim- 
ming pools, also other pools which might be used by children for 
wading. Together with thirty acres of land, the house had been 
left by Dr. Bevan, the second occupant, to the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital of Chicago. Now that this property was available to the Com- 
mittee, at a favorable price, the West Park project was gradually 
abandoned in its favor. 

The first step toward the realization of the Community Center 
came on April 8, 1947, when a Lake Forest vote of 425 to 242 
undergirded the committee's plans by allotting approximately 
$30,000 of tax money, per year, for the running expenses of the 
institution, when and if completed. This referendum was the first 
major step in the program. 

In July 1947, the Bevan estate was still in full view, when a 
group headed by John L. King, assisted by Stanley Anderson and 
Ralph Milman, began to make studies of the Fred Koch estate, 
originally built by Wallace Winter, in the late twenties. This 
property stood on the corner of Deer Path and Green Bay Road, 
the original Swanton farm dating from 1837. The Koch property 
contained seven acres, and was offered for approximately $100,000 
to the Community Center. The group reported that this property 
would serve the purposes "admirably/' It went on to say: "There 
is virtually no space within the estate that cannot be fitted into a 
practical community program; the large drawing room, seating 
approximately 90 persons, the library, and a combination of two 
upstairs bedrooms, would provide excellent meeting rooms; the 
dining room, loggia and drawing room would give adequate space 
for young people to dance, and a portion of these rooms could be 
utilized as a canteen for the youngsters; cloak room facilities, 
office and lodging quarters for the Center's staff are available; the 
garage could be converted into a manual training room. The con- 
struction is of a serviceable type, suitable for a public building. 
Meeting rooms could be self supporting." The construction of a 


Youth Programs, 1 946-1 961 

gymnasium and swimming pool were recommended. As a result 
of these reports and recommendations the Koch property was pur- 

In October 1947 a fund drive was organized with Samuel J. 
Sorenson as chairman and collecting agency. The goal was set at 
$250,000. In four months 800 gifts and pledges, totalling $147,- 
000 were received. 

Early in 1948, several letters and a paid advertisement in The 
Lake V or ester challenged the whole Community Center idea, 
claiming a 10% tax increase, instead of 10% of the mill tax. Wil- 
liam E. Clow, Jr., who headed the opposition, wrote an extended 
criticism which said in effect: "We don't need a Community 
Center." Several adjoining property owners objected to a public 
building in a private residential area. 

In February 1948, former Mayor Clarke announced a poll to 
take place at City Hall so that the voters could decide whether or 
not they wanted a Community Center. On the 24th of that month 
878 votes were cast for the Center, 1,064 were cast against it. 
This was the largest municipal vote recorded in Lake Forest his- 
tory. After the election, the Koch estate was sold, at some sacrifice, 
and all who had donated or pledged money were told that they 
could retract. Some $50,000 remained in the bank. 

Actually the Community Center idea was a part of a recurring 
Lake Forest effort to attain a civic unity, friendliness, and co- 
operation. The City began with a Lake Forest Association with 
the stated purpose of promoting a University. All supporting mem- 
bers were dedicated to this cause. People came as residents from 
everywhere, but the newcomers were soon indoctrinated in the 
basic ideals of the community, because the town was small and 
communication was easy. Until the turn of the century there was 
one protestant church, one catholic church, and one school system. 
Soon afterwards the Young Men's Club was opened and dedi- 
cated to the idea of unity between the old and the new, the Com- 
muter and the non-Commuter, the town and the gown. World 
War I brought a wave of secularization and a spread of diverse 
interests which needed coordination. Mayor Henry Rumsey, in 
the twenties, thought in terms of athletics, a Golf Club and con- 
tinuous contact among all citizens, to promote a basic unity among 
all Lake Foresters. In 1930, when the Library building was 



finished, it was plain to see that it was dedicated "that all may 
come/' World War II brought even greater problems: the emer- 
gence of a far greater youth population, which would be facing 
the community for many years. General world uncertainties made 
it more imperative that an attempt be made toward an intelligent 
and planned solution. Ex-Mayor Clarke and Mayor Edward K. 
Welles could clearly see both the old and the new problems. But 
the population increase in Lake Forest, immediately after the war, 
did not permit sufficient time to explain the problem to the voting 
public or to insure the successful promotion of an idea which was 
old and tried, but at the same time forward-looking and con- 

It must be added, however, that as families gradually turned to 
normal living after the war, juvenile delinquency has been less 
of a problem. Most of the services required of a Community Cen- 
ter are now being supplied indirectly by the schools, churches and 
the municipal recreation program. The higher standards of our 
schools have been especially helpful. 

The Noble Judah house, turned down as a Community Center, 
was destined to come before the careful scrutiny of another group, 
this time the Board of Trustees of Lake Forest Academy, when in 
1947 a new location, a fourth, was being sought for the school. 
The sequence began on Sunday evening May 1 2, 1 946, when the 
usual evening Chapel services were held in Reid Hall. The 
speaker was the popular Dr. Burtis R. MacHatton, an Academy 
and College football star of the i88o's. He preached on "What 
to do with your life.'* The service ended promptly at 8 o'clock, 
and everyone retired to the evening study hour. "Pete" Smith rang 
the bell from the first floor of Reid Hall, to announce the begin- 
ning of the study period. At 8 : 20 Mr. George Blackwell left his 
chemistry room, walked by the Chapel doors and noticed that the 
place was dark. 

At 8:40 Mr. Bert Grove saw smoke shooting out of the Chapel, 
as he walked east from the Infirmary on Washington Road. He 
ran to inform Mr. Fox and others in East House. The Academy 
fire marshal, Mr. Blair Kinsman, joined these two, and, together 
with three students : Graham, Minty and Fox, attempted to fight 
the fire with extinguishers, until they were forced to retire due to 


Youth Programs, 1946-1961 

the smoke. In the meantime, the fire was reported to the fire de- 

The fire trucks arrived at 8:45. Hot ashes were now falling in 
the yards of the houses on Washington Road. By 9: 10 the Chapel 
itself was burned out and the flames reached in both directions to 
consume the whole second floor of the building. Fire departments 
arrived from Highland Park, Great Lakes and Fort Sheridan, but 
to no avail. The water pipes had not been tested for a long time, 
so that the small trickle of water obtainable did not have sufficient 
force to break the windows on the first floor. Soon the bell tower 
collapsed, and the Memorial bell crashed to the basement with a 
clang. The crowds, eager to help, were controlled by Jack Pontius 
and his Student Council boys, until the Military Police arrived 
from Fort Sheridan to take charge. The fire was under control by 
1 :oo a.m. 

Headmaster E. Francis Bowditch was on a business trip in Bos- 
ton, during the fire. His little daughter bemoaned the loss of "the 
nice room with Jesus' picture in it." Dr. MacHatton blamed the 
holocaust on his hot sermon. The real cause may have been an 
electric hot box in the area of the chapel platform. 

The following Tuesday a wrecking crew levelled the walls. 
Classes continued without interruption in the gymnasium and 
dormitories. Damage was total, estimated at $175,000. This is said 
to have been a major Lake Forest fire of this first hundred year 
period, comparable to the 1882 fire which consumed most of the 
business district of the city and the fire which consumed the New 
Hotel in 1877. 

A year later, on April 1 2, 1 947, after careful considerations of 
various suggestions, the Trustees, following a suggestion of former 
Headmaster John Wayne Richards, bought the former J. Ogden 
Armour residence, Mellody Farm, and moved the Academy, lock 
stock and barrel, to this location. The property was bought from 
the Frank J. Lewis Foundation. Headmaster Richards had said in 
the thirties that the Academy had no great future, unless it could 
secure a much larger piece of property for its purposes. He had 
said more specifically that Mellody Farm was the only logical area 
in Lake Forest to house the Academy. 

The Academy trustees had discussed purchasing the Noble B. 
Judah 30-acre property which was more attractively priced and 



afforded better communication facilities, but was not large enough 
for purposes of the needed expansion. When Mr. Lewis had 
bought from The Continental Illinois National Bank of Chicago 
the Mellody Farm, containing some i ,000 acres, he had originally 
intended to promote a new religious institution, but the city 
fathers had interfered with his plans, through an ordinance which 
prevented any additional tax-free institutions from coming into 
Lake Forest. At this point, Mr. Lewis was willing to sell a large 
part of the property, about 600 acres, for approximately the price 
he had paid for the whole. The Rochdale Community Homes, 
Inc., made an offer purported to be in excess of $400,000, in- 
tending to build a co-operative housing community unit. At that 
point several hundred Lake Forest citizens donated over $100,000 
to the Academy so that the latter could purchase Mellody Farm. 

The Academy turned over its Sheridan Road campus to Lake 
Forest College in place of a claimed $1 10,000 remaining indebted- 
ness, incurred by the 1925 dissolution of Lake Forest University 
into three separate institutions : Lake Forest Academy, Ferry Hall, 
and Lake Forest College. This transfer was a great boon to the 
College, increasing its acreage from 60 to 90 acres, and providing 
dormitory space and other housing during the heavy college en- 
rollment of the post-war era, and affording better room for future 

The transference of the school to its fourth home in the new 
location occurred on Sunday April 4, 1948. Twelve hundred peo- 
ple gathered for the occasion. James F. Oates, Jr., was the master 
of ceremonies. Dr. Burtis R. MacHatton, an Academy and Col- 
lege graduate, gave the invocation. Headmaster E. Francis Bow- 
ditch, Peter Zischke of the Student Council, Stuart R. French of 
the Alumni Association, and President of the Trustees John F. 
Fennelly all spoke. 

During the first fifteen years on the new campus, the Academy 
sold 400 acres of land, keeping nearly 200. It has gradually erected 
a well-rounded school plant for a modern boys' preparatory school, 
including dormitory space, gymnasium, swimming pool and ath- 
letic fields. 

The outstanding event of the next decade was the Korean war, 
which started on June 25, 1950. The North Korean Communist 


Youth Programs, 1 946-1 961 

armies invaded South Korea without warning. One of the bright 
spots of that grim 'police action" in which many Lake Foresters 
took part, was an interview by Julian Bentley of WBBM radio sta- 
tion at the front lines with a representative United States soldier. 
The man chosen was James A. Casselberry of Lake Forest. Many 
fellow townsmen were thrilled to hear the broadcast on December 
20, 1951. 

In view of the 1950 census indicating an increase of 619 persons 
in ten years, and a much greater anticipated increase to follow, 
the need for more public schools became apparent. A smaller per- 
centage of the new population was interested in private school 
education, and these schools in turn were unable to expand suffi- 
ciently to satisfy even the existing demand. 

The Board of Education of School district 67 purchased 31.35 
acres of property from Miss Gwethlyn Jones, east of the Skokie 
and south of Deer Path, for $70,000, "to be used by the purchaser 
exclusively for the purposes of education and recreation and no 
other." The contract was signed for this property on January 22, 

Studies were made and general requirements of safety, dura- 
bility, economy and beauty were stated. Plans were drawn up with 
architects, administration, and Board of Education cooperating, 
for the erection of a new school for the upper grades. Ralph Mil- 
man and Childs & Smith, Associated Architects, were secured. 
Their combined work stressed functional interiors and contem- 
porary design, blending the outward appearance into the sur- 
rounding landscape. Openness, privacy, efficiency, light and 
warmth became the theme of each part and of the whole. There 
was a creative use of galleries and arches. A notable innovation was 
the glassed-in central courtyard. The exterior was of high quality 
face brick, trimmed with Bedford stone. The building was in- 
tended for public as well as educational use. 

Bids were received, and John Griffith and Son Construction 
Company was secured as general contractors. Franz Lipp, who was 
hired as the landscape architect, planted the school grounds. The 
school was completed and occupied in the fall of 1954. It received 
the Citation of Merit for excellence in architecture from the 
American Institute of Architects. 


The Deer Path School contained 1 6 classrooms for 400 pupils, 
also an art room, a science room, a dramatics room, a music room, 
a library, a cafeteria, two gymnasiums, and office space. The audi- 
torium contained 481 seats. The equipment for this and the next 
three units was secured by Orville B. Peterson, Assistant to the 
Superintendent of Schools. The grounds afforded ample parking 
facilities and room for outdoor athletics. The total cost of this 
school was $1,385,000. The use of the building and property as 
a Community Center was explored. The flagpole was a gift of 
the Lake Forest Post of the American Legion. 

While the Deer Path School was being erected, the Halsey 
School, which had been built in 1895, enlarged and named after 
Prof. John J. Halsey in 1912, was transferred to the City of Lake 
Forest. It was torn down in 1955, and the entire school area was 
made into a city parking lot. 

At the dedication of the Deer Path School on January 16, 1955, 
Frederick F. Quinlan was Superintendent of Schools. McPherson 
Holt, a grandson of pioneer D. R. Holt was the President of the 
Board of Education, and Dr. John C. Pearson became the first 

The 1953 Lake Forest Day featured "Civilian Defense." This was 
one of the most elaborate ever held. A fleet of jets from the Glen- 
view Naval Air Station flew over the parade and one of the most 
interesting displays was a mobile telephone switchboard unit 
which would serve the civil defense units in the Chicago area in 
an emergency. 

In 1956 George S. Landfield conducted a one man crusade for 
a dog ordinance to prevent the roaming of dogs. The Lake For- 
ester carried several articles pro and con. Great interest was 
aroused and a hearing was held in City Hall on August 6, 1956, 
before a packed audience. Several eloquent speeches were made 
on both sides. The need for an ordinance was due to the increase 
of the dog population to over a thousand (1259 in i960) and to 
several incidents in which people were attacked by packs running 
aimlessly. No ordinance resulted, but the responsibility of dog 
owners was driven home to be mindful of the welfare and feelings 
of neighbors. Older residents began to be conscious of the shrink- 
ing of space with population growth. 


Youth Programs, 19 46-1 961 

In quick succession three more grade schools were built, in dif- 
ferent parts of the growing city, so that the most populous areas 
would have the least transportation problems. Sheridan School, 
at the north end of Lake Forest, on Sheridan Road, and just across 
the street from the location of the old North School, was com- 
pleted and dedicated in 1957. Everett School, in West Lake For- 
est, was dedicated in 1958. The Cherokee School at the south end 
of Green Bay Road should be ready for occupancy by September 

When the construction of additions to the High School and 
new grade schools was proposed by the respective Boards of Edu- 
cation, a criticism was offered to the effect that Lake Forest would 
draw more than its share of newcomers; and thus the character 
of the city would be changed. On the contrary, the newcomers 
have followed the original pattern set at the time of the city char- 
ter, coming to avail themselves of the educational and cultural 
advantages of Lake Forest. 



i 946-1 96 i 

Sometimes Chicago area newspapers, for the sake of humor or 
glamor, have created a false image of Lake Forest. An article in 
the Evanston Review made this remark: 'The economic inter- 
pretation of the north shore's history has several versions, but 
here's the way we understand it: When a Chicago business or 
professional man earns enough to buy two suits of underwear, he 
moves to Evanston. When he can afford two cars, he moves to 
Winnetka or Glencoe. When he can afford two wives and/or a 
yacht, he moves farthest north to Lake Forest." Those who do not 
know the spirit and history of our city, might assume from this 
that all Lake Forest citizens are enormously wealthy, all have 
yachts and many cars, and all practise an unbridled and irrespon- 
sible matrimonial liberty. This image is often projected by de- 
scriptions of parties and weddings which made headlines, because 
of national or international overtones, and receive special treat- 
ment. Many types of businesses like to promote the idea of finan- 
cial superiority by applying to Lake Forest such words as: 
"unique," "exclusive," "prestige community," "village of mil- 
lionaires," and the like. 

The peculiar quality of Lake Forest lies in its dedication to edu- 
cation, and in its exclusion of any industry. Even a private labora- 
tory, for industrial experiments, has been deemed contrary to the 


From Castle to Ranch House, 1 946-1 961 

Ordinances of the city. At the same time, several retail businesses 
have had a long and distinguished service record of fifty years or 
more. Among these, mention should be made of the James Ander- 
son Company, civil engineers; Fitzgerald's Plumbing; French's 
Drug Store and its descendants Wenban & Griffis and Martin's 
Drug Store; John Griffith, real estate; Krafft's Drug Store; Henry 
T. Strenger, Plumbing; Wells & Copithorne and its antecedent, 
Harder's. O'Neill's Hardware, of course, has had a continuous 
existence for nearly a century, being operated by members of the 
same family. 

The business of education has been and remains the basic oc- 
cupation of a great per cent of our population. The combined edu- 
cational system of Lake Forest during the centennial year involves 
a total of 7,188 people. The figure may be a surprise to many. 
Granting that some of the students attending Lake Forest schools 
are not permanent residents and may not be counted among the 
estimated population of 1 1 ,000 of the city; at the same time, more 
than half of the city's residents are connected with one of our 
thirteen schools, in some capacity. The following figures were re- 
ported on November 1 , 1 96 1 : 



Staff Dependents 

Public Grade Schools 




2 75 

Lake Forest College 





Lake Forest High School 





School of St. Mary 





Barat College 





Lake Forest Day School 





Academy of the Sacred Heart: 


35 1 




Lake Forest Academy 





Ferry Hall 










Grand Total 7,188. 

Lake Forest has no industries, but among its residents are many 
industrialists. The heads of many businesses and corporations re- 
side in Lake Forest to enjoy the educational environment, the out- 
of-doors, and the privacy in a friendly personalized community. 
They deem the quiet life away from the scenes of the metropolitan 
marketplace a welcome contrast. 



Lake Forest citizens are proud of the many leaders who have 
lived here, some of whom are in the following list: J. Ogden 
Armour, President of Armour & Company; Clifford Barnes, 
founder and President of the Sunday Evening Club; Hobart 
Chatfield-Taylor, author; E. A. Cudahy, President Cudahy Pack- 
ing Company; A. B. Dick, President of A. B. Dick & Company; 
T. E. Donnelley, Chairman of the Board, R. R. Donnelley & Sons 
Company; Henry C. Durand, President of Durand Brothers; 
J. V. Farwell, President of J. V. Farwell & Company; C. B. 
Farwell, U.S. Senator; Charles S. Frost, Architect; Alfred Hoyt 
Granger, Architect; John J. Halsey, educator and author; Ernest 
A. Hamill, President of Corn Exchange Bank; D. R. Holt, Presi- 
dent of Holt & Balcom; Marvin Hughitt, President of Chicago 
and Northwestern Railroad; Noble Brandon Judah, Ambassador 
to Cuba; William V. Kelley, President of American Steel Found- 
ries; Robert Patterson Lamont, Secretary of Commerce; William 
Mather Lewis, President of Lafayette College; Clayton Mark, 
President of Clayton Mark & Company; Cyrus H. McCormick, 
President of International Harvester Company and member of 
Diplomatic Mission to Russia in 1-917; John T. McCutcheon, 
author, cartoonist, philosopher; D. R. McLennan, President 
Marsh & McLennan Inc.; Admiral William Adger Moffett, U.S. 
Navy; Sterling Morton, Chairman of the Board of Morton Salt 
Company; Walter Neef, European head of the Associated Press; 
John T. Pirie, Jr., President Carson, Pirie, Scott & Company; 
Edward A. Ryerson, President of Ryerson Steel Company; 
Delevan Smith, President United Press; Albert A. Sprague, Presi- 
dent, Sprague, Warner & Company; Louis F. Swift, President of 
Swift & Company; Robert J. Thorne, President Montgomery 
Ward; Howard Van Doren Shaw, architect; Frederick Wacker, 
Sr., President Chicago Plan Commission; Ezra J. Warner, Presi- 
dent Sprague, Warner & Company; Percy Wilson, President 
Wilson Mortgage & Finance Corporation. 

Among the current residents, who are well known beyond our 
borders, are: Dorothy Aldis, author; Waldo M. Allen, President 
Mayflower Society; John D. Ames, President U.S. Golf Associa- 
tion; General William H. Arnold, General of 5 th Army; Ralph 
Bard, Under Secretary of the Navy; Lilace Reid Barnes, President 
of the World Y.W.C.A.; Otis Carney, author; G. S. "Mickey" 


From Castle To Ranch House, 1 946-1 961 

Cochrane, Baseball Hall of Fame, Most Valuable (twice); Mrs. 
Jane Warner Dick, United Nations; James Douglas, Secretary of 
the Air Force and deputy Secretary of Defense; Stanley Field, 
President of Field Museum; Charles Haffner, Chairman of the 
Board of R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company; Sylvia Shaw Judson, 
artist and sculptress; Mrs. Buell Mullen, metal fresco artist; James 
F. Oates, President of Equitable Life Assurance Company; Ad- 
miral Francis P. Old, U.S. Navy; John S. Reed, Vice President 
(Finance) of Atcheson, Topeka & Santa Fe; Hermon D. Smith, 
President Marsh & McLennan Inc.; Solomon A. Smith, President 
Northern Trust Company; R. Douglas Stuart, Ambassador to 
Canada; General Robert E. Wood, President Sears, Roebuck & 
Company; and others. 

There are several sagas which are peculiar to Lake Forest. A col- 
lection of stories would make colorful reading. They tell about 
Alfred Hamill who played golf for years wearing a stiff collar. It is 
whispered that Solomon A. Smith has played golf at the Onwent- 
sia Club every year for sixty years, though he won't admit it. 

A story involving the high price of medicine dates from the 
depression period. A customer walked into one of our drug stores 
and bought a small but unusual item of medication. The clerk 
walked back of the store and asked the owner what to charge for 
the purchase. He replied: "Charge her 85^." The clerk walked to 
the customer and mumbled the price. She misunderstood the 
quoted price, left 15^ on the counter and walked out. The clerk 
was upset and returning to the owner explained what had hap- 
pened and added: "I don't even know who she is. What do I do 
now?" The owner replied: "Never mind, we made 10^ on the deal 

Another story involves one of our best known citizens who 
passed away. A close friend of the family had just received a box 
of flowers at her house which she hadn't opened. She sent it to 
the church for the funeral. Later, the widow checked through all 
the cards to thank all who had sent flowers. She found a card 
which read: "Happy birthday, and one big smack." 

Everybody liked to tell stories about the Samuel Chase family. 
One of the most unusual involved Mrs. Chase's unorthodox 
driving habits. One day she made a U-turn on a busy intersection 


and completely snarled the traffic. An officer soon untangled the 
mess and in a gruff voice and manner ordered her to the curbing. 
He then walked to her car with ticket and pen in hand and de- 
manded: "What's yer name: 5 " She answered coyly: "My name is 
Mary, what's yours?" The officer was so disarmed by her reply, 
he put away his tickets and said: "All right lady, you can go now!" 

Another story involved Mr. Chase and a cat which adopted his 
family. After a long life the cat died. Then arose the question of 
the suitable disposal of the family pet. The ground was frozen 
rock-hard and deep in snow, so a burial underneath the old apple 
tree in the back yard was not a suitable final resting place. Mrs. 
Chase had an inspiration. She packaged the cat carefully with 
newspaper and then parcelled him neatly in brown paper and 
twine. Mr. Chase took the package with him on the 8 o'clock 
train to Chicago, expecting to drop the package into the Chicago 
River, on the way. Mr. Chase was an avid bridge player. When 
the train pulled into the Northwestern Station, he had forgotten 
to dispose of his burden, so he took it to his office and placed it 
on the window ledge. Homeward bound his secretary gave him 
his winter coat, hat, scarf, boots, and package. 

On the 5:10 train he sat with Horace Martin, an old friend he 
hadn't seen for ages, and they had a fine ride home. As they got 
off at the Lake Forest station, the conductor reminded him of his 
package in the overhead rack. Mrs. Chase met him at the train 
and seemed displeased to see what he was carrying. There were 
some loud exchanges of words as both were quite hard of hearing. 

Home again Mr. Chase tossed his parcel on the kitchen table. 
As the package split open both stood staring at each other and at 
the leg of lamb which emerged. 

Problems of retaining the natural beauty of Lake Forest along 
with health and sanitation, have been constantly before the city 
fathers. During the 1940's the lake was dangerously high. Where 
people used to ride horseback or to take walks along the entire 
shore area of Lake Forest it was no longer possible to do so. The 
high water undermined trees and damaged several homes on the 
bluff in spite of expensive breakwaters which had been erected 
during the previous decades. The sand which formerly drifted to 
the leeward along the waters' edge was now carried into the deep 


From Castle To Ranch House, 19 46-1 961 

waters. All this was accompanied by a city water pollution prob- 
lem which forced the expenditures of considerable sums of money 
in 1947 to lay a 24 inch pipe 3,000 feet out from the shore in 28 
feet of water. The new improvement took care of the 80 miles of 
water pipes and 410 public fire hydrants with sufficient margin 
for the anticipated increases in the coming years. 

A new caucus system, with a broadened electorate was intro- 
duced during World War II, to nominate the Mayor and other 
city officials. Today the caucus has been enlarged further, so that 
it is open to all who care to come and voice their opinions. This 
has increased public interest in all phases of city government. 

On December 5, i960, the Zoning Ordinance was greatly al- 
tered after revisions in 1955, 1957, and 1959. Residential areas 
west of Green Bay Road required 60,000 square feet, east of 
Sheridan Road required 40,000 square feet. Between Washington 
and Sheridan Roads 20,000 square feet were required. Altogether 
ten zones were redefined; five residential, one duplex, one office, 
and one neighborhood shopping, one business and one service. 

The face of Lake Forest has changed appreciably since World 
War II. The new architecture endorses the ranch house, modern 
colonial and modern American. The trend is toward smaller prop- 
erties and smaller homes with a view toward independence in 
maintenance. All dwellings stress light and convenience and rec- 
ognize, for the first time, the existence of the automobile with 
ample garage space. Air conditioning, central heating, and effi- 
cient kitchens are standard requirements. All have stressed the 
building of houses "inside out" instead of ' outside in," but now 
in modern American, an outward beauty is also achieved which 
has enduring quality. The new architecture is often exquisite and 
chaste indicating good taste and charm. 

Among the new generation of architects, Jerome Cerny has 
devised a transitional style of architecture which embodies the 
symmetry and balance of the Georgian in outline but which incor- 
porates all the essentials of convenience, efficient operation and 
low maintenance. He has designed houses not only in Lake Forest, 
but in many parts of the country, and has just completed one in 
the Bahamas. In i960 I. W. "Ike" Colburn was awarded the 
American Institute of Architect's National Award for the William 
L. McLennan house on Lake Road. The house was cited as having 



the classic ideals of order, dignity and controlled sensuousness. In 
May 1 96 1 the McLennan house was the subject of a Life maga- 
zine article titled "The Romantic Swing in Architecture." He also 
designed the Bath and Tennis Club buildings and outlay, on the 
north end of Green Bay Road. Boyd Hill has achieved a happy 
inward and outward beauty combined with utility by "striving 
toward the modern with a traditional feeling." Herman Lackner, 
too, realizing the varying tastes of our cosmopolitan and hetero- 
geneous community, has been able to please his constituents and 
meet local needs. Ralph Milman, following the classical French 
architecture of Gabriel Jacques Ange, has designed a modernized 
version of Le Hermitage one tenth the size of the original and 
containing electric heating, a modern small kitchen, no fireplace 
and no chimney. This house was built for the Edward Cummings 
at 999 Green Bay Road. Stanley D. Anderson Associates have de- 
signed some of our most attractive homes in the Georgian style, 
also several public buildings. 

Many public and private buildings are proud of some work of 
art, some little gem which adorns it. The annual art exhibits in 
Market Square stress the high quality of the work of the large 
colony of artists who are Lake Forest residents. One of these, 
Sylvia Shaw Judson, a daughter of the man who designed the 
Market Square, has pleased many with the high quality of her 
sculpture. On July 9, 1959, her heroic statue of Mary Dyer was 
dedicated on the grounds of the Massachusetts State House. She 
was the Quaker martyr who was hanged on the Boston Common 
in 1660. The statue, remarkable for its depiction of strength and 
serenity, is a witness to the concept of freedom. 

New subdivisions with diverse architecture have mushroomed 
over the 15.2 square miles of Lake Forest. We have 96 miles of 
paved streets. There are 300 acres of public parks, a high ratio of 
open space to private homes and properties. In 1958 $5,820,259 
of new private and institutional construction was started. The 
1950 census showed a population of 7,819; in 1955 it increased 
to 8,963; in i960 it rose to 10,658. The 1961 census is estimated 
at 11,300. Births have numbered about 120 each of the last six 
years; deaths about 50. The assessed evaluation has now passed 


From Castle To Ranch House, 1 946-1 961 

Other miscellaneous vital statistics show that in i960 22,000 
people used the beach, 26,074 rounds of golf were played at the 
Deerpath Golf Club, 56 fires occurred in buildings, 4,899 pas- 
senger cars were licensed, 325 automobile accidents and 20 auto 
thefts were reported, 1,259 dog licenses were issued, 585,073,000 
gallons of water were purified and delivered to 2,653 customers; 
the Library containing 54,649 volumes circulated 81,169 books; 
1,370 pupils attended public schools; eighty teachers taught in 
58 class-rooms; 3,463 man hours of work was employed for snow 
and ice control. 

Trees on parkways, roads and parks include 4,594 elms, 2,562 
oaks, 1,146 hard maple, 901 ash, 533 locust, 383 hawthorne, 220 
hickory, 195 linden, 121 cedar, 118 cottonwood, 100 willow, 95 
aspen, 91 spruce, 91 wild cherry, 71 boxelder, 55 white pine, 42 
balsam fir, 35 walnut, 27 buckeye, 25 apple, 17 birch, 16 blue 
beech, and a considerable variety of others, totalling 1 1,478 trees. 

In 1940 the City of Lake Forest received ^j acres in the south- 
east corner of the City which has become a unique forest preserve. 
This is probably the only forest preserve of this kind in the coun- 
try, comprising virgin timber and 600 feet of lake front. 

Lake Forest is one large park, its trees being its glory. In the 
spring, the delicate sprouting of trees and shrubbery cover the 
city with a cloak of unsurpassed beauty. White and red oaks, red 
maple, hickory, elm and the hundreds of imported varieties of 
pines, elms, beeches, and poplars, display their richness in the 
summer growth. In the fall, nature is most generous with its bril- 
liant shades of red and yellow, when every street competes with 
every other in natures most colorful display: when the beeches 
glow, maples burn and oaks smoulder. Some like Lake Forest, in 
her winter garb, when a sudden cold snap brings varieties of glit- 
tering splendor, all beyond description. 

A host of citizens have preserved and enhanced this beauty. 
The unsung heroes are the hundreds of gardeners who have 
gathered here from all parts of Europe, to share their knowledge 
and skill, to introduce new varieties, to experiment with others, 
and to cooperate with nature to make our little world a beautiful 
spot in which to live. 

Another group deserving of praise, especially for the hundreds 
of lovely gardens in Lake Forest, are members of the Lake Forest 



Garden Club, who, by dint of hard work and application, have 
gathered a great fund of knowledge and applied their findings. 
They seem to believe that happiness can only be achieved by 
creating a garden of one's own. It is rumored that many a Lake 
Forest matron would prefer a load of manure for her garden to 
the gift of a new pearl necklace. 

Lake Forest, being heterogeneous and cosmopolitan, is not for 
all who come an easy place in which to live. We have here a com- 
plicated social structure with endless groups made up from va- 
rieties of interests, most of them originating in the great city 
nearby. To some, party or prominence is the whole of life. Others 
are absorbed in their own business or profession, finding it difficult 
to find time for new friends. Through patience and friendliness 
many have made friends, thus making their residence here a happy 
experience for all. 

In 1957 Lake Forest Academy, Ferry Hall, and Lake Forest Col- 
lege celebrated the centennial of the chartering of Lind Univer- 
sity, the first Lake Forest charter. At the centennial dinner, in 
Durand Commons of Lake Forest College, Harold H. Corbin, Jr., 
Headmaster of Lake Forest Academy, said: 

We meet to bid goodbye to a dying century and ring in the second 
hundred years of a great educational enterprise. It is no secret that 
the perilous decisions of our day make clear the need for intellectual 
and moral discipline on a scale never before contemplated in America's 
history. The City of Lake Forest, born in an educational dream, should 
never allow itself to forget that in one vital sense it is a manufacturing 
town— not merely residential— and its sole demonstrable product is edu- 
cation. In this city of 9,000 persons, some 13 schools are far, far out of 
proportion in number and excellence to the size of the city; they em- 
brace virtually the whole range of American education— public, inde- 
pendent, sectarian; primary, elementary, secondary, collegiate; coedu- 
cational, boys, girls, boarding and day. 

By geography and inclination, by tradition and service, by resources 
and desire, education in Lake Forest must continue to flourish and 
abound. Let no citizen imperfectly understand this reality and this 
hope. The example of this community is of incalculable value as an 
inspiration and a pattern for other cities. 

I would hope, and this most deeply, that the College, Ferry Hall, 
and the Academy, having shared the same nest, and having explored, 


From Castle To Ranch House, 1946-1961 

in their fledgling century, the diverging paths of their special missions, 
will find in the years ahead a new spiritual if not a corporate bond. 
We, in our individual services to that process called youth, have much 
to share together, and even more to offer to the city of our founding. 

The Academy spread out its centennial celebrations over the 
entire year of 1957. A Centennial Ball with several hundred 
guests was held in Reid Hall. The General Robert E. Wood 
house, a residence to be built for the Headmaster, was announced. 
An anniversary booklet was published. Robert Frost, the American 
Poet Laureate, was a guest of the school for a week, and read his 
award-winning poems before a large audience. Dr. Harold W. 
Dodds, President of Princeton University, was entertained by a 
group of a hundred friends and graduates of Princeton, at the 
Onwentsia Club, then lectured before a large audience in Glore 
Gymnasium, praising the Academy for its role as a leading unit 
of secondary education. He spoke of the leadership, foresight and 
courage of her faculties. He said it was 

founded by Calvinists, who felt learning and piety were the two main 
achievements of a man's life. One of the heresies of American educa- 
tion is that democracy means equality at the polls and in education. 
The fear of intellectual snobbery is one of the deterrents of quality 
education. Schools like Lake Forest Academy must be kept strong to 
protect American freedom. 

The 1959 centennial celebration of the First Presbyterian Church 
of Lake Forest included a banquet at the Calvin Durand Com- 
mons with Arthur R. McKay, President of McCormick Theologi- 
cal Seminary as the chief speaker. This was especially suitable 
since the first President of the Seminary, Dr. James G. K. Mc- 
Clure, was pastor of this Church and one time President of Lake 
Forest University. Photographs were collected and a small but 
informative anniversary historical pamphlet was written by Louis 
E. Laflin, Jr., and Edward Arpee. The great anniversary effort 
consisted of a campaign to raise $500,000 for an expansion pro- 
gram to improve the facilities for Christian education and other 
services of the church. 

The city's centennial celebration was also a whole year's affair. It 
included a Garden Club series of exhibits in the windows of Lake 



Forest business houses, June 28-29, a Lake Forest College Ten- 
panel historical exhibit under the direction of John Anderson of 
Lake Forest College and Robert Vogel of the Lake County Mu- 
seum, Wadsworth, Illinois. This exhibit was on display at the 
College Library for ten days, and then moved to City Hall, where 
it continued for two more weeks. The Lake Forest Public Library 
displayed several different exhibits composed of books, maps and 
pictures related to the one hundred years of Lake Forest history. 

One of the most exciting Centennial events was Lake Forest 
Day, on August 2, which did double duty celebrating the Civil 
War as well. Thousands lined the parade route— Western, Deer 
Path, and Green Bay Road to West Park— they were mostly chil- 
dren, wearing headgear reminiscent of the Civil War centennial. 
Louis Ellsworth Laflin, Jr., was at the "mike" at the head of 
Market Square, the parade judges were Mr. and Mrs. Harold 
H. Corbin of Lake Forest Academy, Dr. and Mrs. Robert G. 
Andrus of Ferry Hall, and Dr. and Mrs. William Graham Cole 
of Lake Forest College. Two Spanish-American war veterans were 

The 9:30 siren started off the children's parade with a hundred 
children of a few months to a few years old taking part in two 
dozen displays. Though slow moving, it has always been one of 
the most interesting to the audience. The second siren at 10 
o'clock announced the adult parade which was led by Mayor and 
Mrs. George R. Beach, Jr., driven in an antique Packard touring 
car by Mrs. Charles H. Brown. As usual, the Lake Forest Ameri- 
can Legion Rifle Squad came next, followed by the Fifth Army 
Band and a Company of crack riflemen. 

In all there were more than a dozen bands including one from 
Great Lakes. The long ribbon of music was punctuated by showers 
of ball-point pens and an assortment of wrapped candies tossed 
upon the boys and girls along the streets. There were many re- 
minders of the years past: A conestoga wagon reminded us of the 
pioneers; a Treasure chest bore the inscription "The Treasured 
Years'— the hundred years. An 1880 model bicycle, owned by 
Stanley Kiddle, was ridden in style and showmanship over the 
parade area; several O'Neill carriages were reminiscent of Lake 
Forest businesses in the 1870's onward. It was unfortunate that 
the Julian Matthews' original sleigh which had served as a taxi 


From Castle To Ranch House, 1 946-1961 

in Lake Forest, not being seasonable, could not be displayed. Two 
dozen exhibitions advertised medicines, beverages and cars. One 
of the most impressive was the Hawthorne-Mellody wagon with 
a team of six huge horses. Hardly had these passed when a North- 
western streamliner roared by parallel to the parade. 

The crowds and the floats gathered at West Park where prizes 
were announced. This was followed by various races, baseball, 
rides and all the carnival that continued until midnight. 

Perhaps the most significant centennial effort was the dinner 
in the college Field House on February 18, when a pageant of 
the first City Council meeting was presented, followed by an ad- 
dress by Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona before 1,300. The 
Invocation by William Graham Cole at this dinner seemed to 
condense the hopes and dreams of all, when he prayed: 

O Thou who art the Lord of years, the Potentate of Time; one 
hundred years in Thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, but to 
us it is a long time; a time to remember, a time to celebrate. Bless us as 
we gather here tonight, looking to our past with pride and to our future 
with faith. We thank Thee for what we have been, a City of homes, 
a City of culture, a City that has cared and dared. Grant that as we go 
forward into our second century, we may continue with the courage, 
the vision and the faith of our forebears, to build here a community 
always mindful of Thy favor and glad to do Thy will. Keep us grate- 
ful to those who have gone before us, who have given of themselves 
and their substance to make us what we are. They are with us in spirit 
in this hour, and we touch hands with them across the barriers of time, 
in glad remembrance and happy hope. Grant that we may individually 
and severally leave our town better than we found it, and to Thee be 
the glory and the honor and praise now and for ever more. Amen. 

William Holt Spalding, great great grandson of pioneer D. R. 
Holt, was born at Lake Forest Hospital the night of the Cen- 
tennial dinner. 




i. Mayors of Lake Forest 

tration Mayor Tenure of Office 

i i. Harvey M. Thompson First Term 1 861-1865 

2 2. William S. Johnston, Jr 1865-1866 

3 3. David J. Lake 1866-1867 

4 Harvey M. Thompson . . . .Second Term 1 867-1 868 

5 4. Sylvester Lind First Term 1 868-1 870 

6 5. Samuel Ezra Barnum First Term 1 870-1 871 

7 6. John V. Farwell 1871-1872 

8 Samuel Ezra Barnum Second Term 1 872-1 874 

9 Sylvester Lind Second Term 1 874-1 877 

10 7. Amzi Benedict First Term 1877-1878 

11 Sylvester Lind Third Term 1 878-1 879 

12 Samuel Ezra Barnum Third Term 1 879-1 881 

13 Sylvester Lind Fourth Term 1881-1884 

14 Amzi Benedict Second Term 1884-1885 

15 8. Joseph B. Durand 1886-1888 

16 9. Moses L. Scudder 1888-1889 

17 10. Walter C. Larned 1889-1891 

18 11. Calvin Durand 1891-1895 

19 12. Edward F. Gorton 1895-1902 

20 13. Mark Morton 1902-1903 



21 14. Fredrik Herman Gade First Term 1 903-1 906 

22 15. David H. Jackson 1906-1909 

23 Fredrik Herman Gade .... Second Term 1 909-1 910 

24 16. C. Frederick Childs 1910-191 1 

25 17. JohnT. Pirie, Jr 1911-1914 

26 18. Leverett Thompson 1914-1915 

27 19. William Mather Lewis 1915-1917 

28 20. Keene H. Addington 1917-1919 

29 21. Henry A. Rumsey 1919-1925 

30 22. Farwell Winston 1 925-1928 

31 23. Albert B. Dick, Jr 1928-193 1 

32 24. Albert D. Farwell 1931-1934 

33 25. Francis E. Manierre I 934 -I 937 

34 26. Kent Chandler 1937-1940 

35 27. Richard H. Mabbatt 1940-1943 

36 28. Charles F. Clarke 1943-1946 

37 29. Edward K. Welles 1 946-1948 

38 30. John O. Giles 1948-1951 

39 31. W. Paul McBride 1951-1954 

40 32. Elliott Donnelley 1954-1957 

41 33. Morrison Waud ^ 1957-1960 

42 34. George R. Beach, Jr 1960-1963 

2. Lake Forest Population 

Ten Year 
Year Population Increase 

i860 300? 

1870 800 500 

1 880 1 ,ooo 200 

1890 1,750 750 

1900 2,215 465 

1910 3>3°° 1*085 

1920 3>6oo 300 

1930 6,500 2,900 

1940 7,200 700 

1950 7*819 619 

i960 10,658 2,839 


lake forest, illinois 
3. Lake Forest Annexations 

Square Miles 
Original Plat 3.262 

November 11, 1894. .245 Generally the High School area. North 

of Woodland Road to Lake Bluff. East 
of the Northwestern tracks to Sheri- 
dan Road. 

August 22, 1899. . . 1.638 Township line on North to Old Elm in 

the South. From Lake Michigan to a 
N.S. line from Onwentsia Stables. 

September 2, 1907. .056 Atteridge Road South, including West 


April 2, 1912 005 Small triangle between Laurel Avenue 

and west of the Northwestern tracks. 

May 12, 1926 9.000 Area generally west of the Skokie High- 

May 2, 1927 402 Knollwood Club area. 

April 1,1957 611 Part of Vernon Township east of the Toll 

Road and south of Everett Road. 

Total 15.219 Square Miles 

4. Principals and Headmasters of 
Lake Forest Academy 

1. Samuel Fisher Miller, A.M., Principal 1 858-1 862 

2. Prof. Milford C. Butler, Principal 1 862-1 864 

3. Lewis M. Johnson, M.A., Principal 1864-1868 

4. Dr. Edmund Adams Jones, Principal 1 868-1 869 

5. Ira W. Allen, Principal 1869-1874 

6. Albert R. Sabin, Principal 1874-1879 

7. Walter L. Rankin, A.M., Principal 1 879-1 881 

8. Samuel Woods, A.M., Principal 1 881-1883 

9. Rev. Alexander G. Wilson, D.D., Principal 1 883-1 887 

10. Rev. George R. Cutting, M.A., Principal 1 887-1 890 

11. Charles Alden Smith, M.A., Principal 1 890-1 897 

12. Alfred Gardner Welch, M.A., Headmaster 1 897-1900 

13. Conrad Hibbeler, Acting Headmaster 1 900-1 901 

14. Joseph Curtis Sloane, Headmaster 1 901-1905 



15. William Mather Lewis, Headmaster 1905-1913 

16. John Wayne Richards, Headmaster 1913-1941 

17. Ebenezer Francis Bowditch, Headmaster 1941-1951 

18. Harold H. Corbin, Headmaster 1951- 

5. Principals of Ferry Hall 

1. Edward P. Weston 1869-1876 

2. Emily M. Noyes (Lady Principal) 1 869-1 872 

3. Martha Sprague 1876-1878 

4. Rev. Alexander G. Wilson 1878-1880 

5. Mrs. Esther E. Thompson 1880-1886 

6. Sarah M. Van Vleck 1886-1887 

7. Levi Seeley 1887-1894 

8. Dr. J. M. Coulter 1894-1895 

9. Sabra L. Sargent 1895-1904 

10. Frances L. Hughes 1904-1914 

11. Miriam S. Converse (Acting Principal) 1914-1915 

12. Marion Coats 1915-1918 

13. Eloise Ruthven Tremain 1918-1945 

14. Frances Wallace ^ 1945-1958 

1 5. Rev. Robert Gardner Andrus !958- 

6. Presidents of Lake Forest College 

1. Rev. Robert Wilson Patterson, D.D 1 875-1 877 

2. John H. Hewitt (Acting President) 1 877-1 878 

3. Rev. Daniel S. Gregory, D.D 1878-1886 

4. Rev. William C. Roberts, D.D., LL.D 1 886-1 892 

5. Rev. James G. K. McClure, D.D. (Pres. pro tern) 1 892-1 893 

6. John M. Coulter, Ph.D 1893-1896 

7. Prof. John J. Halsey (Acting President) 1 896-1 897 

8. Rev. James G. K. McClure, D.D 1 897-1901 

9. Rev. Richard Davenport Harlan 1 901-1906 

10. Prof. John J. Halsey (Acting President) 1 906-1 907 

11. John Scholte Nollen, Ph.D 1907-1917 

12. Henry Wilkes Wright (Acting President) 191 8-1920 

13. Herbert McComb Moore, D.D 1921-1942 

14. Ernest Johnson (Acting President) 1942- 1944 

15. Ernest Johnson 1944-1959 

16. William Graham Cole 1960- 



7. Pastors of St. Patrick's Church 

1 . Rev. John Guegnin c. 1 840 Missionary from Waukegan 

2. Rev. Bernard McGorrish 

3. Rev. James Kean 

4. Rev. John Hampstead 1852 

5. Rev. Henry Coyle 1854 

6. Rev. John McGee 1855 First Resident Pastor 

7. Rev. Edward O'Reilly 1900 

8. Rev. Thomas Quinn 1910 

9. Rev. William Ryan 

10. Rev. James Fielding 

11. Rev. Lawrence Daly 1937-195 1 

12. Rev. Raymond T. McCarthy . 1951- 

8. Clergy Stationed at St. Mary's Church 

1. Rev. J. Coyle 1859-1860 

2. Rev. William Herbert 1860-1861 

3. Rev. William M. Phew 1861-1862 

4. Rev. P. O'Dwyre 1862-1866 

5. Rev. J. W. Kennedy 1866-1867 

6. Rev. M. Lyons 1867-1868 

7. Rev. Dominick Egan 1868 

8. Rev. M. Donohoe 1868 

9. Rev. P. L. Hendricks 1868-1869 

10. Rev. P. T. McElherne 1869 

11. Rev. James Maloney 1869-1872 

12. Rev. R. H. McGuire 1872-1875 

13. Rev. James J. McGovern 1875-1880 

14. Rev. M. Welby 1880-1881 

15. Rev. Thomas Carroll 1881-1883 

16. Rev. J. H. Grogan 1883-1890 

17. Rev. Edward O'Reilly 1 893-1906 

18. Rev. Francis J. Barry 1906-1923 

19. Rev. John J. O'Hearn 1923-193 1 

20. Rev. Charles A. Murphy 1931-1941 

21. Rt. Rev. Msgr. Thomas Vincent Shannon, LL.D 1 941-1959 

22. Rev. Robert J. Madden l 959~ 



9. Pastors of the First Presbyterian Church 

1. William C. Dickinson 1864-1867 

2. James H. Taylor 1868-1875 

3. William R. Brown 1877-1881 

4. James Gore King McClure 1881-1905 

5. W. H. Wray Boyle 1905-1913 

6. George Roberts I 9 I 5~ I 935 

7. William Oliver Brackett 1936-1945 

8. Robert Gardner Andrus 1946-1957 

9. Richard H. Hutchison 1958- 

10. Rectors of the Church of the Holy Spirit 


1. Owen J. Davies 1902-1904 

2. Albert Glenn Richards 1904-1912 

3. John Herbert Edwards 1912-1922 

4. Herbert W. Prince 1923-1946 

5. Wood B. Carper, Jr 1946-1956 

6. George F. Tittmann 1956-1962 

1 1 . Lake Forest Architects 

1. Adler, David 

15. Lackner, Herman 

2. Anderson, Stanley D. 

16. Lindeberg, Harris T. 

3. Cerny, Jerome 

17. Milman, Ralph 

4. Clark, Edwin H. 

18. Morphett, A. S. 

5. Cobb, Henry Ives 

19. Olmsted, Frederick Law 

6. Colburn, I. W. 

20. Perkins, Frederick W. 

7. Dangler, Henry C. 

21. Piatt, Charles A. 

8. Farwell, Granger 

22. Rogers, James Gamble 

9. Frazier, Walter 

23. Shaw, Howard Van Doren 

10. Frost, Charles Sumner 

24. Suter, W. Lindsay 

11. Granger, Alfred 

25. Warren, William Arthur 

12. Heun, Arthur 

26. White, Sanford 

13. Hill, Boyd 

27. Whitehouse, Meredith 

14. Jobson, C. E. 

28. Zimmerman, W. C. 



Anderson, George. A Personal History of Lake Forest's Pioneer Resident. 

Andreas, A. T. History of Chicago, The Lakeside Press, 1 884. 

Anonymous. A Biography of James Gore King McClure. 

Articles of the Lake Forest Association. February 28, 1856. The Demo- 
cratic Job Office, Chicago. 

Barnet, James. Martyrs and Heroes of Illinois in the Great Rebellion, 

Beautiful Suburban Towns. The Chicago and North Western Railway. 

Bross, William. History of Chicago. 1880. 

Bryant, William Cullen. Picturesque America. D. Appleton & Company. 


Campbell, Neil N. and Vaughn, F. A. Lighting a Residential Suburb. Re- 
printed from the American City. 1930. 

Chamberlin, Everett. Chicago and its Suburbs. T. A. Hungerford & Co. 

Coulter, John M. Lake Forest University. Herald Publishing Company. 

Currey, J. Seymour. Chicago, Its History and Builders. 191 2. 
Diamond Jubilee of the Archdiocese of Chicago. 1920. 
Ehrlicher, James G. A History of Lake Forest Academy. The Caxy. 1933. 
Facts for Lake Foresters. The League of Women Voters. 19 50-1 960. 
Ferry, Abby Farwell. Reminiscences of John V. Farwell. Ralph Fletcher 

Seymour. 1928. 
Field, Stanley. History of Old Elm. 
Flinn, John J. History of the Chicago Police. 1887. 



Forest Gem, The. Newspaper, 1 861-1863. 

Truxell, F. M. A Physiography of the Region of Chicago. University of 

Chicago Press. 1927. 
Gale, Edwin O. Reminiscences of Early Chicago. 1902. 
Gilbert, Paul Thomas. Chicago and Makers. 1929. 
Granger, Alfred H. Reminiscences of the Winter Club. 
Haines, Elijah M. Historical and Statistical Sketch of Lake County. 1852. 

History of Lake County. William Le Baron & Co. 1877. 

Haley, J. E. The XIT Ranch of Texas. Lakeside Press. 1929. 
Halsey, John Julius. History of the University. 1892. 

A History of Lake County. R. S. Bates, Philadelphia. 191 2. 

Historical Sketch of Lake Forest University. American Communities 

Company. 1916. 
Harrison, Carter. Stormy Years, 1935. 

Growing Up with Chicago, 1944. 

Historical Pictorial Review. Udell Printing Company. 1923. 
Hughitt, Marvin. The Illinois Central Magazine, September 1925. 
Ingraham, Charles A. Elmer Ellsworth. The University of Chicago Press. 

Jackson, Johnathan J. Lake Forest in the 1890*5. M. S. 1955. 
Kirkland, Caroline. Chicago Yesterdays. Daughaday and Co. 191 9. 
Kirkland, Joseph. The History of Chicago. 1894. 
Know Your Town. League of Women Voters. 193 8- 1939. 
Lake Forest Association. Minutes of the Board of Trustees. 
Lake Forest News. 1 929-1 943. 
Lake Forester, The 
Le Baron. History of Lake County. 
Little Fort Porcupine. Waukegan newspaper. 1845. 
Masters, Edgar Lee. The Tale of Chicago. 1933. 
McClure, Rev. J. G. K. Lake Forest University, 1893. 

Report of the President, 1 897-1 901. 

History of the Presbyterian Church, 1905. 

A Pastorate of Twenty-Four Years, 1905. 

The History of Ferry Hall, 1906. 

Historical Address, 1921. 

McGann, Mrs. Robert Greaves. Early Lake Forest. Daughaday and Co. 

Manierre, George. Reminiscences of Lake Forest Academy. The Illinois 

State Historical Society. October 191 7. 
Minutes of the Session of the First Presbyterian Church of Lake Forest. 
Nordyke, Lewis. Cattle Empire. Morrow. 1949. 
Onwentsia Club. 50th Anniversary Celebration. 1945. 
Our Suburbs. From The Sunday Times, May 4, 1873, Chicago. 
Pease, Theodore Calvin. The Story of Illinois. 
Quaife, Milo M. Chicago's Highways, Old and New. 
Randall. Colonel Elmer Ellsworth. Little Brown & Co., i960. 
Randall, Frank A. History of Chicago Buildings. 1949. 



Reichelt, Marie Ward. History of Deerfield, Illinois. Deerfield Post 738, 

American Legion. 
Reminiscences of Chicago During the Great Fire. The Lakeside Press. 

Runnion, James B. Out of Town. From The Chicago Times. 1869. 
Schick, L. Chicago and its environs. 1891. 
Shea, John Gilmony. Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley. 

Smith, Hermon Dunlap. The Desplaines River. The Cuneo Press. 1940. 
Waukegan Daily News. Articles on Lake County, Lake Forest, and Great 

Lakes Naval Training Station. 
White, Marian A. Second Book of the North Shore. 1 9 1 1 . 
Wissler, Clark. The American Indian. Oxford University Press. 1938. 
Yesterday and Today. A History of the Chicago & North Western Railway 

System. 1910. 




Abram Poole vs. City of Lake Forest, 

174, 175 
Academy (see Lake Forest Academy) 
Addington, Mayor K. H., 196 
African Methodist Episcopal Church, 

76, 118, 149 
Aiken, Edward H., 33, 38, 42, 68 
Alcott School, 125, 162 
Aldis, Arthur, 155, 156, 176 
Aldrich, Mayor F. C, 161 
Alice Home Hospital, 152 
Allen, J. Durand, 102, 117, 151 
Allouez, Father, 7 
American Legion, 125, 196 
American Medical Association, 66 
Anderson, James, 53, 58, 60, 76, 102, 

145, 197 
Anderson Store, 81, 127, 160, 165 
Andreas, 16 
Andrews, Edmund, 66 
Animals, 28, 40, 46 
Architects, 259, 260 
Armour, Jonathan Ogden, 188-190, 


Arnold Arboretum, 146 
Arnold, General W. H., 230 
Art Institute Club, 149 
Atteridge, Fanny, 92, 95, 119 
Atteridge, Thomas, 21, 50 
Atteridge, William, 21, 42, 50, 51, 167 
Automobile, 158, 159, 180 


Baggett, John E., 224, 225 

Bailey, Erastus, 58, 62, 64, 65 

Baker, Alfred L., 147, 152 

Baldwin, Elizabeth, 58 

Baldwin, John, 97 

Baldwin, W. A., 37 

Ballard, Bland, 161 

Bank, First National, 169, 218 

Baptist Church, 124, 149 

Barat College, 148, 165 

Barker, Miss Gertrude, 164, 225 

Barnes, Clifford Webster, 148, 172 

Barnum, Ezra S., 77, 94 

Bartlett, Rev. C. L., 57, 64 

Bardett, Edward J., 49, 98 



Baseball, 48, 98, 112, 133, 213 

Beecher, Rev. Henry Ward, 50, 61 

Beecher, Roxanna, 61, 79 

Beiderbeck, Bix, 203 

Bell, Allen C, 125 

Bell School, See Alcott School 

Benedict, Amzi, 31, 34, 37, 76, 86, 97 

Benedict, Caroline, 95, 119 

Bentley, Cyrus, 107 

Bicycles, 107 

Birds, 28, 46, 182, 183 

Birmingham, John, 20, 26, 97 

Birmingham, John (Jr.), 104 

Bixby, Edmund, 36, 38 

Black, John, 64 

Black Hawk War, 7, 16 

Blackler, Samuel, 81, 128, 138 

Blodgett, Judge Henry W., 34, 101 

Booze robberies, 202 

Boyle, Dr. W. H. Wray, 166 

Boys' Classical School, 42 

Bradley, Carl, 56, 78 

Bridges, 39, 79, 84, 127, 170 

Brooks, Asabel L., 34 

Bross, William, 26, 47, 75, 88-91, 94 

Brown, Annie M., 77, 163 

Brown, Lockwood, 42, 57 

Brown, William H., 34 

Buckingham, Ebenezer, 97, 138, 164 

Buckingham, John, 86 

Butler, Prof. Milford C, 43, 79 

Calvert, Frank C, 64, 142, 162 

Carolan, Patrick, 18 

Carpenter, Philo, 66 

Carr, Clyde, 122 

Carter, Thomas Butler, 31, 34, 37 

Cassady, Captain Thomas G. 

(U.S.N.), 231 
Casselberry, James A., 251 
Cemetery, 45, 60, 78, 111, 200 
Centennial, 40, 97, 153, 262-265 
Century of Progress, 222, 223 

Chamberlain, Franklin W., 34 

Chandler, Charles Vilasco, 46, 57, 69, 
' Chandler, Mayor Kent, XII 

Chandler, Grace Tuttle, 160 

Chapin, J. P., 37 

Chapin, E. F., 140 

Chapman, Frederick, 69, 70 

Chapman, John, 140 

Charter, City, 64, 79, 83, 253 

Chatfield-Taylor, Hobart, 144 

Chicago Daily Journal, 13, 91, 150 

Chicago Daily News, 116 

Chicago Daily Post, 93 

Chicago-Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
road, 103 

Chicago and Northwestern Railroad 
Co., see Northwestern Railroad 

Chicago Tribune, 75, 88, 91, 102 

Chicago World's Fair, 135 

Childs, Mayor C. Frederick, 56, 178 

Church of the Holy Spirit, 163 

Churchill, Winston, 157 

City Council, 65, 76, 78, 79, 81, 83, 

City Hall, 53, 152, 153, 163 

City Seal, 112 

Civil War, 49, 53,66-84 

Civil War Music, 151 

Clark, Patrick, 64 

Clark, Edward D., 48 

Clark, Thomas R., 21, 31, 37, 38, 45, 
50, 57, 62, 68 

Clarke, Mayor Charles F., 244 

Clark's Ravine, 27, 173 

Coaches, stage, 17, 21, 133 

Cobb, George, 161 

Cobb, Henry Ives, 116, 144, 145 

Coeducation, 98 

Cole, Thomas, 36 

Cole, William Graham, 260 

Colfax, Hon Schuyler, 50 

College Buildings, 100, 104, 132, 169 

Community Center, 245-248 

Conlon, Patrick, 21, 34 

Conolly, Admiral Richard L., 231 



Contagious Hospital, 171 
Cook, George, 64 
Cornelli Map, 7 
Coyle, Father, 18 
Cramer, Ambrose, 138, 147 
Culver, Helen, 184 
Curtis, Rev. Harvey, 30, 34 
Cutting, Rev. George R., 125 


Davis, Dr. Nathan S., 66 

Day, Albert M., 152 

Day, Charles R., 37 

Debuts, 149 

Debs, Eugene V., 137 

Deer Path, 35, 39, 41, 47, 53, 62, 

63, 101 
Deerpath Golf Course, 206 
Deerpath Inn, 95, 96, 129, 143, 155 
Deer Path School, 252 
DeKoven, Reginald, 94, 108, 113 
Dent, Samuel, 71, 117, 164 
Dental Surgery, College of, 134 
Desencamper, Elizabeth, 58 
Des Plaines River, 4, 8, 15, 46 
Deville, Titus, 66 
Dick, Albert B., 86, 136, 227 
Dickinson, C. E., 45 
Dickinson House, 54, 104 
Dickinson, Rev. Baxter, 48, 54, 64 
Dickinson Seminary for Young Ladies, 

48, 54, 83 
Dickinson, Rev. William C, 45, 58, 

59, 64, 69, 76 
Din, H. D., 79 
Donnelley, Thomas E., 171 
Double, Leonard, 77 
Douglas, William B., XII 
Douglass, Frank, 107 
Downs, Elizabeth, 22-26 
Dowst, Samuel M., 33, 38 
Dred Scott, 66 
Dunlap, G. L., 50 
Dunlap, M. J., 64 

Durand Art Institute, 39, 41, 43, 115, 

Durand, Calvin (Mayor), 68, 71, 96, 

119, 125, 130, 138, 142,151,152, 

153, 160, 164 
Durand, Henry Clay, 56, 78, 86, 102, 

111, 116, 138, 152, 165 
Durand, Mayor Joseph B., 56, 111, 

Durand, Nellie, 105, 137 
Durand, Scott, 161 
Durkin, James, 18 
Dwight, John H., 125, 138, 165 
Dyer, Dr. C. Volney, 27, 47, 66 

Eddy, Ansel D., 34 

Edison, Thomas Alva, 136, 214 

Edwards, Father M., 18 

Edwards, Nelson Green, 75 

Electricity, 148, 164 

Ellsworth, Colonel Elmer E., 48 

Episcopal Church, 154, 162 

Erie Canal, 10, 53 

Erosion (Bluff), 4, 81, 173, 158 

Fabian, William J., 81 

Fales, David, 72, 87, 94, 125, 142, 

154, 160, 165, 174 
Farrell, Patrick, 34, 36 
Farwell, Mrs. Albert D., 239-241 
Farwell, Anna, 95, 98, 108, 113, 211 
Farwell, Albert D., Ill 
Farwell, Albert L., 107 
Farwell, Arthur, 158, 160 
Farwell, Frank C, 107, 148 
Farwell, Granger, 145, 161 
Farwell, Mrs. C. B., 98 
Farwell, Senator Charles B., 28, 31, 

37, 38, 67, 77, 78, 97, 102, 104, 

107, 109, 113, 121 



Farwell, John V., 38, 67, 77, 78, 86, 

Farwell, John V. (Jr.), 28, 98, 147, 

Farwell Pond, 78, 84, 133, 148 
Farwell, Rose, 109, 114, 119 
Fauntleroy, T. S., 142, 146, 161 
Felter, Jacob, 21 
Fernald, Bessie S., 152 
Ferry, Abby Farwell, 77, 151 
Ferry, Elisha P., 61 
Ferry Hall, 48, 54, 82, 97, 98, 101, 

105, 109, 119, 157,210,215 
Ferry, William H., 86, 97 
Ferry, Rev. William Montague, 82 
Fire, Abby Farwell Ferry, 223 
Fire, Business district, 113 
Fire, Chicago, 86-94 
Fire, Department, 130, 179 
Fire, Foster, 207 
First Citizens, 256, 257 
Fiske, Dr. George, 133 
Fitzgerald, Michael, 72, 142 
Fitz-Hugh, Carter, 146, 150, 160 
Football, 48, 122, 133, 205 
Ford, Father M., 18 
Forest Gem, 81 

Fort Sheridan, 121, 138, 191, 237 
Four Horsemen (Notre Dame), 205 
Francis, Dr. C. H., 142 
Frazier, George, 94 
Frazier, Walter, 77 
Frisbie, George, 160 
French's Drug Store, 128 
Frost, Charles Sumner, 116, 147, 153 

Gade, Mayor Herman T., 160, 161 

G.A.R., 72, 125, 198 

Garden Club, 168, 181, 182, 207, 

Gardens, 52, 78, 93, 96, 145, 185, 

187, 237, 241 
Giles, C. K., 125 
Giles, John, 64, 81 

Gilmer, Dr. J. C, 142 

Goodhart, Mrs. F. E., 138 

Golf, 144, 205 

Gordon, James, 141, 161 

Gorton, Mayor Edward F., 142, 152 f 

153, 159 
Gorton School, 54, 95, 96, 166 
Gould, W. R., 37 
Granger, Alfred Hoyt, 132, 147, 161, 

163, 166 
Gray, Charlie, 162 
Great Lakes N.T.C., 175, 176, 194, 

Greeley, Samuel S., 36 
Green Bay Road, 4, 16, 17, 21, 80, 

145, 211 
Grenfell, Dr. Wilfred T., 173 
Griffith, John, 196 
Gruenstein, Siegfried, 143 
Guegnin, Father John, 18 
Gunn, C. T., 142, 163 
Gunn, Ed., 21 
Gustavus Adolphus, Prince, 209 


HafFner, General C. C, 231, 232 

Haines, Elijah M., 21 

Halsey, Prof. John J., 5, 123, 149, 

153, 163, 166, 197 
Halsey School, 124, 252 
Hamline, John H., 138 
Hampston, Father, 18 
Hannah, John S. 138, 165 
Harrison, Mayor Carter, 120 
Hartman, D. W., 153 
Hasler, Wyndham, 54 
Hatch, O. M., 64 

Haven, Dr. Alfred C, 106, 134, 152 
Hayes, President Rutherford B., 101, 

Haymarket Riot, 120, 121 
Helm, Henry T., 65, 76, 86 
Henderson, Dr., 53 
Hennepin, 8 
Herbert, Father W., 18 



Hickey, Rev. Yates, 53, 57, 58, 64 

Highland Park, 141, 165 

High School, 153, 154, 165, 166, 225, 

Hild, Eddie, 162, 163 
Hinckley, F. E., 130 
Hinkley, Otis, 19 
Hitchcock, Dr. Roswell D., 41 
Hixon, Mrs. F. P., 238 
Hixon, Hall, 54 
Hogue's Drug Store, 141 
Holt, D. R., 13, 30, 34, 37, 42, 55, 

57,59,83,94, 112, 116, 138, 152, 

Holt, Charles S., 59, 119, 151 
Holt, Ellen, XII, 104, 107, 115, 143 
Holt, George H., 117, 153 
Holt, McPherson, 252 
Holt residence, 48, 56, 102, 138 
Hopman, Albert, 161 
Horses, 97, 108, 124, 128, 158, 162 
Horseshow, 129, 152, 156, 214 
Horticultural Society, 167, 168, 207 
Horton, Henry, 53, 94 
Hotchkiss, Jed, 35, 38, 39 
House, Harvey L., 53, 58, 62, 64 
House, Jessie, 58 

House to House sale Ordinance, 112 
Houses, 52-56, 76, 77, 95-97, 114, 

145-148, 183-190 
Howe, Timothy, 94, 97 
Hoyne, Thomas, 48 
Hubbard Farm, 97, 187 
Hubbard, Gurdon S., 11, 94 
Hubbard, Mrs. Gurdon S., 59 
Hubbard, William H., 138, 187 
Hughitt, Marvin, 72, 107, 116 
Hulburd, J. H., 64, 65 
Hulburt, Joel, 59 
Humphrey, Mrs. Z. M., 141, 149 
Huntoon, George W., 72 


Ice Houses, 148 
Illinois College, 29, 61 

Illinois-Michigan Canal, 10-14, 17 

Indians, 5-10, 22 

Insull, Samuel, 164, 214, 215 

Inter-Ocean, 108 

Isham, Ralph N., 66 

Isham, Robert T., 233, 234 


Jackson, John, 64 

Jackson, Johnathan, 5, 135, 161 

Jackson, General T. J., 36 

Johnson, Hosmer A., 66 

Johnson, John, 42 

Johnston, Colonel William Sage, 86, 

95,97, 117 
Johnston, William S. (Jr.), 62, 83, 94 
Joliet, 13 

Jones, Daniel A., 42 
Jones, David B., 146, 153, 165 
Jones, Gwethlyn, 251 
Jones, Thomas D., 165 
Judd, Norman B., 54, 61, 67, 86 
Judson, Sylvia Shaw, 260 


Kay, W. V., 86 

Kean, Father, 18 

Kelley, Alexander, 102 

Kellogg, S. W., 64, 65 

Kelly, Matthew, 64 

Kemp, John, 153 

Kemper, Bishop, 16 

Kennedy, Father J. W., 18 

Kent, Rev. Brainerd & Mrs., 44, 46 

Kent, Fred H., 44 

Kirk, T. J., 86 

Kirk, Walter, 6 

Knollwood, 205 

Knox College, 29 

Kohlsaat, H. H., 100, 136 

Krafft, Carl, 167 



Laflin, Louis Ellsworth, 177 

Laflin, L. E., Jr., XII, 213 

Laflin, Matthew, 12 

Lake, David J., 31, 33, 37, 38, 54, 68, 

Lake, Fred, 64 

Lake Bluff, 21, 46, 148, 193, 226 
Lake Forest Academy, 41-51, 53, 60, 

69, 74, 75, 80, 94, 101, 103, 109, 

133, 134, 210, 248-250 
Lake Forest Association, 22, 31-33, 

36-39, 47, 48, 54, 55, 57, 65, 68, 

78, 95, 99, 165 
Lake Forest, "beauty of, 28, 32, 33, 92, 

93, 168, 258 
Lake Forest College, 43, 51, 54, 69, 

98-101, 108, 109, 125, 139 
Lake Forest Country Day School, 125, 

Lake Forest Day, 163, 171, 197, 252 
Lake Forest Hotel, see Old Hotel or 

New Hotel 
Lake Forest Hospital, 152, 227, 228 
Lake Forester, 142, 143, 252 
Lake Forest University, 75, 82, 101, 

116, 125, 165, 174,210 
Lake Michigan near tragedy, 156, 157 
Lamb, James, 98 

Lamed, Walter C, 114, 142, 149, 152 
La Salle, 8 

League of Women Voters, 211 
Learned, E. J., 37 
Lee, Edward, 21, 34 
Lewis, William Mather, 26, 179, 194 
Libertyville, 17 

Library, 52, 78, 79, 153, 215, 219 
Lincoln, Abraham, 36, 44, 49, 51, 60, 

67, 68, 73, 74 
Lind Block, 42, 66 
Lind, "Kitty", 81 
Lind, Sylvester, 31, 33, 34, 37, 38, 43, 

45, 49, 53-55, 60, 62, 66, 86, 94, 

97, 158 
Lind University, 34, 35, 50, 75 

Liquor, 38 

Lockwood, Samuel D., 34 

Long, Mr., 42 

Loughlin, William M., 43, 52, 62-65 

Loss, Lewis H., 34 

Lost Rock, 156 

Lynch, Mary, 58 

Lyon, Mary, 82 


MacNeill, Prof. Malcolm, 101, 134 
Magee, Father, 18 
Manchester, J. P., 97 
Manierre, Cyrus, 242 
Manierre, Francis E., 36, 92 
Manierre, Judge George, 36, 51, 79 
Manierre, George, 44, 46, 51, 69, 91, 

Marie, Queen of Romania, 214 
Mark, Clayton, 56 
Market Square, 169, 179, 195 
Marquette, Pere, 7 
Marshall, "Guv", 80, 103, 149 
Mason, Mayor R. B., 85 
Mather, E., 62, 65 

Mather, Hiram F., 31, 33, 34, 38, 68 
Matthews, Julian, 128, 129, 143 
McCandry, Francis, 21 
McClure, Dr. James Gore King, 114, 

115,117, 132, 138, 152, 153, 164, 

McCormick, Cyrus H., 55, 70, 186 
McCormick, Cyrus H. (Jr.), 28, 138, 

146, 152, 165, 171, 215 
McCormick, Harold F., 185 
McCormick, Nettie Fowler, 186 
McCormick ravine, 28, 123, 146 
McCormick Theological Seminary, 69, 

76, 169, 186 
McCullough, HughR., 107 
McGann, Robert G., 104, 145 
McGorish, Father, 18 
McGovern, 21, 22, 130 
McGovern, Father James J., 97 



Mcintosh, Henry, 73 

McKinlock, George Alexander, 188, 

McLaughlin, Frederick, 145 
McLoughlin, Mary, 122, 127 
McMahon, Kate, 124 
McVay, James, 22 
Medical School, 66, 69 
Medill, 89 
Meeker, Arthur, 188 
Meeker, Joseph, 37 
Melody, Patrick, 18 
Mellody Farms, 201, 215 
Merriam, W. F., 38 
Mettawa, 5 
Metzger, William, 97 
Military Drill, 70 
Milk Strike, 196 
Miller, Charlotte H., 58 
Miller, Ellery S., 42, 46 
Miller, James A., 148 
Miller, Samuel Fisher, 27, 42, 44, 50, 

57, 64, 65, 78 
Miller, Spencer, 42 
Mitchel Hall, 54 
Mitchell robbery, 217 
Moffett, Capt. W. A., 125, 176, 193, 

Monmouth College, 30 
Mott, John R., 140 
Moody, Andrew, 64 
Moody, Dwight L., 110 
Mooney, Michael, 21 
Mooney, Peter, 21, 34 
Morgan, W. A., 160 
Morton, Mayor Mark, 161 
Motto, City, 63 
Movies, 211, 212 

New York Tribune, 103 
Newcomb, George W., 37 
Nichols, Rev. Washington Adams, 141 
Night School, 77 
Nollen, Pres. John S., 126 
Norkat, William, 64 
North Shore Line, 140, 153, 214 
Northwestern Railroad, 26, 47, 50, 61, 
72, 103, 106, 112, 118, 129, 212 
Northwestern University, 30, 99 
Norton, Rev. A. T., 58 
Norton, Nathaniel, 37 
Norton, Wilbur T., 70 

O.C.D., 238 

O'Dwyer, Father Patrick, 18 

Old, Admiral F. P., 234 

Old Elm Club, 179 

Old Hotel, 38, 41, 43, 44, 53, 57, 62, 

64, 77, 85, 96, 104, 164 
O'Leary, John, 142 
Olmstead, Frederick Law, 78 
Olmstead, Vaux & Co., 35 
O'Mara, Father, 17 
O'Neill, Joseph, 81, 113, 128 
O'Neill, William, 113, 142 
Onwentsia Club, 129, 141, 144, 145, 

155, 157, 158, 161,213 
Onwentsia Polo, 144, 145 
Opera, 214 

Opposition Coaches, 133 
O'Reilly, Rev. E., 153 


Neef, Walter, 50 
Neefe, M. A., 37, 62 
Nergararian, Hovhannes, 101 
New Hotel, 85, 99 

Page, Peter, 31, 33, 34, 38, 39, 43, 

47, 50, 57, 68 
Paley, Arthur D., 156 
Parks, 65, 76, 81, 85, 94, 173 
Passenger Pigeons, 46, 47 
Patterson, John C, 42, 43, 46, 69 
Patterson, M. H., 96, 129 



Patterson, Rev. Robert W., 30, 34, 37, 
39, 69, 98 

Peabody, F. J., 107 

Peoria, Synod of, 30, 32, 59 

Phew, Father W., 18 

Philologian Society, 44 

Pinchot, Gifford, 182 

Pirie, J. T. Jr., 183 

Plumbing, 114 

Polan, Thomas, 94 

Police, 201-203, 217, 218 

Ponds, 28, 46, 78 

Poole, Abram, 73, 115, 165, 174 

Popliff, W. B., 63 

Population, 105, 127, 141, 215 

Post, Rev. A. H., 58 

Post Office, 20, 145, 220 

Pratt, Charles C, 97, 142, 154 

Pratt, F. N., 53, 63, 64, 78, 97, 98, 142 

Presbyterian Church, First (Lake For- 
est), 43, 52, 53, 57, 69, 116, 143, 

Presbyterian Church, First (Chicago), 

Presbyterian Church, Second (Chi- 
ago), 31, 87, 98, 116 

Price, William D., 69, 70 

Prince, Dr. Herbert W., 239 

Proxmire, Dr. Theodore, 52, 163, 167 

Public Schools, 79, 80, 95, 119, 124, 
142, 152, 153, 166,253 

Pullman Car Strike, 137 

Ravines, 5, 6, 7, 27, 28, 45, 46, 93 

Ravinia, 214 

Red Cross, 164, 239 

Reid, Grace, 109, 119 

Reid, Whitelaw, 103 

Reid, Simon Somerville, 86, 96, 107, 

Republican Convention, 68 
Republican Rally, 109 
Reuding, E., 63 
Rhea, Sarah Jane, 96 
Ripley, Franklin, 33 
Roberts, Dr. George, 224 
Roberts, Dr. William C, 128 
Robertson, Alex, 160 
Rogers, James H., 122 
Rogers, John Gamble, 166 
Ross, Admiral Albert, 176 
Rossiter, R. Gilbert, 54, 61, 64, 67, 78 
Rossiter, Luther, 64, 65, 80, 94, 154 
Rumsey, Henry Axtell, 74, 126, 197, 

198, 247 
Rumsey, Captain Israel Parsons, 53, 

73, 113, 123, 125, 138, 139 
Rush Medical School, 116, 134 
Russell, Edmund A., 161 
Rutter, David, 66 
Rutter, Dudley, 156 
Ryerson, Edward A., 185 
Ryerson, Joseph T., 156 

Quinlan, Dr. Charles H., 34, 43, 45, 

50, 52, 57, 58, 59, 62, 64 
Quinlan, Ruth E., 58 
Quinlan School, 61, 86 


Rasmussen, Karl M., 142 
Raymond, Benjamin W., 34, 37 

Sabin, A. R., 74, 97, 102 
Sage, James, 201 
Sales, Walker, 161 
Sammons, Joseph, 21, 37 
Samuel, Edward M., 161 
Samuels, Hugh, 53, 58, 64, 80, 97 
Samuels, Robert Davis, 70, 98 
Sawyer, Alonzo J., 37, 63, 76 
Scarlet Fever, 157 
Schweppe, Charles H., 85, 185, 214 
Scott, General Winfield, 16 
Scudder, Moses L., 125, 140 



Seitz, General J. F. R., 235 

Seminary, 48 

Shaw, Howard Van Doren, 6, 147, 

156, 166, 179 
Shealer, Terry, 64 
Sheridan, General Philip H., 102, 103, 

Sheridan Road, 39, 194 
Sheridan School, 253 
Sherman, General William Tecumseh, 

Shields, General James, 36 
Shields Township, 22 
Shoreacres Club, 204 
Shumway, Horatio G., 31, 37 
Sidewalks, 62, 77, 78, 84, 131 
Skinner, E. S., 86 
Skinner, Marie A., 154 
Skinner, Mark, 37, 39 
Skokie, 35, 46 
Slavery, 68 

Slocum, Rev. J. J., 30, 38 
Smith, Byron Laflin, 132, 138, 146, 

152, 165 
Smith, Charles F., 144 
Smith, Frank, 128 
Smith, Franklin P., 7, 152 
Smith, G. L., 142 
Smith, Dr. Henry B., 41 
Smith, Otis, 162 

Smith, William Henry, 86, 101, 146 
Snodgrass, I. M., 44, 79 
Soiree Musicale, 80 
Sousa, John Philip, 195 
South School, 54, 165 
Spalding, A. G., 98 
Speer, Shubert G., 34 
Speidel, L. H. W., 121, 129, 142 
Spralding, C. M., 201 
Spruance, L. L., 107 
Starkweather, Charles R., 34 
Starkweather, Ralph E., 69 
Starret, Paul, 123 
Station (railroad), 30, 158 
Steady Streams, 96 
Steele, Matthew, 19 

Stirling, W. R., 173 

St. Johns', 4 

St, Mary's, 18, 97 

St. Michaels', 17 

St. Patrick's, 18,97 

Stokes, Capt. James H., 56, 64, 70, 78 

Stokes, William R., 44 

Stories, 41, 48, 257, 258 

Street Lights, 106, 148, 164 

Street names, 39, 181, 212 

Strenger, Col. Marshall C, 235 

Sunday, "Billy", 110, 177 

Sunday School, 43, 57, 67, 76, 105, 

Swanton, James, 26, 34, 37, 70 
Swan ton, Mary Cole, 21 
Swanton, Thomas, 37 
Swanton, William, 21, 34, 36, 37 
Swift, Louis F., 152, 187 
Swift, Nathan Butler, 156 

Taber, Sidney R., 161 

Taft, President William Howard, 175 

Taylor, Augustus, 81 

Taylor, William, 97 

Telegraph, 20 

Telephones, 140, 165 

Temperance March, 138 

Tennis, 48, 144, 204 

Theological Seminary, 34, 55, 69 

Thompson, Mayor Harvey M., 34, 37, 

56, 64, 65, 81, 83, 86 
Titanic, 178 
Topliff, W. B., 37 
Townline Road, 79 
Trees, 7, 28, 39, 45, 46, 261 
Tremont House, 68, 89 
Triangle Park, 41, 42, 54, 61, 76, 164 
Tuttle, Arthur, 164 
Tuttle, Chauncey, 38 
Tuttle, Grace, see Chandler 
Tuttle, Henry N., 174 




Underground Railroad, 48, 66, 73 
University of Chicago, 30, 123, 138 
Upton, Clark W., 34 
U.S.O., 237 

Van de Velde, Bishop James, 18 
Vaughn, Michael, 17 


Wacker, Charles H., 122 

Walden, 146, 147, 169, 182 

Wales, Prince of, 208 

Walker, Bertrand, 157 

Ward, Samuel D., 38, 86, 106 107 

Warner, Ezra Joseph, 68, 77, 86, 95, 

96,97, 107, 117, 134, 138, 165 
Warner, Ezra J., Jr., 95, 193 
Warren, William, 86 
Water Company, 130, 166, 199 
Water Department, 258, 259 
Watson, R. G., 153 
W.C.T.U., 138 
Weaver, C. J., 138 
Webster, Edward L., 50 
Webster, General J. D., 74, 76 
Weed, Rev. Ira M., 30, 34, 57 
Welch, Alfred Gardner, 109, 157 
Wells, E. S., 86 

Wenban, C. George, 96, 113, 128, 

138, 142 
Wenban, George, 113, 128 
Weston, Edward Payson, 83 
White, Stanford, 146 
Wigwam, 61, 70, 67 
Wilkinson, C. R., 44 
Williams, "Billy", 122 
Williams, Simeon B., 53, 97, 107 
Willing, M. S., 184 
Winter Club, 161, 162 
Wolcott, Dr. Peter, 163 
Woman's Club, 163 
World War I, 191, 242 
World War II, 229-243 
Wright, Mrs. Eunice, 58 
Wright, James H., 58, 59, 62 

Yaggy, Levi W., 134, 138, 145 

Yates, Governor Richard, 64 

Y.M.C.A., 192 

Y.W.C.A., 176, 192,213 

Yoe, Lucien G., 46 

Yoe, P. L. 38 

Young Men's Club, 166, 192, 247 

Yore, Michael, 17, 19, 20 

Zoning, 203, 238, 259 


Personal Reminiscences 


Personal Reminiscences 



Personal Reminiscences 

Personal Reminiscences 

Personal Reminiscences